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LIFE AND WORK 
AT THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



VOL. III. 



EDINBURGH : TRINTED BY THOMAS CONSTABLE, 
FOR 

EDMONSTON AND DOUGLAS. 

LONDON HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. 

CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN AND CO. 

DUBLIN M'GLASHAN AND GILL. 

GLASGOW JAMES MACLEH03E. 



■<1 



Vol . Ill 




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LIFE AND WORK 
AT THE GREAT PYRAMID 

DURING THE MONTHS OF JANUARY, FEBRUARY, 
MARCH, AND APRIL, A.D. 1865 ; 

WITH 

A DISCUSSION OF THE FACTS ASCERTAINED. 



9- 



BY C. PIAZZI SMYTH, F.R.SS.L.&E. 

F.R.A.S., F.R.S.S.A. ; HON. M. INST. ENGIN. SC., P.S. ED., AND U.A.A.S. MUNICH AND PALERMO; 
PROFESSOR OF PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 
AND ASTRONOMER-ROYAL FOR SCOTLAND. 



TN THREE VOLUMES; 
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS ON STONE AND WOOD. 



VOL. III. ' '^-'^--vw* >^.v..*,.„,^ BY 



[MiCROFORMLD 
^^^,JUN 2 5 1990^ 



EDINBURGH: 
EDMONSTON AND DOUGLAS. 
1867. 



4~ 



5 



I 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



DISCUSSION OF KESULTS. 

DIVISION I. 

LAWS OF PHENOMENA. 



Introdttction, 3 

Proposition!. — The Base of the Great Pyramid is square ? . 10 

Proposition TI, — The four sides of the Great Pyramid incline 

towards its central vertical axis at equal angles ? . . 13 

Proposition III. — The Angle of Inclination of the Sides of the 

Great Pyramid is 51° 51' 14 3'' ? 19 

Proposition IV. — The Angle of Inclination of the Inclined 

Passages in the Great Pyramid, is 26° 18' 10" nearly ? . 34 

Proposition V. — The Great Pyramid is sensibly in the latitude 

of 30° ? 40 

Proposition VI. — Angular alterations in the Earth's crust have 
been practically insensible during the existence of the 

Great Pyramid? 52 

Proposition VII. — Hypsometry of the Great Pyramid, . 60 

Datum plane^ 60 

Present Vertical Height, 61 

Ancient Vertical Height, ...... 67 

Floors of the Chambers, . . . . . 71 

Fresh-water Levels, . . . . . 75 \ 

Sea-water Level, 78 I 



vi 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PRorosiTiON VTII. — Materials of the Great Pyramid, . 82 

Comjiosition of the Pyramid hill, ..... 84 

Internal substance of Great Pyramid, .... 86 

Exterior substance of Great Pyramid, .... 93 

Salt inside Great Pyramid, ...... 95 

Mortar of Great Pyramid, ...... 98 

Diorite, 100 

Granite, 101 » 

Proposition IX. — Orientation of the Great Pyramid, . . 106 



DIVISION II. 
OBJECTS OF CAUSATION. 
Introduction, 115 

Section I. — Standards of Size, 123 

Pyramid linear measure, ...... 142 

Section II. — Standards of Weight, 143 

The Coffer belongs to the King's Chamber, . . .161 
Place of the King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid, . 169 
Pyramid Weight and Capacity Measure, . . .174 
Determination of Weights from Linear Measure on the 
Great Pyramid System, . . , . . .176 

Section III. — Standards of Heat, . . . . . 177 

Pyramid Heat Measure, . . . . . .193 

Second part of the Heat question, . . . .193 

Section IV. — Standards of Angle, 202 

Structural reference to 250° in the Quadrant, . . 207 
Itinerary Measures, ....... 209 

Compass Points, . . . . . . . .211 

Section V. — Standards of Time, 215 

The Week in the Grand Gallery, . . . .219 
The Sabbatical Week in the Queen's Chamber, . 222 

Correction for Flooring, . . . . . . 229 



CONTENTS. vii 

PAOB 

Authority for Tweiity-five Incliea, .... 232 
Authority for the number Twenty-five, .... 236 
Date of the Great Pykamid, ..... 240 
Whether the Great Pyramid is to be regarded as Astro- 
nomical at all ? 246 

Siriadic Theory of Mahmoud Bey, . . . .251 
a Draconis Theory of Sir John Herschel, . . . 260 
Pyramid data, ........ 261 

The Year of the Pleiades, 263 

The Pleiades and the Pyramid, 271 

Great Pyramid Astronomy, 277 

Star-maps, explanation of, ..... . 283 

Great Pyramid attestations, ...... 286 

Conclusion of the Metrological Inquiry, . . ,291 



DIVISION III. 
NOTES IN GREAT PYRAMID HISTORY. 

Chapter I. — Monumental Documents still to be procured, 303 

An uninterpreted Sign, 310 

Chapter II. — Names and Dates of the Builders, . . 314 
A Name erroneously advocated, . . . . .316 

Dates of Manetho's Dynasties, 321 

Names and Designations of Dynasties, .... 329 

King's Names, 330 

Clashing result, ........ 338 

Chapter III. — Historical Authorities, .... 340 

Osburn and Ancient Writers, ..... 345 

Greek and Roman Travellers, ..... 349 
Characteristics of Egyptian Monuments, . . .351 

Chapter IV. — Earliest proved point of Egyptian History, 356 

Baron Bunsen's Authorities demanded, . . . 363 

Consequences of there being no Authorities, . . . 367 

Origin of the Egyptians, 370 



viii 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Chapter V. — Life under the Old Empire, .... 375 

Men of the Fourth Dynasty, 379 

Social Relations, 383 

Repoi-ted Engineering of Nile banks, .... 386 
Of the Pyramids and their Kings, . . . .391 

Conclusion of the Old Empire, 397 

Chapter VI. — Life under the New Empire, . . . 400, 

Invasion of the Hyksos, 406 

The Joseph Period, 410 

Rise of the Theban Power, 414 

Order of Kings under the New Empire, . . . 416 

Authorities for the Eighteenth, and later. Dynasties, . 418 

Scenes in the Eighteenth Dynasty, .... 423 

Of their Religious Principles, 429 

The kind of Hero developed in Egypt, .... 433 

Queen Thuoris, and her adopted son, Moses, . . 441 

The Beginning of the End, ...... 444 

Chapter VII. — Origination of the Great Pyramid, on 

Scientific Grounds, 449 

Research de novo, . 456 

Pyramid Idea, whence derived ? . . . . . 460 

Wisdom of the Egyptians fails, 466 

Necessity for seeking a wisdom higher than man's, . 470 

Chapter VIII. — Origination of the Great Pyramid, on 

Religious Grounds, 479 

Time of its Performance suitable ? . . . .481 

Metrology suitable as a subject? ..... 495 
Of the Plans which Moses took for the Regulation of 

Weights and Measures 498 

Style of the Metrology suitable ? 509 

Suitability OF the Men Concerned ? . . . . 511 

(The Inspired messengers, were Foreigners ?) . . 521 

(Cuseans retire from Egypt, Northward ?) . . 526 

(Egyptians punished in the building of Great Pyramid ?) 528 

(Early Shemites not chosen ?) 531 

(A new objection.) 533 

Pyramid itself, whether acknowledged in Scripture ? . 534 



CONTENTS. ix 

PAGE 

Chapter IX. — On some Points in Pkimeval Astronomy, . 545 
Who invented the oldest Constellations ? . . . 545 
Proposed reforms among the Constellations, 559 
With whom rests the right to Name, or Re-name ? . 562 
The Constellations as means for perpetuating Ideas, . 566 

Chapter X. — Intentions and Purposes of the Great Pyra- 
mid's Manifestation, 570 

Proposed Solutions, No. 1, . , .572 

No. 2, 575 

No. 3, 577 

No. 4, 578 

Anglo-Saxon originals of Metrology, . . . .581 
Anglo-Saxons, where from, of old ? . . . . 590 
Metrological test of European races, .... 592 
Britain in particular, and Israelitic warning, . . 596 

Index, 605 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



IN VOLUME III. 

(The following Plates, being mostly on very small scales, are 
capable of little more than giving first approximate ideas of the 
general nature of the subjects observed and measured. It is par- 
ticularly requested, therefore, that no ' Pyramid measures ' be taken 
from the Drawings ; but that the numerical entries of the original 
measures, contained in this Volume, be always referred to, when 
exactness is required.) 

No. OF Plate. 

I. CASING-STONES, BACKING-STONES, AND MA- 
SONRY COURSES OF THE SECOND, AND 
OTHER, PYRAMIDS, . . Frontispiece. 

Referred to at p. 24, 26, 27. 

Inserted at page 

II. DIAGRAMS OF PYRAMID THEORY, . .41 
Referred to at 35, 41, 51. 

III. VERTICAL DIAGONAL SECTION OF CORNER 

OF GREAT PYRAMID, ... 66 

Referred to at 66. 

IV. SUBTERRANEAN CHAMBER, . . .209 

Referred to at 74, 208. 

V. PYRAMID POINTS AND DEGREES, 215 
Referred to at 215. 



xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



No. OF Plate. Inskrtkd at fauk 

VT. ASTRONOMICAL LINES IN GREAT PYRAMID, 219 
Referred to at p. 219. 

VII. STAR-MAP OF ECLIPTIC POLE, . . .285 

Referred to at 283. 

VIII. PYRAMID MERIDIAN STAR-MAP FOR 2170 B.C., 285 

Referred to at 284. 

IX. PYRAMID MERIDIAN STAR-MAP FOR 1883 a.d., 285 
Referred to at 285. 

X. VERTICAL SECTION OF NORTH FRONT OF 

GREAT PYRAMID DOWN TO SEA-LEVEL, 313 
Referred to at 313. 

XI. MAPS OF EGYPT AT TWO EPOCHS, . . 388 

Referred to at 388, 411. 

XII. ROYAL OVALS PHOTO -LITHOGRAPHED FROM 

DR. LEPSIUS' ' KONIGSBUCH,' . . 461 

Referred to at 259, 319, 461. 

XIII. ROYAL QUARRY-MARKS AND OVALS, . . 621 

Referred to at 417, 521, etc. 



VOL. III. 



DISCUSSION 
F RESULTS. 



' The fair question is, Does the newly proposed view 
' remove more difficulties, require fewer assumptions, and 
'present more consistency with ohserved facts than that 
' ivhich it seeks to supersede ? If so, the philosopher vnll 
' adopt it, and the world will follow the philosopher — after 
' many days' 

MR. PRESIDENT GROVE'S 
Opening Address at the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, at Nottingham in 18G6. 



DIVISION I. 
LAWS OP PHENOMENA. 



III. 



A 



* As a first preparation, therefore, for the course he is 

* ahout to commence, he {every student who enters icpon a 

* scientific pursuit) must loosen his hold on all crude and 

* hastily adopted notions, and must strengthen himself, hy 
' something of an effort and a resolve, for the unprejudiced 
' admission of any conclusion which shall appear to be sup- 

* ported hy careful observation and logical argument, even 
' should it prove of a nature adverse to notions he may 
' have previously formed for himself, or taken up, without 

* examination, on the credit of others.* 

SIR J. F. W. HERSCHEL, BART., 
In Par. I. of * Outlines of Astronomy.^ 1849. 



DIVISION L— LAWS OF PHENOMENA. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Having now, in the course of Volume ii., set our 
numerical observations of 1865 before the reader, in 
all their rigorous roughness, and perhaps rather con- 
fusing multiplicity, — it is a duty to formalize their 
illustrations up to a certain extent ; and show, both 
what their own internal evidence, and external com- 
parisons of them with other men's observations, may 
indicate as the proper weight to be attached to 
their principal results. 

This department of the subject, therefore, begins 
with very little allusion to, and certainly no de- 
pendence on, any theory of the Pyramids. We 
shall curtail our aims indeed even more still, pro- 
posing to treat practically not of the Pyramids of 
Egypt generally, but only, of the Great Pyramid of 
Jeezeh ; and of that too, not by any menus in its 
entirety, but rather as touching certain features of 
universally allowed, and most evident and tangible 
character, — wherein it dilfers from every other 
known Pyramid. 



4 



INTRODUCTION. 



[div. I. 



With all well understood points of resemblance 
therefore amongst Pyramids, we have nothing to 
do ; especially when these points belong to the 
necessary mechanical road by which every Pyramid 
builder must have set out, to construct the beginning 
of any Pyramid whatever. Hence, how or wherewith 
the builders reared stone upon stone, so as to form 
the great bulk of the masonry, is not our present 
topic; for the self-same practical methods which 
lifted the blocks to form the courses of, say the third 
Pyramid of Jeezeh, would have been exactly suffi- 
cient, more time only being allotted, to lift the more 
numerous, but not necessarily more weighty, single 
blocks of the Great Pyramid into their successive 
places. We see plainly in the dozens of Pyramids 
still standing, far and near, that the stones were 
lifted, and great exertions of art or strength may 
have been requisite to that end ; but there is nothing 
in the stone-upon-stone composition of the Great 
Pyramid, which speaks of the mere building problem 
to be solved there, as being of a different character, 
or requiring inventions by man of any absolutely 
higher order, than elsewhere. 

In fact, the artisan construction of the Great 
Pyramid, is as nearly similar to that of all the re- 
maining Pyramids of J eezeh, and many others else- 
where, — as is the physical constitution of man's 
bodily frame, or of his bones, muscles, sinews, and 
blood-vessels, to the bones, muscles, sinews, and blood- 
vessels of most mammals on the face of the globe ; 



DIV. I.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



5 



growing on the same principles of growth, and hurt 
or nourished by the same, or nearly similar, material 
agents. Some superior finish and perfection of 
parts there may be indeed, and actually are, about 
the composition of the Great Pyramid, — even as the 
body of man is superior in beauty and perfection to 
that of all animals. But, if we would look to what 
most distinguishes man, we must attend to what is 
present in him, and wanting in all the other denizens 
of earth ; viz., mind, language, and soul, his schemes 
for education in this world, and self-denying pre- 
paration for another. 

Even in the same manner, — whatever may be 
ultimately thought as to the degree of the thing 
shadowed out, — there appears to be a series of features 
in the Great Pyramid, which have no counterparts 
whatever in the other Pyramids ; and excel, as well 
in the grandeur of their objects, as elevation of their 
meaning, the mere corporal existence of any ordi- 
nary Pyramid, as far as does the soul, the body of 
man. To these, so to speak, psychical distinctions 
of the Great Pyramid, therefore, we propose now to 
address ourselves ; but our progress must be very 
cautious, and jealously watchful for any possibility 
of being led astray by imperfect knowledge, — not of 
what the monument is now, picturesque and grand 
too in its ruins, — but of what it was at the time of 
its building ; for only in so far as we can regain 
that state, are we entitled to any certainty in con- 
cluding its original character, objects, or purposes. 



6 INTRODUCTION. [dIV. I. 

Now, in this point of view, we cannot realize to 
ourselves too copiously, that the Great Pyramid has 
been standing amongst mankind, by the testimony 
of all modern authors, 3500 years at least, — some say 
very much more, as even 6500 years, — and we may, 
in the end, be able to throw some light on th,e 
question of how long exactly. It dates, therefore, 
even at the lowest published computation, in Biblical 
personal chronology, not only from before the ' birth 

* of history on that night when Moses led the 

* Exodus out of Egypt,' but before Jacob, and before 
Abraham ; long before any known literal representa 
tion of language, either Hebrew, Sanscrit, or even 
Egyptian ; before any papyrus that has been pre- 
served, and before any recognised examples of even 
pictorial representations, other than a few carved 
and painted stones in and about the Pyramids 
themselves. 

What changes, then, and what mischiefs may not 
have occurred to the Great Pyramid, through all 
that enormous space of time, during which Egypt 
was trodden under foot by nation after nation in 
succeeding ages of the world ; and the Great Pyra- 
mid standing all the time in the midst of a field of 
tombs, one of the grandest scenes of burial through- 
out the whole earth. For a time, indeed, the sanctity 
of a place of sepulchres reputed of the kings of the 
nation, would hedge the whole district around with 
intense respect, nay, even veneration ; and a deposit 
of other things for safe keeping, besides occasional 



DIV. 1.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



7 



gold and jewels, may have been made there. Of 
treasure, however, in the usual acceptation of the 
term, there has been remarkably little found at any 
time near the Jeezeh Pyramids, so that mere robbers 
for filthy lucre's sake, never received much en- 
couragement ; ^ and the first form assumed by want 
of respect towards the original dead, which arose 
with new dynasties and strange tribes dominant in 
the land, was merely an occupying of their expen- 
sively constructed, or laboriously excavated tombs 
for similar burial purposes again.^ In short, the 
field of the Pyramids, and often the same individual 

^ Ancient Roman coins are found occasionally in some of the tombs, 
and we saw a handful in 1864, which had been bought the same day 
from an Arab near the Pyramid, Gold signet-rings of Egyptian manu- 
facture, have likewise been met with : for, not only is there the well- 
known instance of the ring secured by the late Dr. Abbott, and dis- 
tinguished by the oval of King Shofo ; but we have been lately 
informed, that a very similar ring, massive and solid, but belonging to 
a subsequent dynasty, was found in a tomb on the eastern side of the 
Great Pyramid hill in 1866, and was sold from hand to hand at in- 
creasing prices, before the Museum of Boolak could step in to claim 
its own. 

2 In Hekekyan Bey's Chronology of Siriadic Mojiuments, the fol- 
lowing instructive ])assage occurs at p. 20 : — ' But we must be on our 
' guard not to assign the construction of a monument always to the 
' most prominently legible names that have been engraved on it. 
' There was a colossal statue of the first class in dimensions in 

* Memphis, the cylinders of which had apparently, by the frequent 

* sections sliced oflf from them to engrave new seals or ovals on them, 

* been so much diminished, that a mortise was made through and 

* through in each hand for the introduction of new cylinders. There 
' were also standard statues in the temples, made to the size of life, 

* with a hollow in their faces for the introduction of new noses, in 
' order to bring about a resemblance to the king of the day. As these 
' statues were painted and gilded, a clever artist, assisted b}-^ conven- 
' tionalities respected by public opinion, could gratify the vanity of 
' the ruling sovereign.' 



8 



INTRODUCTION. 



[div. I. 



vaults, continued to be used for interment over and 
over again, for more than two thousand years, or up 
to the time of the Eomans ; and the full rage for 
breaking up, ransacking, and plundering, — only 
really began, after the locust-like armies of the 
destroying Muslims had issued from their Arabian , 
home, and established themselves in the Coptic 
land. 

Here, then, in the Great Pyramid, are the re- 
mains of a building so old that no contemporary 
writing about it exists ; indeed, no subsequent 
book- writing treats of it within 1500 years at least 
of its foundation, — when changes of race, religion, 
and sentiment innumerable had in the meantime 
occurred, and its real purpose been lost. And now 
it is so injured, by comparatively recent ravages, as 
to be in the eyes of some passing travellers little 
better than a heap of stones. What, therefore, can 
be undeniably made out from its relics in our day, 
as to an exact nature or character having ever 
appertained to it ? 

Little enough, we may fear ; unless, indeed, some 
far surpassing skill was employed, both in devising 
its principles, and superintending their methods of 
execution. But as that is precisely what has been 
often, and very variously, asserted, and denied, — 
the question, as above proposed, is brought im- 
mediately before us, and invested with important 
claims for earnest, and even instant, attention. 
Wherefore, taking for granted that our readers at 



DIV. I.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



9 



this stage are acquainted with all the leading points 
in its history (so far as written), and the generally 
acknowledged more conspicuous features of its ap- 
pearance, — we shall treat of the Great Pyramid, not 
as a thing just descended upon earth, and requiring 
a round-about induction before anything whatever 
is to be inferred concerning the mere existence of 
any part of it, — but, as something known approxi- 
mately for a long time ; and allowing us freely to 
begin, by mentioning some very simple proposi- 
tions already adverted to by numerous authors, 
and testing how far they may be borne out by 
these recent, and more than usually painstaking, 
observations of ours : hence — 



PEOPOSITION I. 

* THE BASE OF THE GREAT PYRAMID IS SQUARE V 

Generally speaking, every one can see that the 
base of the Great Pyramid has four sides ; that the 
angles at the corners cannot be very far from 
right angles ; and that the sides cannot be very un- 
equal in length : but some men have hesitated to 
admit any high degree of exactness in those parti- 
culars, in face of the following passage from F. 
Vausleb, a.d. 1664 : — 

* I have taken notice that none of the Pyramids' 

* (bases) are alike, or perfectly square ; but that all 

* have two sides longer than the others. I intended 

* to measure the greatest ; for that purpose I had 

* with me a string of about thirty land yards ; but 

* because the winds have heaped about it mountains 
' of sand, I could not possibly draw a line straight 

* from one angle to the other/ 

Now, from the confidence with which this author 
speaks of two sides being so plainly overlong, even 
to casual observation, — one can hardly imagine that 
he would infer less difference than about l-5th of 



PROP. I.] IS BASE OF GREAT PYRAMID SQUARE ? 11 

the whole of one side, which feature at the Great 
Pyramid measures about nine thousand inches in 
length. Yet in the early part of April 1865, when 1 
had had three months' acquaintance with the Pyra- 
mid, — and then went over all four sides (vol. 
ii. p. 133) with a 500-inch cord, making the best 
allowance that I could for broken corners, and 
heaped flanks, — the difference of the least, from the 
greatest, measured side seemed under one hundred 
inches ; or, 1-9 0th only, of the whole ; in spite, too, 
of such evidently large errors of observation accom- 
panying, that this result could be considered only 
as a first and rather distant approximation. 

Yet no closer approach was probably ever made 
in modern times, until a few weeks afterwards, — 
when Mr. Inglis uncovered all four of the peculiar 
corner-sockets of the original casing-stone surface, 
or true exterior of the ancient Pyramid (vol. i. ch. 
xvii. p. 535 ; also Plate iv. vol. i.) ; found them 
marked sharply and immovably in the solid rock 
below ; and the distances between them not to vary 
in any two cases above eighteen inches (vol. ii. p. 134), 
or, no more than 1-5 08th of the whole side ! And 
even this could only be regarded as another step of 
approximation, weighted too, more probably with 
large errors of observation by the modern observer, 
than of commission by the ancient builder, — because, 
the ground between each socket is noio so excessively 
difficult to measure over, by reason of heaps of 
broken stones. 



12 



IS BASE OF 



[div. I. 



The third approximation therefore fell to my 
share, in measuring with the Playfair altitude-azi- 
muth instrument, the azimuth, — first, of the line of 
the two sockets on the eastern side, and second, of 
those on the northern side of the Pyramid ; for such 
measure was independent of the exact length of the 
sides, and made positive use of the heaps of rubbish 
in the middle of them by mounting the instrument 
upon their bulk, thereby enabling it to see, both 
the signals placed over the terminal sockets, and 
also the Polar star. The latter was unfortunately 
the only means of connecting the two sets of 
sockets, for each socket is in a sort of hole, and can 
see no other socket on account of huge intervening 
mounds of rubbish ; hence the observation is not 
by any means a ne plus ultra of modern measure ; 
yet it was more trustworthy, a priori, than the two 
former methods, and made the angle of the Great 
Pyramid's base at the north-east corner, to be equal 
to 90°, — all but a few seconds short of V (vol. ii. 
p. 194). Let us say 1' ; and, to form an idea of 
what that signifies in the former terms ; — if that 1' 
were caused solely by the west side of the Great 
Pyramid being of a difi'erent length from the other 
three, — a variation of 2*5 inches, or only 1-3 6 00th 
part of the whole length, would make all the 
difference of angle found. 

In direct proportion then as our means of measur- 
ing the contested point have advanced in power, so 
has the base of the Great Pyramid been proved to 



PROP. II. ] 



GREAT PYRAMID SQUARE ? 



13 



be closer and closer to a true square ; and so close 
at last, that there can hardly be any reasonable 
doubt left, as to the intention of the builders to have 
made it as perfectly square as their practical means 
enabled them to do. Seeing, moreover, that no 
better result of measure is likely to be procured, 
until excavations and clearings are effected round 
the entire Pyramid, — and in so extensive as well as 
complete a manner that no one at present living, 
whether European or Egyptian, seems disposed to 
be at the expense of undertaking them, — we may 
consider this first Proposition to have been tem- 
porarily settled in the affirmative. 



PROPOSITION 11. 

* THE FOUR SIDES OF THE GREAT PYRAMID INCLINE 

TOWARDS ITS CENTRAL VERTICAL AXIS AT EQUAL 
ANGLES V 

Now Dr. Perry, in 1743, has written, that ' in the 

* opinion of most persons the dififerent sides of the 

* (Great) Pyramid ascend at different angles ; that 

* one side has an angle of 40°, another of 37*5°, a 
' third of 35°, and a fourth of 42-5°:' and although 
Colonel Howard Vyse remarked, ' this may be 

* owing to the dilapidated state of the building and 
' to the base having been covered with sand and 

* rubbish — for the building was no doubt equilateral 



14 



ARE SIDES OF 



[div. I. 



' and equiangular/ — yet this does not exactly meet all 
the difficulties of the case. It might also be further 
alleged with that party, that not only he, but the 
French savants of 1799, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
and all other really first-rate authorities, have inva- 
riably thought it sufficient in their published descrip^ 
tions of the Great Pyramid, to give the angle of one 
side only, — or rather to state one angle, even to the 
accuracy of a single minute of space, — as represent- 
ing equally and sufficiently the inclination of every 
side. But then comes the question, — if they only 
measured one side, of what possible authority can 
their assertions be, as touching the other sides ? 

There may be more observations on the subject 
recorded somewhere by those eminent men, but I 
am not at present acquainted with them : nor was I 
when, in January 1865, Mr. Ayrton kindly commu- 
nicated to me his own observations (given in vol. ii. 
Section v.) ; observations taken with a theodolite, 
and evidently by a man well acquainted with the 
principles of mathematical investigation. Now, as 
these observations give the angles of the different 
sides varjing from 51°51'to55°58', they appear to 
prove an immense fact of diversity actually exist- 
ing in the present pile of the mere internal courses 
of the ancient Pyramid ; an amount indeed of error, 
which the builders would have found it very diffi- 
cult to restore to truth, with the limited means 
which the thickness of the casing-stones placed at 
their command. In this point of view, I conversed 



PROP. II.] GREAT PYRAMID EQUALLY INCLINED 1 5 

on the subject with other members of the late Cairo 
Institute ; but they expressed the utmost confidence 
in Mr. Ayrton's observations, as representing a real 
feature in the Pyramid, and deserving most serious 
attention. They likewise characterized the whole 
casing-stone theory as a pure modern invention, — the 
Great Pyramid having always been, in their estima- 
tion, the * stepped,' or ' laddered,' structure it now is. 

Let us therefore first take the present Pyramid 
just as it stands, and test that by further observa- 
tion. Before bringing any instruments to bear too, 
let us make ourselves acquainted with the structure 
which is to be observed : for, even passing over the 
asperities of rectangular courses of stone, forming, 
by their being set one within the other as they 
ascend, a general oblique line, — it is sensibly inexact 
on a larger scale, dependent on the greater weather- 
ing of the softer stone used for the middle part of 
every side, and the less weathering of the harder 
stone introduced all along the corner slopes, and 
over the whole summit ; — a feature well brought out 
in some of the photographs, especially Stereograph 
No. 5. Hence the tendency would certainly be, — 
were a person on the summit of the Pyramid, and 
directing a theodolite along the edges of the stone 
courses in the middle of every side as far as he 
could see clearly, — to obtain too large an angle of 
dip ; and a very inexact one also, because it must 
be decided by the weathering of the stones at a 
distant part, where they cannot be well examined. 



16 



ARE SIDES OF 



[div. T. 



Now this, I am told, ivas the manner, — very credit- 
able too, to the observer, as touching the brave ex- 
posure of himself and theodolite on the top of a 
dizzy, dangerous height, — in which Mr. Ayrton's 
observations were made ; and his own angles of in- 
clination of the corner 'lines of the Pyramid (where ' 
there is hard stone all along), if we compute the side 
inclination therefrom, prove his mean observed angle 
of the side to be full 2* over great. His corner-line 
angles are also much more accordant inter se, vary- 
ing only 3 0', against the variation of his side angles 
by 4'' 7'. Plainly, therefore, the latter large quantity 
is an error due to not attending to the practical de- 
tails of the nature of the thing to be observed ; though 
it gives a gratifying proof of the perfect honesty and 
general ability of the observer concerned. 

My own direct measures of the case were only 
made on April the 8th ; when I had become pretty 
well acquainted with the accidents of the Pyramid 
surface. And my method was, to ascend the rubbish- 
heap in the middle of every side, and choose there 
amongst stones variously weathered, one that had 
suffered least, and then measure the angle from that 
to the summit of the Pyramid, — where I knew from 
previous observation, though I could not then see it, 
that all the stones were little worn : — and the result 
was, that no greater difference than 15' was found 
between any two sides (see vol. ii. p. 165). 

A more powerful opportunity, however, occurred 
in the last week of the same month, after the corner 



PKOP. IT.] GREAT PYRAMID EQUALLY INCLINED ? 1 V 

sockets of the original base of the Pyramid had been 
opened up. For, on observing with the large Playfair 
alt-azimuth instrument, the angle of altitude of the 
top of the Pyramid, as seen from the floor of each 
socket just inside its outer corner, — the difierences 
were reduced to 8' ; and when the floors were cor- 
rected for their various depressions below a given 
datum plane, the differences ( see vol. ii. p. 176) were 
further reduced to 3'. 

Now this last approximation, which comes so very 
close to the statement of our proposition, was ob- 
tained by employing the present Pyramid at the 
top, and the ancient Pyramid at the bottom, as 
represented by its four sockets ; and as these are 
considered to be the sockets of its former outside 
casing-stones, — their theory is included, and partly 
confirmed by the result. But we have further testi- 
mony on that point. 

Herodotus and other authors speak of the smooth 
surface of the sides of the Great Pyramid, evi- 
dently as formed by the bevelled outside of the 
casing-stones : besides which, we see portions of 
the casing of the second and third Pyramids still 
existing ; and, by excavation, may find the lower 
part of the casing of the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
Pyramids still in situ ; all these casings being on 
the same plan, viz., stones of fine quality, admirably 
worked, rectangular at the back towards the bulk of 
the Pyramid, and bevelled off on the outer surface 
to one general angle for each P3rramid. 

VOL. IIL B 



IS ARE SIDES OF [dIV. I. 

* That may be/ said learned Cairenes, ' for all 

* those other Pyramids you have mentioned ; but the 

* Great Pyramid was different from its neighbours 
' in that particular, for it was always the " laddered" 

* Pyramid ; and though no doubt Colonel Howard 

* Vyse did find two bevelled stones at the northern 

* foot, there were never more than those two !' 

I have already described, however, in vol. i. ch. 
ix. p. 216, the finding by our party, of fragments 
of casing-stones innumerable, on all four sides of the 
Great Pyramid : and have now further to record, that 
when the oblique angles of fourteen of these frag- 
ments were afterwards measured carefully in Edin- 
burgh, they gave, within twelve minutes, the same 
angle for each of the four sides of the monument ; 
as close a proof to the equality of the ancient angle 
of the Pyramid sides, as could be expected from the 
small size and injured character of the specimens. 
And having had, further, a large theoretical model of 
the Pyramid recently constructed by a very exact- 
working carpenter, — and having had set in the sides 
of that model, with either their upper or lower sur- 
faces coincident with a horizontal section of the 
same, all the available casing-stone specimens, — 
theii' outer bevelled surfaces were invariably found 
practically coincident with the theoretical slope of 
the model. ^ * I should not have been so much sur- 
' prised/ said the carpenter, speaking as a represen- 

^ This model, with its casing-stone fragments, was presented to the 
Royal Society, Edinburgh, in April 1866. 



PROP. III.] GREAT PYRAMID EQUALLY INCLINED ? 19 

tative man of his order in the present advanced age 
of the world, and in a city noted for intellect and 
education, *I should not have been so much sur- 

* prised, if one or two of the stones had fitted ; but 

* to find all fourteen of them fit ; and fit as exactly 
' as if they had been made to my own work, that 

* does surprise me !' 

After this rude though thoroughly practical illus- 
tration, it will probably be allowed, — that in its 
original perfect state, the Great Pyramid must have 
been a remarkably close approach to the regular 
figure demanded in our present Proposition. 



PROPOSITION III. 

' THE ANGLE OF INCLINATION OF THE SIDES OF THE 
GREAT PYRAMID IS 51° 5 1' 14-3" V 

The two former propositions merely went to 
ascertain whether the Great Pyramid could be con- 
sidered as a regular structure, or indeed as a mathe- 
matical Pyramid at all — a quality which may or 
may not belong to any of the other so-called 
Pyramids around ; and is generic only, in its widest 
sense. But the present proposition is far more par- 
ticular ; for, while from the same base there may 
be raised, by altering the angle of the sides, an in- 
finite number of regular, though different, Pyramids ; 
it is here asserted that the angle of the sides of the 



20 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



Great Pyramid is of precisely such an amount, as to 
cause the linear proportion which the vertical height 
of the whole mass, bears to twice the length of one 
side of the base, — to be precisely that of the diameter, 
to the circumference, of a circle ; the invaluable 
quantity tt of all modern mathematics. 

This view of the matter is owing certainly and 
solely to the late John Taylor. He derived it 
originally from the measures published by Colonel 
Howard Vyse, giving the angle of his two celebrated 
casing-stones in situ at the northern foot of the 
Pyramid, as being between 51° 50' and 51" 52' 15". 
This result was by two diflferent methods of mea- 
surement, but the latter slightly better than the 
former, so as to raise the mean rather above 
51° 51' 8" : and he, John Taylor, held to his views 
therefrom, notwithstanding that a host of diverse ma- 
thematical theorems were advanced by other investi- 
gators, as having probably regulated the proportions 
of the Great Pyramid. Notwithstanding also that 
Colonel Howard Vyse's friend and assistant in Egypt, 
Mr. Perring, subsequently fell away from his own 
original measures; and, having lost by death the 
ColoneFs friendly and honest guidance, committed 
the fatal mistake, — applauded though it was by 
Chevalier Bunsen, — of remodelling all the measured 
proportions of the Pyramid, according to a pure 
hypothesis as to even numbers of the Egyptian, 
cubit having been employed on the principal lines. 
Whence resulted the angle 51° 20' 25", for the incli- 



PROP. III.] THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 



21 



nation of the sides of the Great Pyramid ; a quan- 
tity which has therefore been boldly, even brazenly, 
printed as being the actual fact, in the second volume 
of Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Universal History} 

Now, if the question had rested still, where Colonel 
Howard Vyse left it, I would not have presumed to 
interfere. For although my angle-measuring instru- 
ments were superior to his, — there is not now any 
feature accessible about any part of the Pyramid, 
which can approach in the remotest degree to the 
admirable facilities for correct measure which his 
large casing-stones in situ afforded, — or which can 
pretend to bring the question within the very small 
range of uncertainty, which his two perfectly in- 
dependent methods of measuring the same thing, 
ultimately resulted in.^ But when some one else in 
London, subsequently alters the quantity at will, by 
more than half a degree, — I have then no compunc- 
tion in bringing out whatever I may have actually 
observed in Egypt; and in thereby allowing all men 

^ As an illustration both of the persuasions to which Mr. Perring 
may have succumbed, and of some men being still sadly prone to put 
theory, not only before, but in place of, measure, — I may mention 
having received a letter from an octogenarian in October 1866, suggest- 
ing that T should proportion all my oivn measures to his theoretical lengths 
of coffer and Pyramid ; for though these latter hypothetical numbers 
are often very wide of the actual quantities, their author thinks they 
illustrate * eternal laws,' and * absolute harmonies and are therefore 
infinitely superior to anything that can be derived from direct mea- 
sures. He likewise advises that the present book should be illustrated, 
not with drawings of the Pyramid itself, but with photographs of a 
large diagram representing his theoretical idea of the Pyramid ! 

^ See Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, by the Author, pp. 21 
to 24. 



22 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



to see for themselves, whether there is any probability 
of 51° 20' being nearer to the fact of the Great 
Pyramid, than 51° 51' ; for the odd seconds are not 
worth noting in the presence of more than half a 
degree of defalcation. 

First, then, I would remark, referring to page 165 
of volume second, — that my measures of the mere 
denuded sides of the Great Pyramid, taken with spe- 
cial pains to avoid eflfects of weathering, are, on every 
flank of the Pyramid, contained within the numbers 
5 1° 3 9' and 5 1° 5 9'. And, second, that the fragments 
of all the casing-stones measured, come (vol. ii. p. 169) 
in the means of two sets arranged according to their 
having been derived from the upper or lower edge 
of the casing-stones, — between 51° 49' and 51° 58'. 

But whereas those two examples may be con- 
sidered of very limited powers, I would allude, 
thirdly, to the observations taken with the Playfair 
altitude-azimuth instrument from the four corner 
sockets of the Pyramid. There, at least for the 
lower parts, we had the very original terminal mark- 
ings of the Pyramid s base ; and if for the summit we 
had only the denuded top of the Pyramid, we may 
have some means of approximating to the thickness 
of casing to be virtually supplied. In fact, on this 
point the whole question turns ; we shall do well, 
therefore, to inquire into its structural details before 
referring to instrumental observations. 

Now, only by examination of the Pyramids them- 



PROP. III.] 



THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 



23 



selves, can we expect to become acquainted with 
their builders' mode of applying their peculiar sys- 
tem of a casing-stone finish to the exterior ; and 
there are some points about it, which have not yet 
been brought out in print. On looking to the third 
Pyramid of Jeezeh, we see many of its casing-stones 
still in situ at various heights, simply seated in the 
angles of the component courses of masonry ; and if 
that were the rule also at the Great Pyramid, the 
average thickness of the casing must always have 
been measured by one stone. But, if we examine, 
on the other hand, the second Pyramid of Jeezeh, — 
it is found to have one, or more, thicknesses of a 
sort of intermediate class of hacTciyig-stoneSy between 
the rude courses of masonry and the exquisitely 
bevelled exterior of the outer casing ; the horizontal 
thickness, consequently, of what must be considered 
there, the general casing, is measured by several 
stones, and is much greater than at the third Pyramid. 

Which of these two plans, then, was probably 
adopted at the Great Pyramid ? 

Without doubt that of the second Pyramid : for 
there, all the casing still visible about the upper 
part, is of the white Mokattam limestone, such as all 
the fragments at the foot of the Great Pyramid are 
composed of ; and those two are nearly contem- 
poraneous buildings (see chapter x., vol. i.) ; while 
the third Pyramid is an erection of a long sub- 
sequent age, and its casing is in red granite, a rare 
and costly material in Lower and Middle Egypt. 



24 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



Let US attend then to what are the facts at the 
second Pyramid ; where, after having first noticed 
certain phenomena from the ground below it, with 
the eye, — I was subsequently enabled to obtain an 
approximate measure of them by placing several 
photographs, then and there taken, under a micro- 
scope provided with a micrometer; and the following 
are the nearly consistent results derived from views 
of both the north, east, and south sides, but more 
particularly from the southern end of the east 
side, close to the lower termination of the casing 
there — 

Height of each of the regular courses of masonry 

forming the core of the upper part of the building, = 37 inches. 

Height of each of the stones forming the external sur- 
face of the casing, . . . . . . = 19 

Height of each of the stones forming one or more 
layers between the regular internal courses of 
masonry and the outside bevelled casing-stones, . = 20 ,, 

Horizontal distance from the outside bevelled surface 
of the casing-stones, to the regular courses of in- 
ternal masonry core, including, therefore, all the 
interstitial layers of backing-stones of 20*, . . = 105 

See Frontispiece.^ 



^ As a further illustration of the large amount of horizontal projec- 
tion of the casing-stones beyond the courses of the second Pyramid, — 
I may mention that our Arab attendant. Alee Dobree, being freed 
from our service on a Sunday, employed his leisure on one occasion in 
company with some of his friends, in conducting an eager traveller, 
name unknown, up the second Pyramid. They progressed well 
enough for half the ascent ; but when they came close under the 
casing, and saw it spread out over their heads like an umbrella, — the 
traveller became so nervously alarmed, that Alee and the Arabs had 
to bind him to them, they said, with ropes. Or he would have fallen 
down like a stone ; and there was an end at once to all his ambitious 
projects, at the second Pyramid. 

In Howard Vyse and Perring's folio views the horizontal distance of 



PROP. 111.] THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 25 

Now, inasmuch as these numbers show, that the 
casing-stones were generally small as compared 
with the blocks forming the courses of masonry, 
and were accompanied by other small stones, also 
of fine quality behind them, and cut rectangularly, 
— we see immediately why the casing of a Pyramid, 
cased on such a plan, was so great a prize to the 
Muslim plunderers of the middle ages, who were in 
need of building materials for their newly-devised 
cities. For, such moderate-sized rectangular stones, 
of the white Mokattam order, are precisely what the 
Arabs about the Pyramids are still plundering the 
tombs of, — whenever their internal walls are so 
composed ; and at the Great Pyramid, the supply of 
such stones could only be got at by pulling off the 
bevelled casing. While, if this itself was likewise 
composed for the most part of stones only twenty 
inches high, — they could be trimmed into shape with 
far greater ease, than such very large blocks as all 
the casing-stones have been usually supposed to be, 
from the enormous size of Colonel Howard Yyse's 
celebrated two. These, however, formed part of the 
very base of the casing, and had a particular mecha- 
nical reason for being massive, which did not like- 
wise appertain to the majority above them. 

the outside casing from the inside courses, is about ninety-six inches, 
close under the casing ; but rather more a few courses lower down. 
The datura for linear measures of details in my photographs already 
alluded to, I should add, has been the breadth of the second Pyramid, 
from point to point of its casing's lower end, as given in the meridian 
section of the same folio views, and made equal to two thousand two 
hundred inches. 



26 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



To infer again what the arrangement of the 
upper part of the casing of the Great Pyramid must 
have been, from another example than that of the 
second Pyramid, — we may allude to Colonel Howard 
Vyse's description of the north Pyramid of Dashoor, 
the architecture of which he frequently compares to 
that of the Great Pyramid; besides its being, in 
point of size of base, the nearest approach to that 
grand example, of all the Pyramids of Egypt. This 
Dashoor monument, then, was built of a local red- 
dish stone, full of petrified shells, but was cased 
with white Mokattam stone. Some patches of this 
casing still exist in situ, at various heights of the 
Pyramid s sides ; and one of them, represented on 
Plate I., shows unequivocally the backing, or filling- 
in, with rectangular blocks of white Mokattam mate- 
rial, between the bevelled casing-stones and the 
regular courses of constructive masonry of the 
Pyramid's core. There is no scale to the ColoneFs 
or Mr. Perring's view (Plate 14 of his folio views) ; 
but, measured by his stated breadth of the entrance 
passage which is close by, — the mean horizontal 
thickness of the white casing and backing stones 
represented, is rather more than 120 inches. In 
other parts of the Pyramid the same feature varies 
from 60 to 130 inches, — the figure given by the mere 
masonry courses being very rude, and requiring much 
larger corrections in some places than in others.^ 

^ The following further account of this Dashoor Pyramid is impor- 
tant. ' The top of the Pyramid was built entirely with Arabian 



PROP. III.] THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 27 

Now comes the all-important question, viz., what 
thickness shall we assign to the casing that once 
surrounded the present summit of the Great Pyra- 
mid ; which so-called summit, let it always be borne 
in mind, must have been some 350 inches below 
the original culminating point? Colonel Howard 
Vyse gives for the distance of the outside of his two 
casing- stones, from the Pyramid courses, on their 
level, 'about nine feet,' or 108 inches; and in his 
view, he fills part of that space with certain filling-in 
blocks, as also shown on our Plate i. fig. 3. But 
if we take for the summit casings horizontal 
thickness in the middle of one of the sides, the 
round number of 100 inches, — and add one inch for 
the thick layer of red mortar between the outside of 
the masonry course and the first surface of the 
backing-stones, — similarly with what may be seen 
outside the present north-eastern corner of the Pyr- 
amid near the ground (stereographic photograph 
No. 1), — we then have a side thickness which gives 
a diagonal measure at the corner, of 143 inches. 
And, from our actual measure, at the socket below 
with the Playfair altitude-azimuth instrument, of 
signals held out at the top of the Pyramid to dis- 

(Mokattam) stone. The apex had been formed of one block, and the 

* course below it of four others, 57 inches thick ; but in general the 

* courses towards the top were about 24 inches, and those near the 

* base 36 inches in thickness. The stones are laid in horizontal 

* courses, and the whole of the masonry is good, and resembles that of 

* the Great P.yramid of Jeezeh.' 

* Being still very sharp at top, it is called by the Arabs " Haram 
' Mesinee," the pointed or sharp Pyramid. It is also called " Haram 
' el Wataweet," from the number of bats within it.' 



28 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



tances of both 100 and 150 inches in the diagonal 
direction, — we are justified in stating (see vol. ii. 
p. 1V6), that the 143-inch diagonal would have an 
altitude at every corner, between 41° 58', and 42° V; 
while the theoretical corner angle arising from John 
Taylors side angle of 51° 51' 14-3'; is 41° 59' 48-7". ' 

This example may perhaps suffice to show, that 
Colonel Howard Vyse's measured, and John Taylor s 
adopted, angle of the side inclination of the Great 
Pyramid, cannot be very far from the truth. But 
there is even a fourth reference which may be made 
to observation ; and if the things referred to therein 
do not appear at first sight, to be in any immediate 
way connected with the matter, and never have 
been so connected yet by any author or traveller, — 
they will speak for themselves when they come to 
be measured. Most happily too, every part of them 
which has to enter into the measurement, still exists 
visibly and tangibly ; so that good, painstaking, 
modern observation is perfectly able of itself, either 
to prove or disprove what has just been advanced 

The features here alluded to, are the azimuth 
trenches, as we have termed them (vol. i. p. 134 and 
416 ; and vol. ii. p. 125 and 185 ; see also Plate xv. 
vol. ii.), before the Eastern face of the Great Pyramid ; 
features which are unique, and have nothing at all 
resembling them, about any other of the Pyramids 
of Jeezeh. The earliest distinct notice which I 
have been able to identify as alluding to them, is 



PROP. III.] 



THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 



29 



that of Dr. Kichardson in 1817 ; and he, travelling 
in the train of a peer of the realm, and at a time 
when the trenches were half filled with rubbish, 
speaks of them as resembling the inclined roads by 
which a gentleman's carriage would be taken to 
and from a pond of water. He then speculates upon 
whether they might not really have had something 
to do with moisture in a more important manner, — 
imagining that the water of the Nile was raised up 
in ancient days by bucket-wheels innumerable to 
the top of the hill, and then poured into the 
trenches ; which, if cleared of their present ano- 
malous contents, might be found, he suggests, to 
descend very deep, and convey their fluid supplies 
to the concealed tomb of King Cheops, keeping 
that structure thereby perpetually surrounded with 
water, in the island- like manner detailed by Hero- 
dotus. 

Subsequently, M. Caviglia in 1820, and Mr. 
Perring in 1837, did clear out most of the loose 
rubbish ; and thereby showed the untenability, either 
of the carriage-road or the water-trough hypotheses : 
— in their place, however, announcing the idea, that 
the trenches had been used for mixing mortar in 
at the time of building the Pyramid ; an idea 
repeated by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, though with- 
out particular affirmation. Dr. Lepsius again looked 
on at the same hollows in 1843, pronouncing them, 
according to his map, to he tombs. And finally, 
the moment I caught sight of them in January 



30 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



1865, tliey gave me the impression of being some- 
how or other connected with an original laying out 
of the dominant angles of the Great Pyramid, — in 
the manner of an astronomer's marking the meri- 
dian and prime vertical lines with much exactitude, 
before beginning to build a public observatory. 

Two of the trenches, the north and south ones, evi- 
dently indicate a meridian line, or rather a parallel 
to the east face of the Great Pyramid. And then 
a very peculiar, sharply, and deeply cut trench, — 
the east-north-east one, — goes off from the middle of 
the linear distance between them (Plate xv. vol. ii.), 
at an angle, measured accurately with the Playfair 
instrument, of 76° 25' 52" with the line of the north 
and south trenches; and of 76° IV 22" with the 
line of the two sockets at the north-east and south- 
east corners of the Pyramid's base. The mean of 
these two quantities, being 76° 18' 38", — while the 
angle at the summit of the Pyramid between op- 
posite faces, according to John Taylor's theory, is 
76° 17' dV. 

Again, from the same starting-point, the angle 
between the north-north-east and east-north-east 
trenches, is 51° 53' 22"; evidently a near approach 
to John Taylor's number for the angle of elevation 
at the foot of the Great Pyramid in the middle of 
one of its sides. But as this angle can be deduced 
trigonometrically from the angle at the summit of 
the Pyramid, of which we have the two distinct 
trench measures above given, — there can be produced 



PROP, til] 



THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 



31 



from the azimuth trenches three determinations for 
the angle of the foot of the Pyramid, as thus — 

1, 51° 53' 22" 

2 51 47 4 

cand 3, 51 54 19 

The mean of all which, is . 51 51 35 

an astonishingly close approximation surely to John 
Taylors 51° 51' 14*3": and utterly removed from 
Mr. Perring's and Chevalier Bunsen's hypothetical 
quantity of 51° 20'. 

True, no doubt, that these trench results may be 
termed ' only a coincidence \ but then what a coin- 
cidence, compared to any other that could be in- 
stituted in all that region, even amongst forms more 
apparently similar ! Look round, for instance, at all 
the rest of the Jeezeh Pyramids, some of them in- 
dicated historically to be built in imitation of the 
Great Pyramid, — but by kings or architects who were 
of a diametrically opposed religious belief ; and who 
evidently, by the fact of the measured proportions 
of their works, did not appreciate the invaluable 
geometrical consequence of the particular angle 
51° 51' 14*3". For thus are given those Pyramids' 
angles by modern independent observation — 

( 52° 50' by the French savants. 

Second Pyramid, < 52 20 by Howard Vyse. 

( 52 50 by C. Piazzi Smyth. 
Third Pyramid, 51 by Howard Vyse. 

Fifth, „ 52 15 

Seventh „ 52 10 „ 

Eighth „ 52 10 

Ninth „ 52 10 



32 



WHAT IS EXACTLY 



[div. I. 



That is to say, each and every one of these Pyramids 
is largely removed, — or, by a great many times the 
value of the azimuth-trench angular differences, — 
from the typical angle of the Great Pyramid ! But, 
while pointing out this remarkable feature as a cry- 
ing fact, I am at the same time quite ready to bow 
before a civil engineer like Mr. Perring, in a matter 
of building, — and allow, that the trenches were used, 
and probably opened out and widened along their 
axes at the time of the building of the Great Pyra- 
mid, — for 'mixing mortar' in. Or, to be equally re- 
spectful before Dr. Lepsius, as a sepulchral authority, 
— and consent to the trenches having been used, after 
the building was over, and mortar-mixing no longer 
required, — for the interment of corpses; (indeed, our 
own people, in clearing out rubbish from the southern 
end of the north trench, turned out several lumps of 
bitumen, and a few mummy rags). But these em- 
ployments can by no means explain, and have not 
even attempted to explain, the particular, nay, the 
more than particular, angles at which the axes of the 
trenches are azimuthally situated with respect to 
each other ; and the placing of them at those angles, 
must have preceded their employment for the other 
more material and subsequently useful purposes 
alleged. 

Either, then, the trenches were placed by their 
original diggers at the actual angles now ascertained, 
intentionally, or not intentionally. If the former, 
those men, who must also be looked on as the 



PROP. III.] 



THE ANGLE OF SIDES ? 



33 



builders of the Great Pyramid, knew what a re- 
markable property they could give to a Pyramid, 
by constructing its slope at the critical angle of 51° 
51' nearly, and we shall do wisely to attend with 
care to their other angular works. But if the latter, 
that is, if the angle was the result of pure accident, 
without the will or intention of the builders being 
exerted to any extent, — and if we find, on investi- 
gating further, that the Great Pyramid is full of 
similar accidents, — each of them dovetailing into 
the other, and forming a regular system with a set 
purpose and grand design, — then what some men 
call accident, others will be inclined to look on as 
Providence * overruling the works of men, and 

* causing them to assist in bringing out results 

* which they never anticipated.' 

For the present, however, we merely request 
attention to the features of this one case on its own 
merits ; for there, no subsequent use which the 
trenches may have been put to, during the last four 
thousand years, has prevented an original feature of 
them being recovered by modern scientific measure ; 
and when it is so recovered, it is found eminently 
corroborative of John Taylor's peculiar angle, while 
it lends additional force to the truth and reality of 
this, our third Proposition. 



VOL. III. 



c 



34 



INCLINED PASSAGES, 



[div. I. 



PKOPOSITION IV. 

* THE ANGLE OF INCLINATION OF THE INCLINED PAS- 
SAGES IN THE GREAT PYRAMID, IS 26° 18' 10", 
NEARLY V 

In so far as the Great Pyramid has a descending 
entrance passage leading to a subterranean chamber, 
it is like every other Pyramid at Jeezeh ; but from 
a certain part of that entrance passage, defined on 
the floor by a device of the builders which our 
linear measures discovered (vol. i. p. 154, and vol. ii. 
p. 15), there branches off the system of ascending 
passages, known now by name of the first ascending 
passage, and the Grand Gallery ; and these, as 
they exist in the Great Pyramid, are quite unique 
throughout all known Pyramid architecture. Con- 
sidering, then, the descending entrance passage, from 
its mouth to the sign on the floor, a necessary means 
of approach to the other two passages, both of them 
ascending, — ^we have three passages peculiar to, or at 
least connected with, the typical part of the Great 
Pyramid ; and of which passages we require to 
know the angle of inclination. While we may well 
be urged to a more studious examination of the 
subject, on recognising in the walls of these passages 
the very surfaces, still existing, that were formed by 
the handiv/ork and intentions of the original builders. 

Generally speaking, all modern travellers have 



PROP. IV.] HOW MUCH INCLINED ? 



35 



at once pronounced the amount of angle of the 
ascending passages above a horizontal level, to be 
equal to that of the descending passage below the 
same ; though some have stated sensible differences 
amongst them, and have given angles for one or all 
varpng anywhere between 25° and 2T, For, as to 
30° and 60° of some earlier authors, they must be 
attributed to the effect on their nerves of the dark- 
ness, and their ' terrour of descending the slope,' the 
facilis descensus Averni, as they thought it, rather 
than as the result of their applying any instrumental 
clinometer, however rude. 

The angle, on the other hand, contained in our 
proposition, is a very simple deduction (which oc- 
curred to me in 1864), from a consideration of IVJr. 
Taylor's figure of the Pyramid abeady given ; and is 
to be further explained in our next Proposition, is 
well as in Plate ii. Being therefore founded in its 
birth upon the proved and measured proportions of 
the whole Pyramid, — the passages' angular quantity 
hence asserted, may be fairly allowed the honour 
of standing the ordeal of a trial, upon its merits ; 
though no further opinion can be declared, until the 
result of such trial becomes known. We shall, there- 
fore, at once take each of the three passages in suc- 
cession, and examine it rigorously by itself. 

First, of the entrance passage. When the modern 
approved measures of this feature were handed me 
in Cairo, before going out to the Pyramid, as 
standing, — • 



36 



INCLINED PASSAGES, 



[div. I. 



' Angle by Colonel Howard Vyse, = 26° 41' 0" 
♦ And angle by Mr. Ayrton,' = 26 40 18 

each of these angles being measured by a theodolite 
at the upper end, observing a lamp at the lower end 
of the passage, — I expected the theory would be 
found inapplicable ; but proceeded to make measures 
notwithstanding. Now, although my observations 
went no further down the passage, than the fiducial 
mark on the floor already described, — that ought not 
to have made any sensible difierence in the angle ; 
because those who have been down further, describe 
the passage as perfectly straight throughout its 
chief length. Yet, a very great difference was found 
between the former results, and mine ; indeed, so 
constant, abiding, and decided a difference, that 
in no part fifty inches long, of the one thousand 
inches in length that I examined, was there a single 
case, — even when the particular angle there was 
swelled by error of observation, and dilapidations of 
the building, — of the numbers reaching so high as 
26° 40' ; and the means of three perfectly different 
modes of observing, with different instruments, and 
at different times (vol. ii. p. 145), united in giving 
the angle as 26° 27^, without a chance of an error 
so large as 2^ 

Second, of the first ascending passage. This pas- 
sage angle is too generally assumed by travellers to 
be necessarily the same as that of, either the Grand 
Gallery, or, the entrance passage reversed ; and the 
only distinct statement that I can find of its having 



PKOP. IV.] 



HOW MUCH INCLINED ? 



37 



been really measured by a competent observer, is 
Colonel Howard Vyse's, where it is given as 26° 18'. 
My double series of observations, however, with one 
instrument observing from below to above ; and 
with another, long after in point of time, from 
above to below (vol. ii. p. 151), combined inexorably 
in giving 26° 6', — certainly true within 2'. 

These two small passages, then, which we have 
now examined, — give, one of them more, and the 
other less, than the theoretical quantity : their mean, 
or 26" 16' 30", being within 2' distance therefrom ; 
and looking like a case of probable error of con- 
struction on the part of honest workmen, who knew 
the right theoretical angle, and wished to hit, but 
had practical difficulty in hitting, it exactly. 

Yet if this be the fact, then we are entitled to 
expect that, in the Grand Gallery, the angle is 
much more closely approximated to ; for the result 
of our months of measuring inside the Pyramid was 
eminently to show, that the builders had ever risen 
in accuracy of work, conformably to the architec- 
tural or theoretical importance of the part they were 
working upon ; and the Grand Gallery, from its 
superior length, as well as vastly superior height and 
finish, must be considered far to overweigh both of 
the little passages by which it is approached. With 
extraordinary anxiety, therefore, to be accurate in 
my measures, did I begin the testing of the Grand 
Gallery, and in utter uncertainty how the affair 



38 



INCLINED PASSAGES, 



[div. I. 



would end ; for if, on one hand, Colonel Howard 
Vyse has stated the angle of the Gallery as 26° 18', 
on the other, his angles of the two previous pas- 
sages had proved erroneous by many minutes ; and 
Mr. Ayrton had since made the following observa- 
tions on the Grand Gallery : — 

* Angle of Grand Gallery by measurement of a 

* base and perpendicular, ....=■ 25° 1 7' 36" 

• The same, by hypotbenuse and perpendicular,' = 25 42 53 
The same, as recorded by M. Jomard, . . = 25 55 30 
The same, by Mr. Edward Lane, . . . = 26 30 

I attacked the Grand Gallery, then, mth three 
different instrumental methods , (vol. ii. p. 155), 
measuring it both optically from end to end, and 
mechanically along every step of both sides. And 
as the work progressed, and even more now, I am 
perfectly confounded to think, how the excellent 
observers above mentioned could possibly have 
obtained the quantities set down against their 
names; for no angles beginning with 25°, ever 
entered even into any single observation of mine, 
not even the most discordant; and all the sets joined 
in pointing with admirable unanimity to 26° 17' 37", 
as the true mean quantity, certainly correct within 
the limits of 1'. While if, from original error of con- 
struction, the angle in some limited portions of the 
run of the Gallery varied from 26° 2^ to 26° 35^,— 
that was only towards the middle of the whole 
length, where a little undulation was not of so much 
importance as at either end ; and there, it was most 
instructive to see how closely the mean angle had 



PROP. IV.] 



HOW MUCH INCLINED ? 



39 



been preserved, equally too, on both sides of the 
room. (See vol. ii. p. 158.) 

The undoubted result, then, of the most severe 
measurement by the most powerful angular measur- 
ing instruments ever brought into the Pyramid, — 
for such the Coventry clinometer and Playfair alti- 
tude-azimuth may fairly be considered, — has been 
to show an error from the theory of less than l'. In 
fact, we may say, practically to prove the theory, — 
in a case where modern observers had differed from 
each other in their observations of the same thing 
by at least 70' (minutes). 

This allusion is made in no critical spirit, but 
rather with the useful object of drawing a few 
much-needed conclusions for the regulation of our 
Pyramid theorizing. Some men, ardent for mathe- 
matical accuracy, may refuse to consider our propo- 
sition proved by observation, unless the latter has 
brought out the same second, or fraction of a second, 
that can be computed theoretically ; but these gen- 
tlemen must be reminded, that the Pyramid, even 
though the plan of it should have been dra\\Ti up by 
an angel with absolute perfection, was realized only 
by the hands of mortal men of the handicraft trade 
of masons, whose powers of accuracy were, and are, 
limited. And, if modern philosophers have consi- 
dered that they have identified the same part of the 
Pyramid, by their observations of angle differing 
from each other by 70', — is it too much to concede 
to the ancient masons, in their far more difiicult 



40 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[div. I, 



process of constructing the long slope of stone, that 
they considered their whole Grand Gallery angle, 
when within l' of the theoretical angle, to mean the 
same thing as that ? 

But in the Grand Gallery they put out all their 
possible powers ; and were far closer there, than in the 
two small passages, where the errors are +9', and 
— 1 2^ Let us then in future limit our ideas at the 
Pyramid of a practical angular proof of theory, when 
in an unimportant part of the structure to some- 
thing that comes within 15' ; and in an important 
part, to within 2', of what can be computed. 

PROPOSITION V. 

' THE GREAT PYRAMID IS SENSIBLY IN THE LATITUDE 

OF 30"? 

There are not many authorities to examine for 
the latitude of the Great Pyramid, and by reason 
probably — that few persons having hitherto con- 
sidered any very precise angular distance from the 
equator, to be a priori necessary for the import of 
the monument — men had not that peculiar stimulus 
to observation in universal science, of comparing 
fact with theory, and ancient performance against 
modern measure. A still further development, 
however, of John Taylor's original idea to that 



Vol m 




Fig 1. 



Oive^^ ASD '^\ Se.^)6ufnyo/'(^recc6' J^rocfnidj ouic^rdm^ tc tj'ohrt^ Taylor , 




Fig. 2 



K G 

Gu^trv Ftof . J, also /C ilrisec-6^4iy djr lines j) or eZlely io JF, ifu' V <^ I/, 

YW,- J i^As£f.7uiltfi^ Pa^sacf£- , wiih an^Ze of,yi^^. = 2S ,. 18. 
WV, - GrcuiiL'.CraZLerj, wiOv an^U jjt^l. =+ 26". JS'. 



PI. 2 





/ I 


\ ] 

\f XeA^ 






V 






Y 

( 


^ ^^><^^^ 








\ 


c 




B 

/ 







Fig. 3 



North. 



£ke;n a^L!:\BCZ = 26 . 18 .10 - low^er^ aiZmuia/ionJ o/* ooPol^. star 

^^CM - 30".. 0'.. O" = Zalxtzzd^yof:^raml4L 

BCJ[^^-\ 33 ^1, 2^ - l/pj}6rczzlmi>iaAon^ o/^sa7nx Po2e-s&r^ 



VtrluuiZ se^liorv of iTie an/:ien6 frtaZjjccssoccies, Paeiwcwd of 

Orea^y Pyrounid/ , 
after Colv7i4>/y\ffoward Vysey. 



Fig. 4. 




J\loraL 



260 SO 



□ 



too 300 *.oo 

Scalt of Bri/zgh IncAy^s . 



JOO 



PROP, v.] 



pyramid's latitude ? 



41 



described in our last Proposition, induced me, before 
visiting Egypt, — to think that a latitude of 30° was 
necessary to complete the fulness and appropriate- 
ness of the Pyramid's geometric symbolizations. 
Such an angle certainly came out from a very 
simple treatment of John Taylor's proportions of the 
Pyramid, and may be described thus : — (In Plate ii. 
fig. 1) the triangle abd represents a section of the 
Great Pyramid through its vertical axis, and the 
middle of opposite sides ; and the proportions are, 
according to the above venerable authority, such, — 
that A c, the vertical height, is to 4 B D (or to four 
times the length of one side of the base), — as the 
radius, to the circumference of a circle. On that as 
sumption, any one can compute the angle and find — 

Angle at either foot, . . . . = 51° 51' 14-3'' 
And angle at summit, . . . = 76 17 31*4 

The linear proportions — for as yet we do not say 
anything about absolute lengths — may of course be 
computed from the same data. And having in that 
manner obtained a theoretical area of the given 
vertical section of the Pyramid, — a square of equal 
area, efgh is formed and placed centrically and 
symmetrically, as in the figure ; where, by continuing 
the line e f to the circumference of the circle and 
parallel with bd, and by joining cl, — we obtain 
in the angle CLi, or its equivalent bcl, a new 
quantity, and by computation = 2 6° 18' 10". 

Now, in the first place, this angle is peculiar to a 
Pyramid of John Taylor's characteristics ; for if there 



42 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[div. I. 



should be one higher in proportion to the breadth 
of its base, the above angle would be smaller, and 
if lower, it w^ould be greater : and, in the second 
place, this angle, as confined to 26° 18' nearly, has 
been made much practical use of by the builders of 
the Great Pyramid, — who, as shown in Proposition 
IV., — appear to have regulated all three of the inclined 
passages upon it. Accordingly, without altering any- 
thing in fig. 1, if we merely add thereto the addi- 
tional lines in fig. 2, — viz., trisection of the upper 
half and bisection of the lower half of the centrally 
disposed square, by lines parallel with the base of 
the Pyramid, — we obtain, first, a point z ; from which, 
if we draw a line parallel to the former c l, we ob- 
tain one X Y z, which lies almost as exactly as it can 
be measured (see PL iii. vol. i.) in the very peculiar 
position of the entrance passage of the Great Pyramid. 

In the next place, if from v downward we draw 
a line at an equal but opposite angle to the c l i of 
fig. 1, — we obtain a line VWY, which occupies the 
position in the Pyramid of both Grand Gallery and 
first ascending passage ; while from the intersection 
point w, we have the line w u already formed, and 
representing closely the horizontal passage leading to 
the Queen's chamber. 

This is surely a large amount of confirmation 
from the actual building ; and if confined as yet to 
mere mechanical geometry, there follow some tests 
derived from astronomy, — seeing that the entrance 
passage has been claimed by various authors, as a 



piiop. v.] pyramid's latitude ? 



43 



tube pointed to the lower culmination of a star 
which was Polar at the period of the Pyramid s con- 
struction.^ Agreeably with this idea, our fig. 3 
shows, that by drawing one line from c through v', 
already given, and another also from c through P, 
(where c P = e f), we obtain together with the line 
c L, three lines, c l, cm, and c N ; of which, if c L be 
really the direction of a circumpolar star at its lower 
culmination, c N is its direction at the upper culmi- 
nation, c M being the place of the Pole, within limits 
of a few seconds only ; the computed values being — 

B c L, = 26° 18' 10'' 

B C M, = 30 

and B c N, = 33 41 24 

Now these are angles which, under the same mode 
of treatment, would be yielded by no other shape 
of triangle than that arising from John Taylor s 
proportions of the Great Pyramid ; and they appear 
remarkably confirmed by the masonry of that build- 
ing, inasmuch as they seem to regulate the exces- 
sively increased height of the Grand Gallery, over 
the original small height of one of the ordinary 
passages, as shown more particularly in Plate vi. 
But a more serious test will consist in ascertaining, 
whether the angle of latitude in which the Pyramid 
stands, is really the angle pointed to in the diagram 
by BCM ; for if it is, the concurrence of the geometry, 
geography, and astronomy, of the Great Pyramid 
will be remarkable to a degree past all mere chance 

1 See Sir John Herschel's letter in Colonel How ard Vyse's Opera- 
tions at the Great Pyramid of Oizeh, vol. ii. pp. 107-109. 



44 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[DIV. I. 



coincidence ; and a striking reason will then be 
obtained for the monument standing in its present 
parallel, and no other. 

The first point to be tested in this astronomical 
department of the general question, is one which 
has been usually taken for granted, by all those 
authors who have claimed the entrance passage 
for a polar star ; viz., that the Pyramid must 
have been correctly oriented, or placed with its 
several faces accurately to the north, south, east, and 
west points of the horizon. Yet the only instru- 
mental observations on the subject, were those by 
the French savants, and they had shown an error, 
= 19'58''of arc.i 

That quantity, however, being overlooked by all 
theorizers, — showed very plainly, that they did not 
think it capable of vitiating their astronomical de- 
ductions : and it is not a much greater error, than 

1 * La Pyramide est orient^e avec exactitude. M. Nonet, astro- 

* norae, a troiive, par des operations g^om^triques et astronomiques 

* (Voyez Decade Egyptienne, t. iii. p. 105, et suiv.), que la c6te du 

* Nord d^viait de la ligne Est et Guest de 0° 1 9' 58^' vers le sud, d'oii 

* il a conolu que la ligne m^ridienne qui fut trac^e pour orienter le 

* monument, d6clinait de 20' vers I'Guest : mais, comme le revetement a 

* disparu, il n'est pas certain que cette petite diflf^rence provienne de 
' la direction primitive des faces, et il est naturel de I'attribuer, au 

* moins en partie, k la difficult^ de determiner avec une precision par- 

* faite la direction des degr^s qui bornent aujourd'hui les faces. Gn 

* sait que I'orientation de I'observatoire de Tycho Brah^ a 6t6 trouv^e 

* k Uranibourg, par I'Academicien Picard, en d^faut de 18'. 

* D'ailleurs, suivant la remarque m6me de I'observateur, la ligne 

* meridienne etant trac^e et dirig^e exactement au nord, on aurait eu 

* de la peine, en eievant ici une perpendiculaire, de ne pas d^vier, sur 

* une longueur de 113 metres 4, de trois decimetres, quantite sufl&sante 
' pour donner 20' de diflference. II aurait fallu, selon moi, observer 



PROP, v.] 



pyramid's latitude ? 



45 



what was permitted in the most celebrated Euro- 
pean observatory of two hundred and thirty years 
previous. But when the Great Pyramid, of nearly 
twenty times as many years earlier, came recently 
to be examined by us, with due attention to its 
fiducial markings (vol. ii. p. 196), behold its utmost 
error, not the 19^ 58" alleged, nor even the 18^ of 
Tycho Brahe, but only 4' 35" ! 

Hence, we may now go forward with renewed 
confidence to the next point, and consider the 
latitude of the Great Pyramid. The result of 
M. Nouet s observations in the celebrated national 
French work, is set down as 29° 59' 6"; and my 
recent result with the Playfair altitude-azimuth 
instrument is, 29° 58' 51" ; accurate probably to 
within 3". Nevertheless, if M. Nonet's original 
observations can be found, or shown to have been 
as extensive as mine, — I shall not be disposed 
to quarrel with any one who prefers taking a mean 
of the two results, to either one by itself ; though 

' quelle direction a le plan du premier canal de la Pyramide, celui qui 
' aboutit k I'entree dont j'ai parl4 plus haut : I'op^ration aurait 
' difficile sans doute ; mais le parall^lisme exact et I'enti^re conserva- 

* tion de ses faces auraieut procure une ligne presque math^matique ^ 

* comparer au meridien du lieu. Nous connaissons Tangle du plan 
' forme par le fond de ce canal avec I'horizon, et cette notion fournit 
' deji des remarques interessantes ; ellea le deviendront davantage 

* encore, quand on connattra parfaitement, si elle existe, I'inclinaison 
' de son plan vertical sur le plan du meridien : ce travail, qui importe- 
' rait k I'histoire de I'astronomie, ne serait que la continuation des 
' recherches que 1' Academic Royale des Sciences ordonna dans le 

* xviii® si^cle dans la vue de comparer les observations de cette esp^ce 

* cbez les diff^rens peuples.' — M. Jomard, in Desnuption de VEgypte, 
Antiquites, Descriptions, torn. ii. p. 61. 



46 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[div. I. 



meanwhile I beg to be allowed to retain my own 
determination. 

Now the numbers 29° 58' 51", do come so abun- 
dantly within our rule of 2' discordance being 
allowed, that we might in so far at once declare the 
case practically proved. But that rule is not to pre- 
vent our testing any one particular instance more 
accurately still, if possible ; nor was it intended to 
apply to exactly such a subject as the minutes of 
latitude angle. There is therefore no objection what- 
ever, to any one asking, ' why the builders did not 
' hit the theoretical angle of 30° 0^ O" of latitude, a 
' little closer, than to a distance of V 9" only ? 

To this, the answer seems to be, — especially when 
looking at the real Great Pyramid passage pointing 
to an actual star in the sky, — the asking, in Scottish 
fashion, of another question ; viz., ' Ought not the 
* latitude rather to be such as, with a mean amount 
' of refraction added to it, will place the Polar point 
' visibly to men, rather than theoretically only, at 
' an angular elevation of 30° 1' 

On some grounds, this view is decidedly to be 
preferred. But noting that there is only one, of the 
tioo daily meridian culminations marked by a mate- 
rial passage, where men could look out at the actual 
fact in the sky (during the building of the Great 
Pyramid, though not afterwards, for other and very 
different reasons), we may be safer in taking a mean 
between the two hypotheses ; i.e., between an angle 
of 30° absolute from the equator, — and a certain 



PROP. V.J pyramid's latitude ? 47 



other angle therefrom, which, with the refraction 
added, would present an appare^it elevation of the 
Pole to the same amount of 30°. And as the refrac- 
tion at such altitude is on the average about 1' 37", 
such geometric polar angle is 29° 58' 23" : the mean 
between which and 30°, is equal to 29° 59' 12". 

But 29° 59' 12", is still something very perceptibly 
greater than 29° 58' 51", though no doubt a re- 
markable approximation. The original question may 
therefore still be put, by some who expect super- 
human accuracy in others : viz. : * Why did not the 
' builders hit the mark even yet a little more closely ? 
*0r, why did they not carry the Great Pyramid 21" 

* farther north, and make it thereby perfectly accu- 

* rate in its geographical place V 

The answer here is simply. Go and look at the 
topographical position of the Pyramid ; and see, 
that the realizing of those 21" would have taken the 
building oiOf its noble hill, and buried it ingloriously 
in a broad bay of sand which intervenes to the north 
of it, and extends in that direction through several 
whole minutes of latitude ; while if we alter the 
longitude also, to avoid that low ground, and shift 
the Pyramid westward as well as northward, we 
should find only the indistinct undulations of a 
desert valley for an indefinite distance in the exact 
parallel of 29° 59' 12" of latitude. Hence there is 
in fact no other conspicuous or suitable rocky hill 
for the Pyramid to stand on, except its own hill, 
throughout all this region ; for though the eminence 



48 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[div. I. 



to the south of the palm-trees, is bold enough, it is 
very much too far southward for latitude purposes. 

There was therefore no choice left to the builders, 
but to place the Pyramid on the hill where they did 
place it ; and if in being there, it is slightly in geo- 
graphical error, they have indicated a strangely per- 
fect knowledge on their part, of the existence of such 
an error ; for why, otherwise, upon any hieroglyphic 
theory of the Pyramid that has ever been brought 
forward, has that most massive building of the 
world, — when there was plenty of room southward 
for mere foundation, — been pushed so close to the 
very northern edge of the hill ! Yea, even so dan- 
gerously close to its northern cliff, that there is, just 
in front of the north-eastern corner of the P3n:amid, 
a slicken-side scratched surface of rock, indicating a 
land-slip of part of the cliff to have already occurred 
there ; and still worse, there is a deep cleft in the local 
rock, * a chasm,' according to Colonel Howard Vyse, 
preparing for another breaking away of the cliff, 
and passing slantingly under the front of the very 
Pyramid itself. (See Plates ii., iii., and iv., vol. i.) 

The builders too knew of this most dangerous 
feature, for they filled it up with good masonry to 
a depth of forty feet, and cemented it over ; and 
they further made those enormous banks of their 
ancient rubbish on the northern front of the cliff 
outside (vol. i. p. 186), to keep it up, as it were ; 
recognising that a fall of that part of the rock 
would be ruinous indeed to the Pyramid. As yet 



PROP, v.] 



pyramid's latitude ? 



49 



the rock has not given way, though it may always 
be considered as threatening ; but meanwhile, if 
ever a building vividly represented the scriptural 
phrase of standing on *the utmost bound of the 
* everlasting hills,' — it is surely the Great Pyramid ; 
reared, and with a remarkable reason for it, on the 
very ultimate northern edge and brink of its steep- 
sided, desert, table-land. 

For its own safety, then, we would not wish to 
see the Great Pyramid pushed any farther towards 
the north : and it is surely far enough already in 
that direction, to satisfy the requirements of modern 
scientific travellers, in strict justice to their own 
latter-day work. Because, have their measurements 
of any of the angles of the Great Pyramid been con- 
ducted within an agreement amongst each other, of 
2 1" ? Nay, have they been within 2 1' ? 

Also worthy of note is it, before leaving this 
subject, that if the Great Pyramid be not quite 
far enough northward in latitude, — it yet comes 
nearer to what theory points out, than any other 
Pyramid whatever, large or small. For all the others 
in its neighbourhood, are to the south of it ; the 
second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, notoriously 
so ; and the seventh, eighth, and ninth, — when we 
consider, in proper scientific process, the places of 
their centres as compared with the centre of the 
Great Pyramid, — fall in the same category. 

One rather disputable case, however, exists out- 

VOL. III. D 



50 



WHAT IS GREAT 



[div. I. 



side all these ; seeing that north of the seventh 
Pyramid, and north also of the latitude parallel pass- 
ing through the Great Pyramid s centre, there is a 
system of inclined passages in a vertical and meridian 
plane, tunnelled into the rock of the hill, — and 
looking so much like the commencement for building 
a small pyramid, — as to have induced some authors 
to declare, that if no pyramid was ever actually 
erected there, men had intended to erect one, and 
may have begun it, though no stones are found there 
now. And such a pyramid, — though its proportions 
must have been insignificant, as being necessarily 
curtailed by the edges of the hill north and east, — 
would yet have been, as to its centre, a little nearer 
to the proper latitude desired by theory for the 
Great Pyramid, than the Great Pyramid itself. 

This is serious. But on turning to Colonel 
Howard Vyse, we find that that most trustworthy 
authority, assisted by Mr. Perring, made careful 
measures of these passages (see fig. 4 on our 
Plate II.), and arrived at the conclusion, — that they 
are neither in the meridian line of the passages of 
the seventh, eighth, and ninth Pyramids ; nor at 
a commensurable distance, in any meridian line, to 
form one of a regular series of Pyramids with them 
along the eastern side of the Great P5rramid. Mr. 
Perring likewise expresses an engineering opinion, 
that the surface of the ground, near to and above 
these passages, was never prepared to receive build- 
ing stones upon it ; and he alludes to Herodotus 



PROP, v.] 



pyramid's latitude ? 



51 



noticing only three small Pyramids on the eastern 
side of the great one, as reason for concluding that 
no other small pyramids, other than the three now 
to be seen, ever stood in that neighbourhood. 

But why was there not a complete line of them 
constructed ? Or why was the partial line begun 
from the south instead of the north? And what 
were those inclined passages in the rock for, if not 
intended to have a pyramid erected over them ? 

The two first features of this rather over-much- 
demanding question, would be satisfied, — if it was 
considered reasonable, that the architects of the 
Great Pyramid would allow no other building to 
interfere with their mighty work in any of its 
higher attributes, not even in correct geographical 
position. And the last portion of the question, — 
which is the most important, and is even necessary 
to the whole, — throws some light on itself when 
practically examined. 

For, look at the passages in plan and vertical 
section (Plate ii.), and see that they are a system, in 
principle of arrangement, such as exists in no other 
Pyramid whatever, except the Great Pyramid ; for 
there is the long descending entrance passage ; an 
upward and opposite rising passage from the middle 
of that, like the Great Pyramids 'first ascending 
passage ; ' then the beginning of a horizontal passage, 
like that to the Queen s chamber ; and finally, the 
commencement of an upward rising Grand Gallery, 
with its remarkable ramps on either side. 



52 



HAS THE EARTH 



[div. I. 



The angles, heights, and breadths of all these are 
almost exactly the same as obtain in the Great 
Pyramid. And if the lengths only, are so curtailed 
as to be ridiculous in compairson, — or rather such 
as to show all the leading angular features of the 
Great Pyramid's passages within the space of a few 
feet, — that assists to a conclusion which the facts 
of the neighbouring azimuth trenches first prompted 
me to : — viz., that this system of inclined passages 
in the rock north-east of the Great Pyramid, was 
merely a trial, or model, cut beforehand into a spare 
part of the hill surface by the masons of the Great 
Pyramid, — to improve their understanding of the 
internal figures they were afterwards to form close 
by ; just as the azimuth trenches were to show 
the exterior angles. Hence, the Great Pyramid is 
finally and most decidedly left the northernmost, 
and nearest to the theoretical latitude, of all the 
Pyramids of Jeezeh, either at present, or ever, ex- 
isting. 



PKOPOSITION VI. 

* ANGULAR ALTERATIONS IN THE EARTH's CRUST 
HAVE BEEN PRACTICALLY INSENSIBLE DURING THE 
EXISTENCE OF THE GREAT PYRAMID V 



Throughout all our previous Propositions we 
have discussed differences between theory and fact. 



PROP. VI.J 



SUKFACE MOVED ? 



53 



as referrible only to errors of either ancient work- 
men or modern measures, combined with inevitable 
effects of dilapidation ; but where an interval of 
several thousand years is concerned, it may be ex- 
pedient also to inquire, whether any slow natural 
changes of the earth itself, — though utterly insen- 
sible during all the period of existence of our post- 
mediaeval civilisation, — may not have accumulated 
with greater time to some appreciable extent. 

At the last meeting in Dublin of the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, for in- 
stance, a learned traveller stated, — in connexion with 
a mathematical paper which had just been read on 
certain views regarding the interior consolidation 
of the earth, — that he had seen ancient buildings 
in Abyssinia which indicated a sensible diflference in 
the direction of gra^dty at the time of their erection, 
from what obtains now. And, again, there was the 
question, much agitated by Dr. Hooke in his day, as 
to whether there is any slow progressive change in 
the place of the axis of rotation of the earth within 
its substance ; — or again of the crust of the earth over 
the position of the poles, — altering in that manner 
both the latitudes and longitudes of all places, to 
some minute quantity, in the course of many ages. 

Had our observations at the Pyramid, alluded to 
under the last Proposition, come before Dr. Hooke, 
the practical Newton of his day, — he would inevitably 
have seized on the 21" defalcation of north latitude, 
and the 4' 3 O" west error of the Pyramid's meridian 



54 



HAS THE EARTH 



[div. I. 



line, as indicating an oblique movement of the north 
Polar point of the world in a north-eastern direction. 
And he would further have had by this time, in the 
successive decreases of the published latitude of 
Greenwich by every succeeding Astronomer-Eoyal 
during the last century, something like a confir- 
mation of the latitude part of the effect closer at 
home. 

But what are we, who live now, to think, — taking 
all things into consideration, — as to the Pyramid's 
evidence of such terrestrial change ? This probably, 
that a shifting in place of the earth's axis of rotation 
within itself, if solid, or nearly so, to the amount 
of 21" in four thousand years, is utterly beyond 
all physical probability, — so overwhelming is the 
dynamical stability of the axis of rotation in so 
huge and heavy a ball as the earth ; such a 
computation, though not for those precise numbers, 
having been made by La Place long ago, and con- 
firmed, we believe, very recently by Professor P. G. 
Tait of Edinburgh. 

The question, again, of the earth's crust being rather 
thin, and carried by variations caused in its local 
amount by special chemical and other actions, to or 
from the place of the pole of rotation of the grand 
fluid internal mass, supposed to remain constant, — 
has also, I believe, been considered ; but without any 
one venturing to say how much change might be 
produced in the latitudes of places in a given time 
from that cause. We are left, therefore, only to 



PHOP. VI.] 



SURFACE MOVED ? 



55 



speculate on a smaller and more confined class of 
changes, produced either by temperature or volcanic 
agencies, — which push, twist, elevate, or depress 
sometimes whole continents, but more generally 
parts of them only ; and occasionally act in opposite 
directions within very small areas, according to the 
distance of the solid surface of the ground from, 
either the molten interior of the whole earth on 
which it is floating, or the fluid contents of sub- 
terranean lakes and cavernous receptacles of similar 
matter contained witliin its substance. Now the 
amount of these changes, is wholly without the 
power of theoretical science to compute ; and such 
a case as that of the Great Pyramid, giving the 
result of human experience through the longest 
series of years of any monument yet erected, is 
probably the best, if not the only, opportunity of 
practically ascertaining whether anything of the sort 
has really taken place. 

With regard to the latitude efi'ect, however, I 
would remark ; first, — that the defalcation of 2 1" is 
only chargeable on the Pyramid thi'ough reference 
to the deductions from John Taylor s figure of the 
monument; for without that, we should have no 
means of knowing what the latitude of the Pyramid 
was thought or observed to be in the days of its build- 
ing ; and, second, — we have shown topographical 
and other reasons why such an amount of error, if 
it existed at the time, might very properly have 
been neglected by the builders. But with regard to 



56 



HAS THE EARTH 



[div. I. 



the azimuthal deviation from the meridian, there is 
not only a much larger quantity to be dealt with 
there, but it is independent of J ohn Taylor's or any 
other man's theory, further than this general belief, 
— that the Great Pyramid was originally intended 
to be correctly oriented ; and that its builders had 
the capacity to place it so, true within 2^, if not 
much less. Something is therefore to be explained 
in that anomaly; and we may have a reason to 
suggest in a future chapter, without requiring the 
Egyptian earth to have been twisted round 4! or 
5' in four thousand years. 

Meanwhile, though thus practically confessing 
that the great geographical ordinates of the Pyramid 
have not been materially interfered with by physical 
causes, there remain to be considered the probable 
effects of such disturbing actions, in altering the 
correctness of its lesser mechanical and geometrical 
features. Has the rock, for instance, under the 
Pyramid, been tilted up in one direction or another, 
thereby throwing out of the vertical or horizontal 
that which was once both plumb and level true ? 

As touching directly on this subject, we may 
turn to the article by M. Ernest Eenan on * Egyptian 
* Antiquities,' in the Revue des Deux Mondes for 
April 1 86 5, as giving both his own views and those of 
the extensively experienced Marie tte Bey also. And 
there we read, that there is not a particle of devia- 
tion discernible in that most carefully constructed 
room of all the rooms throughout the Great Pyra- 



PROP. VI.] 



SURFACE MOVED ? 



57 



mid, viz., the King's chamber ; or, in the author s 
own words, ' Malgre Tepouvantable poids que porte 

* cette chambre, elle n a pas flechi dun millimetre ; 

* le fil plomb n y accuse pas la moindre deviation/ 

Sorry am I to say that my observations upon the 
walls of the Kings chamber, taken very carefully 
through means of the circular clinometer applied 
with a beam one hundred and twenty-six inches 
long, do not in any way agree with the above 
assertion ; for they indicate, in the first place, very 
consistently, that every wall is inclined to the 
central quasi-yerticsil axis of the chamber by the 
amount of 3' 47"; and, in the next place, that that 
axis is tilted at the top towards the west by the 
amount of 6' 9", and towards the south by the 
amount of 6' 4" (vol. ii. p. 163). 

That is the instrumental fact, which cannot be 
departed from until better observations are made ; 
but the whole quantity of deviation is by no means 
to be necessarily put down to a permanent physical 
earth change, for the chambers floor is greatly 
shaken and disjointed even since Colonel Howard 
Vyse's time, — either by the progress of dilapidation, 
or ruinous effect of a passing earthquake shock.^ 
Let us therefore see what sort of tale the three in- 
clined passages tell, touching depression towards 
the south. Such an effect, if general over the whole 

^ Such as that recorded in Mr. Sopwith's Notes on Egypt, to have 
occurred in 1856, and injured much the house of the hospitably-in- 
clined English engineer of the railway from Alexandria to Cairo. 



68 HAS THE EARTH [dIV. I. 

building, will tend to increase the dip of the en- 
trance passage, and decrease the rise of the other 
two. And what do we find ? Why, that the dip 
of the entrance passage is greater than the theory 
by 9', the rise of the first ascending passage less 
by 12\ and that of the Grand Gallery also less, 
by O' 35". But as the large deviations of the two 
first passages have already been shown to be pro- 
bably due to error of construction on less important 
parts of the Pyramid, the only thing left securely 
outstanding to attribute to a general tilting of the 
whole Pyramid, is the 35" of the Grand Gallery; 
indicating therefore that the 6' of the King's chamber 
is a local error or masonry defect, magnified in 
angular value by the short radius of the walls. 

There is another set of our observations, however, 
bearing on the point, viz., the measurement of the 
corner angles of the Pyramid's summit from the 
sockets below, by means of the Playfair altitude- 
azimuth instrument ; and this would have been a 
very sufficient method, had there not been the one 
weak feature about it, that the dilapidations of the 
top rendered it most difficult to decide, within a 
few inches, where the general corners of the summit 
platform should be considered to lie.^ Eeferring, 

^ On a future occasion it might be worth while to enclose the top- 
most course of stones, forming the summit platform of the Pyramid, 
with a grand square of carpentry : for that woodwork might be made 
in itself an approximately true square, and the position of any one of 
its corners would be regulated, not by that same corner, only, of the 
broken stones, but by the general contour of the whole topmost area 
of stones. 



PROP. VI.] 



SURFACE MOVED ? 



59 



however, to vols. i. and ii. pp. 538 and 1V3, for the 
efforts that were made to be accurate in this point, 
we have now only to deal with the observations as 
taken and recorded at the time ; and they are as 
follows : the south-east and south-west observations 
give a greater tilt to the Pyramid than the north- 
east and north-west, by 0' 30", — implying a dip of 
the ground southward by that angle ; and the north- 
east and south-east give a greater angle than the 
north-west and south-west by 2! 39", — implying a 
dip of the ground eastward by that angle. 

These quantities evidently throw discredit on the 
large angles of deviation in the King's chamber, as 
an earth effect ; but they coincide, it is not unin- 
teresting to remark, with the south-east dip of all 
the limestone strata composing the hill on which 
the Pyramid stands ; and which may be distinct 
from any large portion of the rest of the country, 
even as it is believed generally in Egypt now, that 
the land of the Delta is sinking, while that of Suez 
is rising. Hence, while we omit making any fur- 
ther reference for the present to the eastern element 
of angular variation about the Pyramid, we are 
bound to acknowledge that every one of five dif- 
ferent subjects of observation, — nay, six, including 
the geological strata, — have combined in giving a 
dip southward, as an effect that has come over the 
foundations of the Pyramid with time. The amount, 
however, of such dip can only be inferred with 
safety from the large radii of the Grand Gallery, 



60 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



and the corner observations of the whole Pyramid ; 
and as it is indicated in both these quarters to be 
barely more than 32", such a quantity may well be 
neglected in any ordinary discussion about Pyramid 
angles. Though there is no harm, and perhaps even 
the merit of following strict rule, if we add that' 
number of seconds to the angle of the Grand Gallery, 
as observed in a.d. 1865 ; increasing its 26° 17' 37" 
to 26° 18' 9". Or bringing the observed angle of 
that noble, and most ancient, hall, — within l" of the 
26° 18' 10" independently demanded by modern 
theory, and published to the world before our ob- 
servations were made. 



PKOPOSITION VIL 

* HYPSOMETRY OF THE GREAT PYRAMID' ? 

Datum Plane. 

The datum plane to which it is proposed to refer 
all levels taken at the Pyramid, is the upper surface 
of the pavement, alluded to in connexion with the 
corner sockets (vol. ii. p. 137) ; and found to be, 
practically even with the floor of the south-west 
socket ; from six to ten inches above, the floors of 
the north-east and north-west sockets ; and rather 
more above, the lower floor of the south-east socket. 
The same pavement too, it is believed, from whose 
broad and well constructed surface, in the middle of 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? C 1 

the northern side, Colonel Howard Vyse found the 
inclined slope of the whole Great Pyramid flank 
at once to begin. 

Present Vertical Height, 

This feature may most appropriately be reckoned 
from the pavements upper surface, as the lower 
starting-point for such measure, up to the flat, 
square area on the summit, as its higher reference. 
On that area, near four hundred inches long in the 
side, there are, it is true, two fragments of courses 
of masonry, one on the other, and twenty- one and 
nineteen inches in respective heights. A learned 
authoress, too, a few years ago, described herself 
and party very racily mounting on them to get a 
little nearer still to the sky ; and they do enable any 
one to stand absolutely higher by forty inches, than 
if on the four hundred inch area level. But they 
are unfortunately too fragmentary and low, to assist 
one in forming safe conclusions respecting the 
whole deficit between the present broken, and the 
ancient unbroken, P}Tamid top, — or a quantity 
closer in linear height, upon almost any theory, 
to 380 inches. It seems better, therefore, to ter- 
minate the vertical measuring at the four hun- 
dred inch area, which does possess some degree of 
completeness, and oflers an approach to those re- 
quired data on which the final quantity must be 
computed. 

Another description of that area, is this ; viz., that 



62 WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 

it forms the upper surface of the 20 2d course of 
masonry from the Pyramid pavement upwards. 
Hence, when good measurers give the height of ^ 204 
* courses/ they may be expected to have included 
the two fragmentary sets, and require to have forty 
inches subtracted from their observed height to' 
compare it with ours. 

These points it is well to settle, before coming to 
the height itself; for the time may arrive, when 
more of the upper courses will have been broken 
away, — as several have been already within the his- 
torical period, — and the 'topmost area' will then 
signify a diflferent number of courses from the pave- 
ment upwards, from what it does now. 

How many courses there may have been at any 
particular past epoch, it would be difficult now to say; 
but probably within the last three hundred years, 
there were never more than 204 ; most likely less, — 
the maximum required to complete the whole figure of 
the Pyramid, with a topmost corner stone 100 inches 
thick, and the two next courses approximating to 
the same thickness (agreeably with the still visible 
masonry finish of the Northern Pyramid of Dashoor, 
and the superior size of the lower socket-holes, and 
lowest row of casing-stones at the Great Pyramid), 
being something like 210, — with an uncertainty of 
not more than two or three, one way or the other. 
Wherefore, it is melancholy to find among earlier 
travellers such varied statements as the following, 
— in which their absolute errors as to courses, 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETPvICAL DATA ? G3 

are often further illustrated by the heights as- 
signed : — 





Date. 


No. of Courses of 
I^fasonry cxistiiig 
at the time. 


Height of 
Great Pyramid. 








Briti.sh inches. 


Sandys, 


IGIO 


255 




Greaves, 


1C38 


207 or 208 


5988 


Meltou, 


16G1 


206 


6240 


Vausleb, 


1CG4 


255 


7944 


Lucas, 
Egmont, 


1699 


243 


8748 


1709 


206 


6000 


Pococke, 


1743 


212 




Perry, 


1743 




8244 


Davison, 


1763 


206 


5532 



That all very recent travellers are talking about 
the same ' topmost area ' surface is evident, both 
from the age of many of the inscribed names of 
visitors, as well as from the length of the side of 
said area as measured and given by them ; for every 
lower course will evidently have a greater length of 
side, to an extent extremely easy to measure. AVhen, 
therefore, Messrs. Aiton and Inglis, in 1865, give 
195 courses on the north-east angle, and 199 on the 
south-west ; or Mr. Lane in 1843, 203 courses, and 
some of the French savants in 1799, also 203, — we 
may suspect a misapprehension in counting, and 
not an alteration in the Pyramid. 

Of these observers, the first statement, as I have 
shown in vol. ii. Sect, v, has so many anomalies in the 
first fifty steps from the ground, that I have not 
attempted to follow the rest. But Mr. Lane, of the 
Modern Egyptians, was a phenomenon for accuracy, 



64 WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 

and produced one of the most careful drawings of 
the Pyramid ever made by human hand ; ^ while the 
French savants of 1799, devoted themselves, in 
number, and with peculiar enthusiasm, to linear 
numerical measures about the Pyramid (which kind of 
mensuration was indeed special to the science of that 
day, when physics meant the application of geometry 
to a subject, and was as yet innocent of geology, 
chemistry, and many other branches both of natural 
philosophy and natural history, which are now oc- 
cupying the chief attention of the mass of learned 
men). It was with no small relief therefore, that I 
found the 203 courses of the French savants, and 
apparently those of Mr. Lane also, meant the same 
as my 204 ; for their lowest, and which some of them 
(i.e., M. Le Pere, and Colonel Coutelle), have actu- 
ally entered in two portions of 20, and 52 inches 
respectively in height, — must really be considered 
as two distinct Pyramid courses. 

That they were long held as one, was partly due 
to the first French measures made in 1799 or 1800, 
being previous to the later excavation of MM. Le 
Pere and Coutelle, which took place only ^in the 
* month Rainy, of the year 9' (January 1801) ; and 
first disclosed the full depth of the supposed lowest 
course being, not 40 inches only, but 72 inches, or 
in excess of any other known Pyramid course ; and 
partly also to the circumstance that, at the north- 

1 See Plate xii. of Colonel Howard Vyse's and Mr. Perring's folio 
views of the Pyramids. London, 1840. 



PROP. VII.] 



HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



65 



eastern corner of the Pyramid, the upper surface of 
this 7 2 -inch duplex course, is, for a small space, 
seen to be formed in the solid standing rock of the 
hill. AVhence M. Jomard concluded, that there was 
anciently a raised pedestal of seventy- two inches 
on which the Pyramid stood, and that its inclined 
sides only began above that level. 

Such an idea, however, has not only been directly 
disproved since then, by Colonel Howard Vyse's 
casing-stones, as already mentioned, beginning at 
seventy-two inches below that level, — but it is also 
shown, by our photographs now brought home, 
combined with the measures, to be a mistaken ap- 
prehension of Pyramid masonry. 

For these peculiar modern documents testify, 
l5^. That that portion of a rock course seen at the 
north-east corner, was abundantly within, — not only 
the external casing and proper position for a base 
or pedestal, — but within, likewise, several thick- 
nesses of the stones of the inner masonry courses, 
themselves also within the casing-stone series. 

2d, The standing rock was used merely to supply 
economically a portion of the internal bulk of 
masonry, — not to form any part of, or react upon, 
the external form and surface of the Pyramid. For 
this, indeed, it would not have been good enough ; 
and the Pyramid builders knew the fact so well, that 
therefore they sent painfully to the Mokattam or 
Arabian hills on the eastern side of the Nile, for the 
denser limestone from there, for the outside blocks. 

VOL. TIT. E 



66 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. 1. 



And it is not a little notable, that this north-eastern 
portion of the native rock course, and which has 
only recently been disclosed by the process of dila- 
pidation — is already far more decayed than any of 
the fragments of the casing-stones found by our ex- 
ploration ; which fragments too, though now, aUd 
for the last one thousand years, buried in rubbish, 
— must have been exposed on the flanks of the 
Pyramid to the weather, for full three thousand years 
previously ; or for several times as long as this un- 
happy piece of rock-course has been visible to men. 

3cZ, The portions of standing rock thus employed 
to make up the interior substance of the Pyramid, 
though cut square and level on the upper surface of 
their terraces, are by no means also cut in every 
case coincidentally with the surfaces of the abutting 
courses of masonry ; and as the rock addition is 
only partial and accidental, while the masonry 
courses are structural and extend unbroken around, 
and as we believe through, the entire Pyramid, — 
we cannot allow the enumeration of the latter, to be 
interfered with by a casual and local feature of the 
former. Many of the data of these conclusions are 
rendered in the Photographs described in Section v. 
of vol. ii. ; and their general testimony is pictorially 
represented in Plate iii., which gives a diagonal 
sectional view of the north-east corner of the Pyra- 
mid, and shows the subservience of the rock to the 
masonry courses, at that point. 

Hence we trust there is no real error in represent- 



Vol . Ill 




W H W- F^TknvLilV Edm' 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



67 



ing the courses between the pavement below, and 
the present (a.d. 1865) platform at the top of the 
Pyramid, as 202 ; even by the French measures, and 
Mr. Lane's also. And we then have, for the vertical 
height between these two places, the following re- 
sults of different authorities : — 



Measurers. 


Date 

A.D. 


Mode of 
Measure. 


Reference. 




British 
Inches. 


MM. Jomard and Cecile, . 


1800 


Steps, 


Vol, ii. Sect. v. 


5433 


MM. Le P^re and Coutelle, 


1801 


Steps, 


Vol. ii. Sect. v. 


5435 


M. Nouet, 


1800 


f Trigono- ) 
( metry, f 


Vol. ii. Sect. v. 


5443 


Colonel Howard Vyse, 


1837 


Unknown, 


His own work. 




5409 


Mr. Lane, 


1843 


Unknown, 


( Mrs. Poole 
\ (5472-40.) 
i Alexandrian 




5432 


Mahmoud Bey, 


1862 


Barometer, 


\ Pamphlet 
( of 1865. 




5445 


C. Piazzi Smyth (April), . 


1865 


Steps, 


Vol. ii. p. 131. 




5445 


Messrs. Aiton and Inglis, ) 
(May), . . .] 


1865 


Steps, 


Vol. ii. Sect. v. 


5475 



The simple mean of all which comes out, 5440 
British inches. 



Ancient Vertical Height, 

From the present fragmentary portion of the 
Great Pyramid, to deduce the height of the ancient 
complete structure, theory must be referred to in 
some way or to some extent ; and the simplest 
idea appears to be, that the now missing portion 
was only a continuation of the present structure ; 
or, that the building was simply and altogether a 
Pyramid, but * cased' about, of course, as already 



68 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



much alluded to. Yet this conclusion has not been 
always or usually followed ; for many travellers 
have had a great fancy for mounting a colossal 
statue on the existing platform. 

After searching for their reasons, however, — they 
appear to be no other, or better, than that ' they 
' thought such a termination to the Pyramid would 

* look well ; ' or such imperfect reasoning and positive 
statements without foundation, as the following : — 

* On the top of the greatest Pyramid there was 

* anciently a statue or a colosse. This appears, be- 
' cause it is not sharp as the others, but plain ; and 

* there are yet to be seen great pits, which were to 

* keep fast the colosse from falling.' — F. Vausleb, 
1664. 

And again : — ' The other two Pyramids terminate 

* in a point, and hence 'tis conjectured, that there 
' might have been some colossus erected on this.' — 
Yeryard, M.D., 1701. 

On the opposite side, however, it is alleged by 
learned Egyptologists, that — 1st, the Egyptians never 
put their colossal statues on a height ; 2c?, no one 
ever saw a statue of any kind on the top of any 
Egyptian Pyramid ; Zd, the hieroglyphic represen- 
tations give only the mathematical form of a Pyra- 
mid, or terminate it at the top in a point ; and 4tth, 
though the topmost area now measures near 400 
inches in the side, it has been traced backwards, 
through various authors, mischiefs, and dilapidations, 
gradually decreasing in size from now up to the time 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



69 



of Pliny, when it was reported to have been only 100 
inches in side length ; and as the casing was still exist- 
ing in his day, such statement, if its measure can 
be depended upon, — indicates that the Pyramid had 
then lost only its chief and topmost cornerstone. 

Hence we adopt the Pyramidal hypothesis for 
completing the present figure of the Great Pyramid, 
as the only one at all probable ; but must steer wide 
of an error in applying it, which even so eminent an 
authority as Sir Gardner Wilkinson has fallen into, 
on p. 173 of Murray's Handbook to Egypt. For 
therein, that admirable traveller computes rigorously 
the height of the missing part required to be added 
to the present decapitated, to reproduce the ancient 
complete, Pyramid. But he computes it on the 
datum of the present length of the sides of the 
summit-platform, instead of the ancient length at 
that level, — i.e., the present quantity increased out 
horizontally at either end by the thickness of the 
casing-stones and backing-stones ; which important 
layers were once there, and must be virtually re- 
placed now, in any attempt to compute the original 
height of the monument. 

Attention to this refinement in practical construc- 
tion at the Pyramid, will fortunately be found to 
remove almost entirely, a difference to a serious 
amount between two methods of Sir Gardner's for 
arriving at the same thing, viz., the ancient height. 
For whereas on one hand he gives a computation from 
Howard Vyse's data of Pyramid base-side, and 



70 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



casing-stone angle, as making the whole height of 
the complete Pyramid 5832 inches : — on the other 
side, he computes the height of the missing portion 
at 240 inches ; and that quantity being added on to 
the same authority's measured height of the present 
platform, or 5409 inches, gives only 5649 inches fol* 
the ancient height by that method ; or leaves a 
diflference of 183 inches between the two results, — a 
difference large enough to invalidate any theory on 
which the calculations are founded. 

Better instructed, however, by his example, we now 
proceed thus : — 1st, The vertical height of the ancient, 
and complete, Pyramid, — given by the ground base- 
side = 9140 inches (seepage 136), and the angle of 
slope = 51° 51' 14" — amounts to 5819 inches. 

2d, The upper platform side of 400 inches (vol. ii. 
p. 132), increased by 200 inches, — for twice horizon- 
tal thickness of the casing-stones of old (p. 27), — 
yields, with the same angle, a vertical height of 382 
inches ; which, being added to our previous mean 
measured height of said platform, or 5440 inches 
(p. 67), gives for the ancient full height, in this 
manner, 5822 inches. That is to say, it differs by 
only 3 inches from the former result, where no part 
of the height was directly measured ; and enables 
us to state the quantity now being sought, — or the 
ancient vertical height of the Great Pyramid from 
its pavement plane upwards to its absolute apex, — 
as something that must have been very near indeed 
to 5820 British inches. 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



71 



Floors of the Chambers. 

The heights of the floors of the Queen's and 
King's chambers in the Great Pyramid, are import- 
ant theoretical quantities to have determined. But 
the only two full authorities to be referred to, are, 
Howard Vyse and Perring in 1837, and Alton and 
Inglis in 1865; for the French interior of the 
P3rramid has many glaring errors ; and my own 
measures, though taken with more care than per- 
haps any others, were not connected, for want of 
opportunity and means, with the exact features of 
the ancient outside of the building. Hence the 
numbers we here refer to are — 



Measurers. 


Date 

A. D. 


Queen's 
chamber, its 
floor above 
pavement. 


Passage 
floor. 


King's 
chamber, 
floor above 
pavement. 






British inches. 


British inches. 


British inches. 


Vyse and Perring, . 


1837 


808 


830 


1665 


Alton and Inglis, 


1865 


860 


891 


1720 



The differences of the authorities are evidently 
large ; but being in the same direction as their differ- 
ences in the whole height of the Pyramid from the 
mean of the observers, — we may expect the truth to 
lie between the two. It will be noticed also, that 
agreeably with what has been remarked on these 
chambers by other persons, each of the observers 
makes the level of one chamber very nearly half the 



72 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



height of the other ; though this approximate equal- 
ity requires the general passage floor to the Queen's 
chamber to be taken, in Howard Vyse and Perring's 
case ; but the chamber-floor itself, in Aiton and 
Inglis's. This is a difiiculty, though, which need 
not be very much dwelt on now, since both chamber 
and passage floors, as abundantly shown in vol. ii. 
p. 60, are in an unfinished and negative condition. 
Assuming, however, Howard Vyse as the correcter 
expression of the idea, — my own observations may 
be made some use of on that hypothesis, as they 
allow the difference of level of the chambers to be 
determined pretty well. 

Computing, therefore, 1883 British inches, or my 
measured length of the Grand Gallery, with an angle 
of rise of 26° 18', as observed, — we have a vertical 
height of 834 inches. To which, adding 1 inch for the 
elevation of the floor of the King's chamber above 
the great step at the head of the Grand Gallery, 6 
inches for the elevation of the step's surface above 
the southern termination of the floor slope produced 
to the south wall, and 5 inches for the southward 
dip of the reputed horizontal passage leading to the 
Queen's chamber; — but subtracting 6 inches for 
height of the north end of that passage above the 
beginning of the Grand Gallery floor, — we have, 
finally, 840 British inches. That being our result 
for a quantity, which, according to Howard Vyse, is 
repeated no less than three times in the building ; 
or 1st, from the Pyramid's pavement to the floor of 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



73 



the Queen's chamber passage ; 2d, from that level to 
the floor of the King's chamber ; and, 3cZ, from that 
to the roof of the topmost chamber of construction, 
the highest known room in the whole Pyramid. 

Hence for height of Queen's chamber passage floor, 
above pavement of the Pyramid ; we have in all, by 



British inches. 

Howard Vyse and Perring, . . . . = 8.30 

C. Piazzi Smyth, =840 

Alton and Inglis, . . . . . =891 

Mean, ..... = 854 



and for height of King's chamber floor, above pave- 
ment of Pyramid — 

British inches. 

Howard Vyse and Perring, . . . . = 1665 

C. Piazzi Smyth, =1680 

Aiton and Inglis, =1720 

Mean, =1688 

To which we may add, that the height of the roof 
of Campbell's chamber, — the angular-roofed topmost 
chamber of construction above the King's chamber 
floor, — is at the height above the Pyramid pavement 
of, not the 2496 as given by Colonel Howard Vyse, 
but more probably, 2540 British inches. 

Similarly also, the roof of the subterranean 
chamber will be depressed, not 1088, but more 
nearly 1112 British inches ; and its floor, with the 
Colonel's given wall-height of 138 inches, will be, 
not 1226, but 1250 British inches below the 
Pyramid pavement. But then, again, that wall- 
height is a special maximum in a chamber which, 
though its roof is level and truly rectangular, its 



74 ^ WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [DIV. I. 

floor (like all the rest of the room, chiselled out of 
the solid rock) is so excessively uneven as to make 
the walls in various places of all heights from 40 
to 138 inches. (See' Plate iv.) Something more 
nearly approaching, therefore, to a mean of the 
various heights, would be safer to employ ; and as 
the quantity of 91 inches — not very different from 
a mean — is given by the very point of the floor, on 
which Colonel Howard Vyse and Mr. Perring have 
marked ' the centre of the Pyramid,' — or as being 
touched by the central vertical axis of the Pyramid 
produced downwards, — we prefer to adopt that 
height in place of 138 inches. Hence must be 
reduced our final statement for the depression of 
the floor of the subterranean chamber below the 
Pyramid pavement, from 1250, to 1203 inches. 

Fresh-water Levels, 

By an approximate hand-levelling method, I 
ascertained that ' East Tombs,' where we lived, and 
where the meteorological observations were taken, 
was about 980 inches below the pavement of the 
Pyramid; the sand-plain at the foot of the hill, about 
1400 inches; and the water in the well of King 
Shafre's tomb, about 1800 inches below the same 
datum plane in the month of February 1865. 

Next, by closer levelling with a regular surveyor's 
telescopic levelling instrument and staff", Mr. Inglis 
ascertained, in the month of April 1865, that the 
sand-plain at the foot of the Pyramid hill was 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 75 

variously between 1380 and 1460 inches beneath 
the Pyramid pavement ; that the water in the well 
of King Shafre's tomb, was at the same level as that 
in the many agricultural wells in the neighbouring 
irrigated plain ; and that such level was, 1766 British 
inches beneath the Pyramid pavement. 

In Messrs. Alton and Inglis's large MS. plans and 
sections of the Pyramid, such level is attributed to 
* the Nile yet there is reason to believe that the 
Nile itself was not measured on the occasion, but 
only believed on principle to coincide with the well- 
water near the Pyramid hill, — a hydrostatic circum- 
stance, however, by no means necessary to obtain, 
as we shall presently see. 

Thirdly, here, — but primarily in point of time, — 
Howard Vyse and Perring made many and accurate 
observations of levels in the years 1837 and 1838 ; 
arriving at some curious results too which puzzled 
themselves, and several other Egyptologists of the 
period also. These results were mainly, that at cer- 
tain seasons of the year, the well-water near the 
Pyramids was much, even many feet, above, though 
sometimes as many below, the water in the Nile, — 
down to whose very river course those gentlemen 
appear really to have carried their measures. 

But they believed on theory, that the well-water 
at the Pyramid should always coincide with the 
existing level of the Nile ; and on finding the 
well-water so much higher at times, they concluded 
rather hastily, that it must be fed by local springs 



76 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. 1. 



from the Pyramid hill. Knowing, however, that 
from the rainless character of the climate, true 
springs are unknown in Egypt, — they pounced on 
this apparent or supposed proof they had stumbled 
on, of the existence of one spring supply of water 
at the Pyramids, — as indicating the existence of a 
special phenomenon of extraordinary importance in 
the Coptic land. Sufficient, indeed, they considered, 
to explain that very strange story which Herodotus 
gathered from the Egyptian priests, about the 
shepherd Philition and his flocks being located for 
so long, and so remarkably, about the Pyramids, at 
the time of their building. 

The hydrostatic theory, however, was wrong, or 
imperfect rather, though the facts were well enough 
observed. For, on the great scale of the Egyptian 
valley, the well-water at its borders appears to be 
supplied by a slow, average effect only of saturation 
of the soil by the river; whence, time must be 
taken into account; and the greatest height of 
water in the wells, two or three miles from the 
parent stream, can only occur several weeks or 
months after the greatest height of the actual river- 
inundation. Neither is it then so marked a pheno- 
menon ; for the resistance of some miles of soil tends 
to create in the wells an approach to a mean level 
all the year through, or between high Nile, low 
Nile, and high Nile again. Hence it is easy to see, 
that the water in the wells at the Pyramids must 
be sometimes higher and sometimes lower than the 



PROP. VII.] HYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 77 

water iii the open bed of the river, nearly three 
miles off, — and yet have been all originally derived 
from thence. Add to which natural phenomenon, 
the effects among particular wells of more or less 
drawing upon them during the day, for the supply 
of some hundreds of workpeople, — and that some of 
the shafts were in the solid limestone rock, where 
the water could hardly get in at all, while others 
were in porous rubbish ; — and then the anomalies 
nearly vanish. Wherefore we may condense the 
Colonel's observations as follows, and consider them 
in so far, as very useful and well-observed facts : — 

British inches. 

Sand-plain near the Pyramids, below the pavement of 



the Great Pyramid, ..... from 1500 

to 1536 

High Nile level in October 1838 (above the average), . 1647 

High Nile level in October 1837 (below the average), . 1714 
Well-water in June 1837, in shaft No. 3, one of many 

such wells, 1755 

Well-water in October 1838, in same shaft, . . . 1779 

Mean Nile level in 1838, 1796 

„ in 1837, 1805 

Low Nile level in June 1837, 1896 

„ „ in June 1838, 1945 



It is observable here, that the high Nile of 1838, 
which Colonel Howard Vyse describes as above the 
average, has barely the height above the previous 
mean Nile, — of what other authors, as Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson and Mr. Lane, — both of them with larger 
and more varied Egyptian experience, — attribute 
to an ordinary rise of the river at Cairo ; neither are 
the low Niles by any means so low, as those observed 
by the French savants from 1798 to 1801. 



78 WHAT AEE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



We shall not be far, however, from the truth, if 
we combine all the results (see the French measures 
in vol. ii. Section v.), and consider for the year 1865 



that the following levels hold good : — 

British inches. 

East Tombs station, below Pyramid pavement, . = 980 

Sand-plain, in parts, ...... = 1400 

Do. in other parts, .....= 1500 

Ordinary high Nile in October, . . . , = 1C50 

Well-water near the Pyramid in April, . , = 1780 

Ordinary low Nile in June, . . . . = 1950 



These three last levels, however, vary progres- 
sively with long continued time ; for, according to 
the very sure testimony of Sir Gardner Wilkinson 
and the monuments, — the bed of the Nile, as well as 
the surface of the irrigated land, goes on elevating 
every year by deposited matter, to the extent of 
about 4*0 or 4*5 inches for each hundred years near 
this part of Egj^t ; or from 160 to 180 inches in 
four thousand years. A period this, taking us back 
to a very remote date, but which we may have to 
deal with on paper, and when the fresh-water levels 
quoted, were a large number of inches lower than 
they are now. 

Sea-water Level, 

The Pyramids are distant about ninety miles 
direct from the Eed Sea ; and one hundred and ten 
miles direct from the Mediterranean, but one hun- 
dred and fifty along the course of the Nile. Eecent 
levelling operations having shown the identity of 
the mean levels of the two seas, — we can turn our 



PROP. VII.] IIYPSOMETRICAL DATA ? 



79 



attention to the Mediterranean alone, in attempting, 
from the length of course and character of the Nile, 
to estimate both seas' depression below the Pyramid 
base. To this end, we have to deal with the river, 
not when in flood and violent current, but rather at 
low Nile, when its stream is more regular ; though 
still very notable, as indicated by trafficking boats 
being wafted along by the current against any, 
but the strongest, winds blowing in the opposite 
direction. 

What is the fall, then, per mile on the surface of 
the water in the river for the last one hundred and 
fifty miles of its course ? 

For the mean distance between Assuan and Rosetta, or 720 miles, 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson says about, per mile, . . = G inches. 

And Professor Chaix, about . . . . . = 5*8 „ 

From the Nilometer at Rhoda, when the Nile was at 
its lowest in 184C, to Tineh on the Mediterranean, 
according to M. Talebot, were 554 inches of fall, 
equal, on 150 miles, to 3 7 per mile. (This result was 
kindly communicated to me by Mr. Samuel Birch 
of the British Museum, from the late Leonard 
HoTiier^ 8 l^SLl^er in the Philosophical Transactions), . = 3'7 

' Cairo ' is stated by Russegger to be 780 inches above ) ^ ^ 
the sea-level, per mile of distance, . . ) ~ " 

The Rhine faUs in the last 300 miles of its course, per 

mile, .........= 4'0 ,, 

And the Thames from Chertsey to Cheddington, per 

mile, . . . . . . . . . = 17*5 ,, 

From all these particulars we may pretty safely 
take for an ordinary low Nile, 4' 2 inches per mile, 
on 150 miles, — or, 630 inches. Which, being added 
to 1950, or the previously stated level of such Nile, 
gives 2580 British inches, as the depression of the 



80 



WHAT ARE GREAT PYRAMID'S [dIV. I. 



sea-level below the Pyramid pavement for the epoch 
A.D. 1866. 

But was this element different in amount, four 
thousand years ago 1 On one side we have our own 
observed fact of a dip of the Pyramid pavement 
south and east ; also a generally believed in, slow 
sinking of the Delta region of the Nile ; and a pro- 
bable alteration of the agricultural physical aspects 
of upper Egypt, by the escape of the waters of 
the Great Ethiopian lake of William Osburn, sub- 
sequent to the epoch of the Pyramid's building. 
But, on the other side, the apparent dip of the 
Pyramid pavement in one direction, may have been 
caused by an elevation of it in the other, — making 
no difference in the hypsometric position of the 
centre ; even as the sinking of the Delta region, 
is said to be at least made up for in the intervening 
country, by a rise of the land near Suez ; while 
a bursting of the supposed Ethiopian lake may 
be attributed to many other more likely causes, 
than a large alteration of the levels in the Pyramid 
region. 

Altogether then, the historical evidences may be 
certainly considered to imply, that the change, if 
any, in relative level of sea and Pyramid base dur- 
ing the last four thousand years, must have been 
very small ; and the same idea is given by our 
Plates II. and x., representing John Taylor's theory, 
as extended by myself, to meet the positions of the 
several passages in the Pyramid. 



PROP. VII.] HYP90METRICAL DATA ? 



81 



When last referring to Plate ii., we contented 
ourselves with computing the angles resulting there- 
from ; but let us now calculate the lengths of the 
several lines concerned, viz., thirds and fourths of 
the semi-side of the central square there depicted ; 
the data for calculation being, — the angles already- 
assigned, — and, the number of 9140 British inches 
elsewhere concluded to be the closest measured ap- 
proach to the length of one side of the Pyramid's 
base, or the line B D in Plate ii. 

Had the sea-level been the only hypsometric 
quantity successfully approximated to by the hypo- 
thesis, I would not have called attention to the 
circumstance ; but we have also, — and in addition 
to the whole height of the Pyramid, — the levels 
of the topmost construction chamber, the King's 
chamber. Queen's chamber, subterranean chamber,* 
and the ancient well-water, all closely represented ; 
as will be evident from the following tabular state- 
ment, both of practically measured, and theoreti- 
cally computed, hypsometric values : — 

^ This chamber exhibits the largest difference found anywhere, 
between theory and observation ; equal to 87 inches on a run of 1200 
inches. But that is rather the necessary consequence of the residual 
practical anomaly or correction introduced by the builders, in that 
— for some reason not hitherto explained, or even suspected, by any 
modern author, — they ceased the dip of the entrance passage, and 
made it nearly horizontal for a short distance before reaching the 
subterranean chamber. And yet, it is possible that an important 
reason, both symbolical, and structural, may appear in our next divi- 
sion of this volume. (See Plate iv.) 



VOL. III. 



F 



82 MATERIALS OF [dIV. I. 



Hypsometric Table op the Great Pyramid. 



^£111163 of Purts dlludccl to. 


Letters in 


Observation. 


Theory. 








Plate II. 


Measured 
Quantities. 


Computed 
Quantities. 






British inclies. 


British inches. 


Ancient height of Pyramid, 


A C 


-1-5820 


+ 5819 


Present height, a.d. 1865, 




+ 5440 




Outcrop of air-channels on ) 
ancient surface, . . 




+ 3230 




... 


... 


Arab's half-way corner niche, (?) 


... 


+ 3203 




Roof of topmost construction ) 
chamber, ... J 


C I 


+ 2540 


+ 2578 


Floor of King's chamber, . 


C V 


+ 1688 


+ 1719 


Floor of Queen's chamber pas- ) 


c u 


+ 854 


+ 860 


sage, .... J 






Pavement of Pyramid, 


D C B 








East Tombs meteorological sta- ) 
tion, .... ( 




- 980 




Mean floor of subteiTanean ) 
chamber, ... ) 


CZ 


-1203 


-1290 


Sand -plain, east of Pyramid-hill, 




-1450 




Present well-water level, . 




-1780 




Ancient well-water level, . 


c z' 


-1950 


- 1934 


Sea-level present and ancient, . 


C K 


-2580 


-2578 



PROPOSITION VIII. 

MATERIALS OF THE GREAT PYRAMID ? 

After the frequent mention in vol. i., of the 
materials met with in and about the Pyramids, and 
the further description of hand specimens in vol. ii. 
Sect, v., little more notice of that subject would seem 
to be necessary here ; especially as the natural sub- 
stance in which nearly pure geometric forms have 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



83 



been executed, can be of no importance dwectly to the 
theory of them, — though of some indirect influence 
touching both the lasting powers of the monument 
they compose, and a few other questions connected 
with its human history and interests. The present 
is, however, the appropriate portion of our book, 
wherein we are bound to bring before our readers' 
attention, and against our own observations, any 
and every antagonistic statement that can be found, 
— if it can only claim the smallest respectability of 
origin, or be likely, in the present educated day, to 
claim a single believing soul on its side. And we 
make this proviso, because, there have been some 
things hastily written about the Pyramids in 
mediseval times, — as * that the Pyramids were built, 

* not by men, but by fallen angels, for they only 

* could have moved stones four hundred feet long,' 

* etc. etc., — which no one would thank us now for 
occupying their time with : especially too, when 
some of those things were written with reference 
to features, where the several sets of measured num- 
bers which we have brought together in vol. ii., con- 
tain their own internal evidences, and are capable 
of giving up a silent story of proof to all reflecting 
readers, more convincingly than any verbal attempt 
of ours could speak for them. 

But advanced, as we now are, to some special 
subjects beyond the bounds of numerical demon- 
stration, — we must here request indulgence for some 
extent of mere speech, in order to set forth in their 



84 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. T. 



true colours a few of the extraordinary things which 
a student of Pyramid literature, even in the plain- 
sailing department of * materials/ may still expect 
to find by his wayside ; and in such a position, or 
brought there by men with such authority, that 
they cannot be passed over altogether unnoticed. 

Composition of the Pyramid Hill. 

We have abeady stated, as one of the broadest- 
based foundational truths of the region, that the 
Pyramid and neighbouring hills are composed of 
limestone full of fossils, and without any trace of 
igneous or metamorphic action of any kind or 
degree ; to the utter impossibility, therefore, of 
certain published theories, as to Egyptian Pyramids 
being always formed around basaltic protrusions of 
rock. But, to our great surprise, having met since 
then with an officer from India, employed for many 
years in that Peninsula on geological surveys, he 
spoke with the greatest confidence of the 'trap 
'dykes' on the Great Pyramid hill. He had seen 
them himself, ' when he visited the Pyramid on his 
' way home from India, and there was no doubt 
' about the matter ; for they, the trap dykes, were 

* cropping out on the eastern edge of the hill 

* through the other strata and the sand ' ! 

* Were they standing up, then, as planes or walls 
' of rock above the surface ? ' we asked. 

*Not exactly,' he replied; 'the chief plane or 

* dyke that had once stood up was now lying in 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



85 



* pieces 171 situ at the foot of the hill ; but the case 

* was nevertheless perfectly clear, for the dyke 
' appeared again higher up the hill ; a regular 

* greenstone dyke, such as every geologist would 
' distinguish in a moment, and at any distance, from 

* limestone !' 

* Had he judged of it from a distance, or by going 

* to the place and tracing the vein of greenstone 

* material in contact with the beds of limestone V 
we again inquired. 

' Oh ! only at a distance,' responded he ; * in fact, 
' he did not leave the usual road by which all visitors 
' ascend the hill, to the Pyramid ; but the notable 

* elevation of that road had enabled him to see these 

* evident traces of igneous rock, just a little way off, 

* to his left hand'! 

' Then, now, I know precisely what you are allud- 

* ing to,' I was enabled to reply ; * viz., to the black 

* basalt stones which do appear two or three times 

* in a line straight eastward from the Pyramid 

* down the side of its hill to the plain, and on a 

* track only a few feet south of the visitors' road of 
' ascent. But I have been amongst those stones often, 

* and turned many of the smaller ones over, and 

* found them to be only loose masonry blocks 
' brought from elsewhere ; and now to be seen on 

* that spot, as having once formed there some part 
' of a well-shaped building ; perhaps a tramway ; 

* and even still showing a carefully prepared, if 

* not also polished, surface on one side, and some- 



86 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. I. 



* times even on two adjacent sides meeting at a 

* particular angle/ 

After this, the officer admitted 'that he might 

* have been mistaken on the subject of natural 

* dykes ; though, as for the materials of the stones 
' he saw, being igneous rock, — what he was now 

* told, proved that he had not been deceived there ; 

* and so he felt sure at the time/ 

Internal Substance of the Great Pyramid. 

The plain and simple account by Howard Vyse 
and Perring, who excavated extensively in various 
parts of the Pyramid, is, — that excepting a small pro- 
portion of the rock of the hill left standing,^ and the 
granite linings in and near the King's chamber, with 
a few others, — all the rest of the Pyramid substance 
is built of rectangular blocks put together by masons' 
art, and in a limestone material. This material is also 
stated to be generally the product of the Pyramid 
hill ; but occasionally, the denser rock of the table- 
lands on the eastern side of the Nile, — and distin- 
guishable still, not only by that greater density, 
freedom from nummulites, and uniformity of con- 
sistence, — but by quarry-marks, more or less legible, 
in red paint, being usually found on the imder or 
inner sides of the blocks formed out of it. 

Fully confirmatory of every item in this account 
were all my experiences, so that I had considered it 

^ * Averaging 8 feet in height over the whole base of the Pyramid,' 
they say ; i.e., 8 feet only out of the whole height of nearly 490 feet. 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



87 



to have disposed for ever of all the talk of some men 
about white marble ; of others, that Herodotus's 
bringing stone from the Arabian hills was nonsense 
and supererogatory, because the Pyramid hill could 
furnish plenty of the same sort ; and of others, that 
there had been no large amount of building of any 
kind, because the P3rramids were merely hills 
trimmed down where they stood. 

But errors, as well as truths, have much vitality ; 
and this last notion has recently been produced 
again with such effect, as to have appeared in more 
than one shapely book ; and not unfrequently to have 
been flung at ourselves in conversation, as being 
something we could not gainsay. An eminent con- 
tractor for the execution of first-class earth engineer- 
ing works, has recently declared — so these authorities 
aver — that the Great Pyramid 'was never con- 
' structed,' — a sounding phrase, even a signal flag to 
fight under ; and meaning, the technicality of the 
words being interpreted, that the Pyramid was not 
built by masons, but banked up or dug away by 
navvies and quarrymen. 

Well, the engineers of the present day, and con- 
tractors too, are a wonderful class ; and have a right 
to be heard on the modus operandi of ancient 
works, either of architecture or engineering. But 
what are the proofs of their new battle-cry, ' The 
* Great Pyramid was never constructed'? 

These two, according to themselves — 1st, the 
ground around the Pyramid looks as if it had been 



88 



MATERIALS OF 



[DIV. 1. 



excavated ; and, 2d, one of these able contractors 
who has been twice to the Pyramid, and spent about 
three hours there each time, * is certain that the 

* ancients had no machines by which they could have 

* lifted such large stones/ 

'Is he a well-read man in ancient architectural 

* literature V asks an onlooker. 

He himself says, * Oh no ! not at all ! He never 
' reads a book in any language.' And when referred 
to the Pyramid's side, where he may see the 
masonried stones up on high, actually lifted, no 
matter how it was done, but as a proof it was done, — 
he replies, ' that is only apparent, not real, building ; 

* the stones were cut into shape on the ancient hill- 

* side up there, and left as we see them now. And 

* he will not acknowledge any difference between 

* the dense limestone from Mokattam, and the friable 

* nummulitic limestone of the Pyramid hill ; free- 

* stone all of it, he roundly declares.' 

His questioner then began with an argument of 
power : — ' You say those stones on the Pyramid 
' side were not lifted up there, because no machine 

* known to the ancients was strong enough to lift 

* such heavy blocks ; and as they are of limestone, 

* and the whole hill is of limestone, you hold they 

* must have been portions of a high original hill 

* trimmed into shape in situ. Vastly bigger, how- 

* ever, and heavier too, than any of these limestone 
' blocks you see, — are the granite blocks in and about 

* the King's chamber ; and as they could not have 



PROP. VIII.] 



THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



89 



' formed part of a limestone hill, they must have 

* been lifted up by human agency to occupy their 

* present well-built, and well-devised, positions. So, 

* if the heavier blocks were lifted, why not the 
'lighter?' 

But this pointed shot fell harmless off the con- 
tractor, like a mustard-seed from the sides of a 
rhinoceros ; for he answered with amazing aplomb, 
' That's not granite at all in the King's chamber, it s 

* all concrete, — a mixture that was carried up in 

* little basketsful at a time, and then cast in a mould.' 

* Not granite !' gasped the questioner ; ' why, look 

* at this specimen of the mineral : it was picked up 

* outside the Pyramid, as being almost exactly of the 

* same order as the walls of the King's chamber !' ^ 

' Oh! that's granite, of course,' said the contractor, 
taking the specimen in his hand, and turning it over 
and over jauntily ; * but that's not the walls of the 
' King's chamber. Have you seen Pompey's Pillar 
' at Alexandria ? No, you haven't. Well, I thought 

* so ; and it's a pity you haven't, because there you 

* would find the whole tiling most completely proved 

* to your own and everybody's satisfaction. There 

* are some marks made on Pompey's Pillar by cannon- 
' balls at the siege ; and wherever one of them has 

1 Neither in this conversation nor elsewhere in this work, have the 
mineralogical differences of granite, syenite, and syenitic-granite been 
taken into account ; for, as regards architecture, granite is the well 
understood term that includes all three ; and all three are, for the 
l)urposes of a mason, so nearly similar to each other, and entirely 
removed from soft Umeatone. 



90 



MATERIALS OP 



[div. 1. 



* struck and torn up the surface, you can see quite 

* plainly that it 's all concrete inside, and nothing 
' else. All cast in moulds ; though men who look 

* at the outside only, are always raving about the 
' beauty of the granite shaft, forsooth!' 

' And you formed all that idea for yourself,' asked 
the other ; ' didn't get it out of any book V 

' Haven't I told you I never read any books V 
returned the contractor. 

' Yes, I remember now, that you said so,' replied 
his questioner ; ' but it is so very strange to find an 

* old idea exactly repeated in modern times. For 

* this is how a writer expresses it in 1702 ; the 
' quotation beginning at the middle of a paragraph 

* at the foot of page 202, thus — 

* " The only entire pieces that have escaped the common fate 

* of the rest, are the column of Pompey, and four obelisks of 

* granite. 'Tis said the first was erected by Caesar, to the 

* memory of Pompey : some think it a kind of marble, but others 

* incline rather to believe that 'twas built of melted stone, cast in 

* moulds upon the place. The latter opinion seems most pro- 

* bable, for there is not the least piece of that stone to be found 

* in any part of the world, and the pillar is so prodigiously big and 

* high, that it could hardly be erected without a miracle. I 
' know 'tis alleged by those who believe the story of the Rhodian 

* colossus, that the ancients had the advantage of admirable 

* machines to raise such bulky pieces ; but I sliould reckon my- 

* self extreamly obliged to these gentlemen, if they would show me 

* any probable reason why among so great a variety of Egyptian 

* monuments of antiquity there is not one of marble ; and by 

* what unaccountable accident the stone called granite, which 

* was then so common, is now grown so scarce, that the most 

* curious enquiries into the works of nature cannot find the least 

* fragment of it, that was not employed in ancient structures. 



N 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



91 



' And even though I should suppose, with my adversaries, that 

* the quarries out of which this stone was dug were by degrees 

* so entirely exhausted, that there is not the least footstep of 'em 

* left ; and that Nature herself has lost so much of ancient vigour 

* and fecundity, that she is not able to produce new ones ; I may 

* still be allowed to ask why granite was only used in obelisks 

* or columns of a prodigious bigness : for if it were really a sort 
^ of stone or marble, I see no reason why we might not find small 

* pieces of it, as well as joorphyry, and other precious kinds of 

* marble. These reflections, in my opinion, may serve to confirm 

* the hypothesis of those who believe that all these admirable 

* monuments were actually cast in a mould : and if they would 

* take the pains to view this column attentively, they would soon 

* be convinced by the testimony of their own eyes, that 'tis only 

* a kind of cement composed of sand and calcined stone, not unlike 

* to mortar or lime, which grew hard by degrees. I will not 
' pretend to determine by what artifice these ancient workmen 

* kept the cement from yielding or sliding till the pillar was com- 

* pleated ; though perhaps it might be probably alledged, that 

* they made a mould of stone or wood, besmeared on the inside 

* with some fat or unctuous substance, to hinder the matter from 

* sticking to its cover ; and that after the work was finished, and 

* the column almost dry, they broke the mould that preserved 
' the regularity of its figure, and kept it from falling.' 

* " This column is 80 foot high, and 24 in compass : 'tis placed 

* on a marble pedestal eight foot square, and crowned at the top 

* with a chapiter of the same granite, of which the pillar consists. 

* I know not what opinion you may have of the ancient engines, 

* but for my part I must confess, whether I consider the weight 

* or bulk of so vast a mass, I find it equally impossible to con- 

* ceive that it could be raised by the strongest and best contrived 

* machines that were ever invented." ' 

* So there/ continued the questioner to the 
modem engineering contractor, ' you have, in a book 
' printed 164 years ago, your own theory of the easy 
' formation of granite in moulds (only you must 
' remember to grease them well inside), and a 

* disbelief in the power of ancient machines to raise 



92 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. I. 



' large stones ; and all this in reference to the well- 

* known and frequently-visited Pompey's (Diocle- 
' tian s) pillar. A thing, not secluded in a dark room 

* of difficult access, like the King's chamber in the 

* Great Pyramid, but standing out in the open sun- 

* light, in a sea-port town, appealing to all observers ; 

* and those curious inquirers, would therefore have 

* long ago found out, and made patent to all the world, 

* such a flagrant case of cheating ; or, if you like, such 

* a splendid invention for imitating granite, — had it 
' really been as represented. But I rather incline 

* to think that the true difficulty to man, is not the 

* mechanical exertion of lifting a heavy stone when 
' you have got it, — but competing with Nature in 
' making a natural rock. The idea, however, that 

* men could do so, seems to have prevailed rather 

* extensively at one time, and has led to the ill- 

* treatment of other monuments besides the King's 

* chamber and cofier of the Great Pyramid ; for 

* thus the worthy Dr. Stukely is compelled to write 

* about Stonehenge, in 1740 a.d. : — 

' " Nevertheless the current of so many ages has been more mer- 

* ciful to Stonehenge, than the insolence of rapacious hands (besides 

* the general soccage brought upon the work of old) by the unac- 

* countable folly of mankind, in breaking pieces off with great 

* hammers. This detestable practice arose from the silly notion 

* of the stones being factitious. But alas ! it would be a greater 
' wonder to make them by art, than to carry them sixteen miles 
' by art and strength ; and those people must be inexcusable, 

* that deface the monument for so trifling a fancy." ' 



PROP. VIIT.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



93 



Exterior Substance of the Great Pyramid, 

Portions of Great Pyramid casing-stones which 
we have placed in the hands of a lapidary, have not 
come up to the polish of ' marble/ only to that of 
moderately hard limestone ; yet it is a nice and 
pleasant species of worked stone to handle, uniform 
in its structure, of small specific gravity, of a warm 
and rather more than a cream-colour in tint, and 
with a great adaptability to cut up into accurate 
mathematical figures, of any angle. 

But the ancient exterior surface of these speci- 
mens is found, in nine cases out of ten, to be of a 
rich brown hue, the exception being a pale blackish 
tint ; and underneath the brown colour, a thin film 
is sometimes perceivable, rather whiter than the rest 
of the stone. Altogether, the brown tint has been 
taken by many persons as the remains of paint or 
* shellac varnish / and as a proof of the lubrication 
of Pliny, meaning some unctuous coating applied 
to the stone ; though others translate the word as 
merely polished, and consider it to imply that sort 
of polishing which results from grinding, or other 
mechanical smoothing process. 

Dr. Wallace, of Glasgow, however, has found 
(vol. ii. Sect, v.) the brown material to be oxide of 
iron, and considers it to be an exudation from the 
stone. This suggestion, too, explains the similar 
browning which is found over all the tops and ex- 
ternal sides of most of the stones forming the present 



94 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. T. 



summit of the Great Pyramid ; stones from Mokat- 
tam in every instance there, though never on the 
ancient exterior surface of the Pyramid ; and there- 
fore never in a position to get part of a coat of paint 
once spread over the bevelled outside, if such a coat- 
ing was ever really applied. 

The development, however, of this outward iron- 
browning, would seem to require a long exposure to 
sun and air ; for however much of it there may be 
on the bevelled, and therefore ancient, outside of an 
ordinary casing-stone fragment, — there is none on 
the same fragment's own adjoining surfaces, if they 
formed any part of the course of masonry, and were 
in so far in an interior position. Every chipped or 
scraped surface of any of the stones still standing 
in situ, as those about the entrance to the Pyramid, 
is furthermore lighter and lighter in colour, accord- 
ing to the recentness of the scraping. A matter 
abundantly provable by the dates attached to the 
names of travellers, in the label spaces which they 
have often prepared for themselves by scraping; 
and which, in photographs of the cyclopean blocks 
placed en decharge over the entrance, — appear like 
so many white paper patches on the brown stone ; 
while Dr. Lepsius's inscription to the late King of 
Prussia, looks like the large advertising-bill of some 
unscrupulous trader. The untouched parts, there- 
fore, of these inclined blocks, are decidedly brownish ; 
and if not of the full casing -stone, or topmost stone, 
hue, — it is because they have not the same unmiti- 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



95 



gated exposure to sun and wind, on account of their 
position in a hollow on the northern side of the 
Pyramid ; and it was on that flank of the building 
alone, that several casing-stone fragments were found 
by us with their original outside surface, occasion- 
ally, not brown, but pale black. Another exudation 
of the stone, however, there is, which seems notably 
to require darkness, quiet, and want of change of 
air for its manifestation, viz., the salt. 

Salt inside the Pyramid, 

This substance is so abundant, i.e., in dense plates, 
an inch thick often, in the horizontal passage and 
Queen s chamber, — and so scanty ever3rwhere else, — 
that the Arabs believe, both that it exists nowhere 
throughout the Pyramid except in these two named 
localities ; and that it is to be found there, simply 
because the builders put such *salt stones' into 
that particular department of the building. Yet 
there are incrustations of salt in large superficial 
extents, though to small thickness, developed on the 
walls of the Grand Gallery. 

Similar incrustations, too, are to be seen on the 
horizontal part of the entrance passage and the 
walls of the sepulchral chamber of the second Pyra- 
mid, — though greatly reduced from their appearance 
when Belzoni entered it, some seven hundred years 
after its last mediaeval visitors had left ; for he then 
found incrustations, or rather exfoliations, more like 
* endive leaves, and several inches long,' where now 



96 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. T. 



they are to be measured only by tenths of inches. 
Yet in every case, the material comes out of the 
wall with curving fibres, as if it were a viscous 
substance forced out through small apertures with 
enormous pressure ; and it is still coming out, as 
proved by its decorating recent scratched figures. 
This fibrous aspect, appears to have been well 
noticed by Mr. W. E. Wilde,^ who, speaking of 
similar saline formations in the chambers of con- 
struction in 1837, — or the very year of the discovery 
of those rooms by Colonel Howard Vyse, and there- 
fore before they were blackened by the smoke of 
visitors' torches, — describes what he saw as * a re- 

* markable incrustation of a shining white, curly, 

* and crystalline substance, not unlike the moss 
' called ursnea barbata covering some of the trees 

* in Madeira. It is found in little bunches on the 

* roof, and as it is a substance, not, that I am aware 

* of, as yet accurately described, being generally 
' supposed to be nitrate of potash or saltpetre, it 
' has been subjected to chemical analysis by my 

* friend, Professor (since Sir Eobert) Kane, and 
' found to be common salt, chloride of sodium, 
' He states to me that its occurrence in this form is 

* of considerable interest, as it illustrates the man- 
' ner in which some species of the alum family 

* assume the curious fibrous and contorted figure 

* of these specimens. A question of exceeding 
' interest here presented itself, — how did it get 

^ Narrative of a Voyage to Madeira, TeneriffCy etc. Dublin, 1840. 



'11 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



97 



' into and crystallize on the sides of these chambers ? 
' Three modes of resolving the problem have oc- 

* curred to me : either that the granite (?) itself 

* was filled with this substance in its original bed, 
' and that it oozed out and crystallized in this 

* curious form afterwards ; or that the atmosphere 

* from the desert, where salt is found (as it is in 
' the neighbourhood), becoming impregnated with 

* fine and impalpable saline particles getting into 

* the interior of the Pyramid, so encrusted it as I 
' have described, although we know that for cen- 

* turies there was no apparent inlet for it ; or, 

* thirdly, that it was used in some of the mystic 

* rites that were of old practised in the lower 
' chambers, and, being carried up in the form of 

* vapour, cooled and crystallized in the upper apart- 

* ments. But, at the same time, I must acknow- 

* ledge that none of these modes satisfy me as to 

* the way in which this salt was formed.' 

That the salt is almost entirely common salt, or 
chloride of sodium, Dr. Wallace's recent analysis 
confirms the older ; and that one, if not the only, 
origin for it, is its original presence in the material 
of the Pyramid (not the granite indeed, on which I 
have never seen any trace of the salt, but the lime- 
stone), — is also shown by his analysis of the num- 
mulitic lime-rock of the Pyramid hill, and the shell 
limestone of the southern hill : as well too as by 
my own late finding, that the recently cut and 
polished specimens of the Great Pyramid casing- 

VOL. III. G 



98 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. I. 



stones, after being put away for a few months in a 
closet, are quite salt to the tongue. 

But that^ I must confess, does not of itself ex- 
plain why there should be twelve times as much 
salt found in the construction of the stone forming 
the lining of the Queen's chamber, as in any other 
part, of the Pyramid, or Pyramid hill, yet examined. 
So that the question may still be opened up, as to 
whether the Pyramid builders used this very salt- 
stone for the Queen's chamber and its passage, 
through accident, or design. Unless the following 
suggestion should be deemed of weight, viz. : — That 
there is a tendency of the salt contained in all the 
mass of the Pyramid, to crystallize out towards, and 
into, any internal void ; and that the product goes on 
increasing therein, if there be no ventilation. Co- 
incidently with which idea, it should be remembered, 
that the Queen's chamber is absolutely without 
visible ventilation, — forming, as it does, a cul-de-sac 
out of the line of the passage leading to the King's 
chamber, with its peculiar air-tubes ; the Queen's 
chamber, moreover, being conspicuous in most 
travellers' accounts from the time of Sandys and 
Greaves downwards, for its ' noisome savour and 
' grave-like smell forcing a quick retreat.' 

Mortar of Great Pyramid. 

From a paper,^ by William Wallace, Esq., Ph.D., 
of Glasgow, to whom two specimens of Great Pyra- 

^ Chemical News for April 1865, p. 185. 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



99 



mid mortar, one from the interior, the other from 
the exterior of the structure, had been furnished by 
William Clarke, C.E. — the following analysis is 
taken : — 





Interior. 


Exterior. 


Sulphate of lime, hydrated. 


81-50* 


82-89* 


Carbonate of lime, .... 


9-47 


9-80 


Carbonate of magnesia, 


•59 


•79 


Oxide of iron, ..... 


•25 


•21 


Alumina, ...... 


2 41 


300 


Silicic acid, ..... 


5-30 


4-30 


* Water by actual estimation. 


99-52 


10099 


16-66 


17^38 



Both varieties of mortar being described as appear- 
ing, * a mixture of plaster of a slight pinkish colour, 
' with crystallized selenite or gypsum,' — I should 
be inclined to say, that Mr. Clarke had not secured 
any of the more precious milk-white cement of the 
finishing blocks of the interior, — but only some of the 
ruder cement of the masonry courses. This, too, is the 
same in every part of the Pyramid, and has just the 
pink aspect ascribed to it, together with a variety of 
little particles and lumps, — all under the size of a 
small pea ; and in colour, chiefly brown, red, and 
white. A portion of this sort of mortar, of my own 
gathering, which I recently transmitted to Dr. Wal- 
lace, he describes as identical, chemically, with what 
he had previously examined. 

Hence the above analysis represents the mortar of 
all the chief mass of the Great Pyramid structure, 



100 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. I. 



and shows it to be different from ancient Phoenician, 
Greek, and Roman mortars, — perhaps all mortar, in 
consisting almost entirely of sulphate of lime ; and 
having little or nothing of the carbonic acid with 
lime, silicic acid and sand which abound in them. 
This characteristic fact of Pyramid mortar seems to 
have been first discovered by Dr. Wallace, through 
means of genuine chemical examination ; and ap- 
peared to him so unusual, that he was not a little 
interested to receive from me afterwards some 
specimens of rock, as well as loose crystals picked 
up near the Pyramids, and which he then ascertained 
to be * sulphate of lime, very 'pure! 

Diorite. 

The stone which I have called diorite, and which 
Dr. Wallace looks on rather as a * hornhlendic quartz- 
' ite,' is apparently the same as that forming the 
statue of King Shafre in the Museum of Boolak ; 
and is abundantly distinguishable to the most com- 
mon observation from the black or blue basalt, and 
greenstone of all varieties in size of grains, found 
lying in fragments on various parts of the Pyramid 
hill. But it is the occurrence of chips of the diorite (?) 
amongst the ancient rubbish north of the Great Pyra- 
mid, to which I would now call attention, — for no 
presently existing part of the Pyramid is constructed 
in this material ; and there is much uncertainty as 
to whence so remarkable a mineral was brought. 

The Arabs always say, with every strange stone 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



101 



they are asked about, * From Upper Egypt but 1 
have not met with a single man, either Arab or 
European, who has seen it there in situ ; and the 
coloured plates of minerals from Assouan in the 
great French work, do not contain anything at all 
resembling it ; so that the question would seem to 
be still an open one. 

There are likewise, some similar questions, yet to 
be settled finally, as to the Sinaitic or Syene-itic 
derivation of the Great Pyramid s red granite. 

Granite. 

Hence, a little more about granite, but upon a 
new accusation, must really be requested of our kind 
readers patience. The extract which we formerly 
gave, p. 90, indicates the scanty knowledge of this 
lordly mineral possessed by Europeans in recent 
ages ; and the mystical impossibilities, therefore, 
attached to it. In the present day, when the quar- 
ries of Aberdeen and St. Petersburg have enabled 
all men to talk quite glibly about * red granite,' — 
even *as maids of thirteen do of puppy- dogs,' — we are 
rather surprised at the laborious phrases with which 
the learned Dr. Clarke found himself obliged to con- 
vey to his readers, of only sixty years ago, — a notion 
of the sort of substance he was speaking of; but 
had to make plain to them in the following round- 
about manner : — ' By Greaves Thehaich marhle 
' is to be understood that most beautiful variety 
' of granite, called by Italian lapidaries, granito 



102 



MATEKIALS OF 



[div. I. 



' 7VSS0 (see Forbes' Travels, p. 226, London, 1776), 

* which is composed essentially of feldspar , of quarts, 

* and of mica. It is often called Oriental granite, 

* and sometimes Egyptian granite, but it differs in 
' no respect from European granite, except that the 
' red feldspar enters more largely as a constituent 
' into the mass than is usual in the granite of 
' Europe. The author has seen granite of the same 

* kind, and of equal beauty, in fragments, upon the 

* shores of the Hebrides, particularly at Icolmkill/ 

Yet, was Dr. Clarke quite right in his day, to 
take so much pains ; and had he lived now, he 
might not have found his task everywhere quite 
finished ; for thus, an English visitor, — a graduate 
of the University of Cambridge, and bearing a 
name respected in science, — remarked to us in our 
dining-room tomb, at East Tombs, Pyramid hill, 
with the petrified nummulites staring him in the 
face, — 'What an interesting granite cave you are 
' living in here ! ' And again, divers recent travellers 
have spoken of the entrance passage of the Great 
Pyramid, being lined with granite; when there is 
nothing but soft limestone there to be seen. The 
excuse may perhaps be made for these gentlemen, 
that they did not try the hardness ; and only looked 
at a distance to the corrugated surface of weathering, 
more or less blackened by smoke, and rubbed for 
ages on the points of the corrugations by passing 
Arabs in greasy clothing ; which gives occasionally, 
with the assistance of chance drops of wax from 



PROP. VIII.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



103 



flaring candles, a very peculiar mottled appear- 
ance. 

What shall we say, however, of a literary man, 
who has been often and long in Egypt, — has written 
many books upon it most learnedly ; has excavated 
at the Pyramid hill ; and, through means of broken 
pieces of the limestone, has seen beneath the cor- 
rugated, parti-coloured exterior surface, — witnessing 
there only the soft, white, uniform powdery character 
of the interior of Mokattam blocks, — and persists, 
nevertheless, ' that it is all granite ! ' 

* Impossible might any one well exclaim; and 
yet here is the fact : — 

' Another point also regarding the Pyramid of Suphis, seems 

* to require explanation. It is the generally received opinion, 

* that the Pyramid was originally covered with a casing. . . . The 

* researches of Colonel Vyse, and Lepsius, led them to the con- 

* elusion, that the casing-stone was of limestone of Tourrah 
' (Mokattam). We are compelled to say that such is not our 

* impression. In the course of repeated visits to Jeezeh, includ- 

* ing a residence there for a time, it occurred to us, that the casing 

* had been removed from the Pyramid of Suphis at a very early 
' period, lonff before the days of Herodotus,' etc. etc. 

' We were induced by this consideration, to examine the 
' mounds of detritus, which everywhere, and to an enormous 
' depth, encumber the platform of rock on which the Pyramid 
' stands. We found they were composed all but entirely of frag- 
' ments of a grey granite, identical in appearance with that which 
' lines the inner passages and vaults. It was this circumstance 
' which forced upon us the conclusion, that the outer casing also 
' had been of the same material like that of the third Pyramid. 
' This granite was obtained, not from Syene by the Cataracts, but 
' from the Peninsula of Sinai. Accordingly Herodotus tells us 
' that Cheops brought the stone with which he covered the 
' Pyramid, from the mountains of Arabia ; an epithet not ap- 



104 



MATERIALS OF 



[div. I. 



* plicable to the limestone hills of Tourrah, which everywhere 

* overhang the Nile, and do not reach so far either northward or 

* eastward, as to be with any propriety entitled to the name of 

* Arabia. 

' The casing of the Great Pyramid, then, was of grey granite, 

* a material not to be found anywhere either in Lower or Middle 
' ^^yV^j their vicinity ; and, therefore, very valuable in that 

* country, because brought thither from a great distance. It 

* served for a series of ages as the granite quarry of Heliopolis, 
' Memphis, and other cities in the vicinity. It is, we submit, 

* thus, and thus only, that we can account for the entire and 
' early disappearance of the casing, and also for the vast and 
' deep couche of granite detritus which surrounds the Pyramid.' 

Now this author, is no other than William Osburn, 
member of the Royal Society of Literature ; and 
the work quoted from, his Monumental History of 
Egypt, published in 1854, in two large volumes 
octavo, — containing unitedly more than a thousand 
pages, and filled for the most part with admirable 
investigations and disquisitions concerning the in- 
terpretation of hieroglyphics, and their application 
towards elucidating the early history of Egypt. 
Even in this passage, too, the author shows his 
perfect honesty and loyalty, in openly stating at 
the beginniag, that the testimony of two such 
weighty authorities as Colonel Howard Vyse, and 
Dr. Lepsius, is dead against him. What, then, can 
we think of this formal declaration on his part, of 
grey granite in place of white ^ limestone ? 

At first, I hoped there might be some explanation 
under the cover of the word *grey;' which may 

1 Dry oxidated fragments seem to lose their cream-colour, and form 
powder as white as flour. 



PROP. VIII.] 



THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



105 



mean, according to the speaker, almost any tiling from 
white to black. But on p. 271 of his volume i., the 
following words of the same author settle that point, 
— when we know of how dark a chocolate colour, 
nearly black, the coffer of the Great Pyramid is, — 

* The whole interior cased with grey granite, and 

* the square inscriptionless sarcophagus of the same 
' materiaV Hence, the colour also, which Mr. 
Osburn assigns to the fragments forming the hills 
of rubbish outside the Pyramid, and lying against 
the sides of its base, — is as totally different from 
what we found it, and our photographs represent 
it, — as are their material and mineral characters. 

What, then, are we to do with Mr. Osburn's 
book? Are we to throw it altogether away from 
us, as undeserving of any confidence, because it has 
this flagrant error in a single simple matter ? No, 
certainly ; not on that account, according to any 
principles of common justice : for there is no one 
who has written yet on the Great Pyramid, who 
has not blundered at some one point or other. And 
when the writer has been a great man, — say a 
French Academician, for instance, writing down the 
depth of the cofler three whole inches too great, — 
the world has not ceased on that account to con- 
tinue to pay such great man adulation, and believe 
in all the rest of his writings as before ; especially 
if the slip should have occurred in something that 
was not his forte, or his usual subject of pursuit. 



106 



ORIENTATION OF 



[div. I. 



Now the latter characteristic appears to have 
been precisely that of Mr. Osburn and mineralogy ; 
for his main subject is hieroglyphical interpretation, 
and there he seems even to be a giant. 

But his case, as already intimated, is not a soli- 
tary one ; and the records of Great Pyramid inves- 
tigations (as these volumes will probably indicate 
before they are concluded), contain instances numer- 
ous and striking enough, — either to destroy all faith 
in the testimony of man, and to confound any com- 
puter of mathematical probabilities, — or, to lead to 
the institution of new inquiries on the admission and 
weighing of evidence : either one result, or the other,: 
according to the nature of each recipient s mind. 



PROPOSITION IX. 

ORIENTATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID ? 

Although some features of this question have 
been touched on in previous pages, yet for the sake 
of condensing all the information and depositing it 
in a part of our work appropriate for the purpose, 
and easily referred to, — we beg to wind up our 
"phenomenal Division I., with a few remarks on this 
important question of astronomical emplacement. 

A Pyramid would evidently still be a Pyramid, 
towards whatever quarters of the horizon the sides 



PROP. IX.] THE GREAT PYRAMID? 



107 



of its base were pointed. But something may be 
added to its other meanings, if one particular direc- 
tion has been selected with some trouble, out of all 
other possible ones. And that seems to have been 
the case not only with the Great Pyramid, but with 
all the other Pyramids, and most of the monuments 
round about it ; even down to the small sepulchral 
square-shafted wells, — for their sides are always 
approximately north, south, east, and west. 

This is a direction peculiar, apparently, to the 
Egyptian monuments ; for the Rev. G. Rawlinson, in 
his Ancient MonarchieSy describes all the earliest of 
the Chaldean temples (and he would place some of 
them synchronously with our date of the Great 
Pyramid), as having, not their ddes, but their angles 
pointed to the four astronomical quarters. 

With the Egyptian structures, again, their sides 
are directed, not towards those points of the ccmi- 
pass, — as runs the prevalent idea of many existing 
men, — but according to the azimuthal direction of 
the earth's axis, and a line at right angles thereto. 
What the direction of the compass was at the Great 
P3rramid four thousand years ago, probably the man 
amongst us best versed in the theory of terrestrial 
magnetism, and the rate of movement of the mag- 
netical poles, — would avoid any attempt to calculate ; 
but at present the north end of the needle on the 
Pyramid hill, inclines some 10° towards the west ; 
and as all the larger monuments are within, and 
much within, one degree of the astronomical or 



108 



ORIENTATION OF 



[div. I. 



earth's axis direction, we need not allude to the 
compass again. Neither is there occasion to refer 
to the smaller constructions ; for, unavoidable tear- 
and-wear on the stones composing them, has made 
it impossible — with their short radii — for modern 
observation to determine, whether they are, or ever 
were, once so remarkably accurate as the Great 
Pyramid has been lately proved to be. 

Many celebrated travellers and competent men, 
take the Viscomte de Eoug5 for an example, have 
spoken with admiration of the Pyramid's ' astonish- 
* ing justness of orientation and the Egyptian 
astronomer, Mahmoud Bey, has described interest- 
ingly that when he mounted, on the evening of 
March 21st, 1862, shortly before sunset, upon the 
eastern end of one of the courses of masonry on the 
north side of the Pyramid, immediately above the 
rubbish-mound, — he saw the sun apparently descend-* 
ing vertically just on the head of his friend, whom 
he had placed at the western end of the same course. 
But as these verbal terms of laudation may yet in- 
clude anything under half a degree, — the result of' 
M. Nouet, Astronomer to the French Academicians 
in 1799, giving the instrumental error of 19' 58" 
for the north end towards the west, — may be taken 
as closer ; and was even thought very close, by the 
Academy. (See p. 44.) 

My own measure, too, of the north and south 
azimuth trenches, giving 19' 14" in the same direc- 
tion, — looked very much like a confirmation of M. 



PROP. IX.] THE GREAT PYRAMID '? 109 

Nouet, touching the amount of error in the Pyramid 
as now existing. But on afterwards measuring the 
traces of the original Pyramid, and comparing them 
directly with the Pole-star, there were obtained for 
the error westward (vol. ii. pp. 190-195) — 

Of the north end of the line of the outer corners of 

north-east aud south-east sockets, west of north, . ■+ 4' 44''' 

Of west end of the line of outer corners of north-east 

and north-west sockets, + 90"^, . . . -1-4 

And of north end of entrance passage from under 

granite portcullis to mouth, . . . . -1-5 

Mean, . . = + 4' 35'' 



Now this is a remarkable result, not only for the 
very great proportional amount of reduction in the 
instrumental error previously believed in, — but in 
the consistence of all three parts of the Pyramid ; 
so that none differs more from the mean, than 35". 
Notable enough is this angular agreement if found 
in any part of the Pyramid ; and capable of proving, 
on former experience, that the builders must have 
attached extreme importance to the feature ; but 
still more notable is it, when the greater difficulties 
of astronomical, over geometrical or mechanical ob- 
servations are taken into account. All three angles 
may, however, be merely geometrical deductions 
from one and the same original astronomical obser- 
vation ; and which, if it did in this case turn out 
-I- 4' 3 5", — might, on a second attempt being made, 
have given — 4' 35", or some other largely different 
quantity. 

There is, however, as I have proved to my cost, 



110 



ORIENTATION OF 



[div. t. 



SO much difficulty in comparing the inclined and 
high entrance passage with any side of the Pyramid's 
base, — that I am rather inclined to think that two 
astronomical references by the builders are included 
in these three given features of the Pyramid. And 
the only constructional or pyramidally learned way 
that remains to mankind, of obtaining more evidence 
on the subject, is, to compare the Grand Gallery 
with the celestial Polar direction ; for the error in 
that admirable and gigantic piece of construction 
we may safely assume, as detailed on pp. 39 and 60, 
to be less, — probably much less, — than 2^ 

But how to compare the Grand Gallery with the 
stars ? At present, the three long cork-like blocks of 
the granite portcullis in the first ascending passage, 
stop the way. They cannot be pushed downwards 
into the entrance passage and so got rid of, because 
the passage tube into which they fit, contracts below 
them. But could they not be pushed upwards, and 
southwards, by a hydrostatic press acting against 
the floor of the entrance passage ? 

There would be the friction of long-cemented 
sides to overcome, as well as the weight of the 
blocks ; and besides that, the performers would 
have to consider whether, looking to the rudely and 
cruelly broken-out cavern of Al Mamoon's hole 
close by, the masonry about the portcullis region 
might not collapse, when the support of its blocks 
shall be gone. In fact this eventuality looks so 
probable, that I myself having seen the place, would 



PROP. IX.] THE GREAT PYRAMID ? 



Ill 



only now venture to propose, — that a round hole be 
bored through the portcullis blocks in situ, so that 
they might be observed through, and no more. 
Either such an operation ; or, an attempt by three 
observers and three theodolites, worked simultane- 
ously, — one in the entrance passage, one in Al 
Mamoon's hole, and one in the first ascending pas- 
sage, — to carry the angle round the portcullis blocks. 
But there is doubt, if this last operation could be 
conducted with the requisite amount of nicety. 
And even if it was ; and if those who were engaged 
in its performance, fully believed in the excellence 
of their own work, — would it equally command the 
same confidence from the rest of the world, — that a 
direct comparison of two signals at either end of 
the Grand Gallery on one side, with the Pole-star 
on the other, would be pretty certain to receive ? 



DIVISION II. 
OBJECTS OF CAUSATION. 



TIT. 



H 



' Whenever any material step in general knowledge has 

* teen made— whenever any philosophical discovery arrests 

* our attention, some man or men come hefore us, ivho have 

* possessed, in an eminent degree, a clearness of the ideas 

* %Dhich belong to the subject in question, and who have.ap- 
'plied such ideas in a vigorous and distinct manner, to 

* ascertained facts and exact observations! 

KEY. WILLIAM WHEWELL, M.A. 
History of the Inductive Scievces, p. 9, Vol. i., 1837. 



THE GREAT PYRAMID 
AS A METROLOGICAL MONUMENT. 



INTRODUCTION. 

After having shown in the course of Division i., 
the Great Pyramid's striking regularity of figure, 
perfection of workmanship, and close fulfilling of the 
requirements of a particular geometrical construc- 
tion, touching some of those very fundamental 
matters, — we are called on now to take somewhat 
higher ground : and, while discussing still further 
details of mere measures made with care on sub- 
sidiary features of the monument, — to endeavour 
to ascertain how far the numbers given by observa- 
tion either confirm or refute, certain well-known 
and long-expressed opinions before the world, — re- 
specting the reasons for such and such lengths, 
breadths, or angles having been given to particular 
parts. 

From the time of Herodotus downwards, or for 
more than two thousand years, men have been 
accustomed to talk of the Great Pyramid, and in- 
deed all the Pyramids, as tombs of kings or persons 



116 INTRODUCTION. [dIV. II. 

of kingly race. That is, most men of West-European 
civilisation have done so ; for in the East, there 
seem always to have been traditions of an opposite 
character; or as to something connected with science, 
religion, or wealth, being locked up for future gene- 
rations, and more remarkably in the Great Pyramid 
than in any other. Within the past two hundred 
years, however, this last form of belief has gained 
many supporters both in Great Britain, on the Con- 
tinent, and in America ; gradually assuming with 
them the shape of a settled hypothesis, — that some- 
how or other the Great Pyramid was intended to be 
a grand metrological, or 'weights and measures,' 
monument for mankind. Not so much though, as a 
place of frequent reference for those things, — as for 
preserving safely — during some thousands of years, 
and through all intervening revolutions of nations, 
empires, and religious creeds — the grand standards 
of metrology, true to their original settlement in old 
primeval times. For they were considered then, as 
now, to form some of the most necessary material 
means of civihsation : yea, even ' the very rules 

* whereby all men's rights and properties are set 
' forth, distinguished, and valued, the alteration 
' whereof might bring much inconvenience, with- 

* out any prospect of advantage ;' — as an anonymous 
author on the Great Pyramid wrote, in the year 
1706. 

The first dawn of this view in English literature, 
is probably contained in the works of Bishop Cum- 



DIV. II.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



117 



berland of Peterborough, a.d. 1685 ; though it there 
takes little other form than assuming, that the 
several parts of the Pyramid were regulated in size, 
according to convenient even numbers of local 
standards of measure then existing. But the sub- 
sequent anonymous author above quoted, pro- 
nounces boldly for the object of the Pyramid's 
erection having been to supply, — or commemorate 
through all time what was once supplied, — to the 
various origines of mankind, as their several weights 
and measures ; without, too, having any special con- 
nexion with what might be in vogue amongst the 
Egyptians in particular. And after having shown, 
but in a manner which he himself allows is rather 
obscure, and which I must confess myself unable to 
follow satisfactorily — that some early Saxon mea- 
sures were represented by certain proportions in the 
Pyramid, — he more emphatically adds, 'and if we 

* consider the standards of our English measures here 
' found, which you have seen, and the standards of 

* such ancient Persian, Grecian, and Roman mea- 

* sures, which you will see if you please, you will 

* find it very hard to conjecture that they were all 

* in use amongst the Egyptians.' 

A second edition of this curious and most in- 
genious treatise was published in 1745 ; and states 
in the title-page, equally with its predecessor, that 
the author was Mr. John Greaves, ' Astronomy Pro- 
fessor at Oxford.' But he died in 1652, and there 
is no trace of the work having existed before 1706 ; 



118 



■raw 



INTRODUCTION. 



[DIV. II. 



and though his, Professor Greaves*, measures at the 
Pyramid, in 1637, are the things founded on in con- 
ducting the investigation, — the conclusions, particu- 
larly the date of the Pyramid's building, are directly 
opposed to his acknowledged publications on the 
subject.* 

Metrological purposes for the Great Pyramid were 
also maintained in France by M. Paucton in 1780 ; 
and by M. Eome de Tlsle in 1789 : were much al- 
luded to by the French savants in Egypt in 1799 : 
resumed again in England by the Eev. Thomas 
Gabb in 1806 in his Finis Pyramidis; and finally 
published on by the late John Taylor in 1859 and 
1864. 

^ The title-page of the above work runs thus : — 

' The Origin and Antiquity of our English Weights and Measures 

* discovered by their near Agreement with such Standards that 

* are now found in one of the Egyptian Pyramids. Together 

* with the Explanation of divers Lines therein heretofore 

* measured. 

* By Mr. John Greaves, 
* Astronomy Professor at Oxford. 

• As also ; Some Conjectures concerning the Time when these 

' Pyramids were built ; in Answer to certain Letters, etc. 

* London : printed for G. Sawbridge at the three Flower-de-Luces 

* in Little Britain. 1706.' 

While in Professor Greaves' own works, collected by Dr. Birch, 
besides his own opinions, the following likewise appears, being quoted 
apparently with honour : — 

* For my singular good friend, Mr. John Greaves. 

* Sir, — I am more indebted to your affections, than to your judge- 

* ment in making me a censor of your learned piece. It had not per- 

* adventure been much amiss, if you had been so far at cost as to have 

* afforded us a particular topographical map of the place where these 
' inscmce suhstt-uctionum moles stand. For by that we might have been 

* able the better to have judged of the discourse of a learned gentle- 
man of Bavaria, Johannes Frederkus Her wart, who in the twentieth 



DIV. II.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



119 



Some other authors probably should be mentioned 
as having written with similar views ; but I have 
not met with any of their theories, either so original 
in their nature, grand in conception, or whose num- 
bers come by any means so close to the best Pyramid 
measures, as do the late John Taylor's ; and that sort 
of numerical agreement is, in so far as it exists at 
all, the main feature which we have to look to in 
the present department of our work. No apology 
need therefore be offered, for beginning with John 
Taylor, and giving his ideas a severer scrutiny than 
those of any other theorist. Simply, therefore, leav- 
ing his numbers to come out of such a trial brighter, 

' chapter of his Admiranda Ethnicce Theolocjice Mysterla, endeavours to 

* take off from the founders of these stupendous buildings the scandal 

* of folly and madness, which in the common judgement of the world 
' hath struck upon them ; and would persuade us, that the Pyramids 

* are monuments of the singular wisdom of the raisers of them, and of 
' wondrous use and benefit to the country, in maintaining the banks 

* of that part of the river upon which the city of Memphis stands, 

* which otherwise were in danger to be swept away by the unruly 

* eruptions of the river, if it were not checkt by these wonderful 

* structures. If your leisure will give you leave to write unto me, 

* give me your judgement upon that discourse of his. One thing I 

* miss'd in your work, which makes me suspect it is not of such 

* moment as many report, because I find not that you do it so much 

* honour as to name it ; I mean the Sphinx, which is wont to be repre- 

* sented unto us in the shape of the head and shoulders of a woman. 
' When you list to lose so much time, let me hear from you what you 

* have observed concerning that piece, if at least it yielded anything 

* worth your observation. Sir, let not the world be deceived in their 

* expectations to partake of your collections in your travels. I assure 

* myself, that as they will greatly benefit the generality, so will they 
' more particularly your true and faithful friend, 

'John Hales.' 

* From Eton College this I8th of October 1646.' 

' Commend me to Mr. Pullein, and request him to send me Philo- 

* storgius.^ 



120 



INTRODUCTION. 



[DIV. II. 



if they can, — we shall proceed forthwith to institute 
such examination, and in as impartial and even 
unsparing a mood as we can muster for the occa- 
sion. 

Etymologically, indeed, Mr. Taylor may be wrong, / 
or he may be right, in the Greek derivation of the 
word Pyramid being, not as hitherto supposed, from 
TTvp^Jire (which had made some persons look on 
monuments of that shape and name as having been 
erected by Persian fire-worshippers), but from ttu/do?, 
wheat, and fierpop, measure. Words which might be 
taken, as designating the primitive purpose for which 
weights and measures were first employed amongst 
men ; and some foundation, too, for the popular tra- 
dition, so rife in Sir J ohn Maundeville's day, of the 
Pyramids having been built by Joseph for grana- 
ries.^ Yet it matters little, we say, what meaning of 

* ' And now also I schalle speke of another thing that is beyonde 

* Babyloyne (Babyloyne the lesse, nigh the righte gret cytie of Cayre) 

* above the flode of Nyle, toward the Desert, between Afrik and Egipt 

* of Canopic ; that is to seyn the grenneres of Joseph, that he let make, 

* for to kepe the Greynes for the perile of the dere yeres. And thei 

* ben made of ston, fulle wel made of masonnes craft ; of the whiche, 

* two ben merveylouse grete and hye ; and the tother ne ben not so 

* grete. 

* And every gerner hathe a gate for to entre withinne, a lytille 

* hyghe fro the earthe ; for the land is wasted and fallen sithe the 

* gerners were made ; and withinne thei ben alle full of serpentes. 

* And aboven the Greneres withouten ben many scriptures of dyverse 

* langages ; and sum men seyn, that thei ben sepultures of grete Lords, 

* that weren somtyme : but that is not treue ; for alle the common 

* rymours and speche is of alle the peple there, both far and nere, that 

* thei ben the Gerneres of Joseph, and so fynden thei in here scrip- 

* tures and in here cronycles. . . . wherefore it is not to believe, that 
'thei ben Tombes or Sepultures.' — The Voiage and Travaile of Sir 
John de Maundeville, Kt.^ a.d. 1350. 



DIV. II.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



121 



their own language the Greeks put on the word/ 
— if its invention was long antecedent both to them 
and their nation, and had been, as said by some, 
from the earliest times recognised as a name by the 
builders of the monument; or in the ancient Coptic 
language ; and as meaning, a * division into ten ; 
* from "pyr," division, and " mc^," ten.^^ 

Now this derivation, which we first heard of in 
Cairo, and have since tested by reference to Euro- 
pean digests of the earliest Egyptian language, — is 
not only connected with the right ethnological 
quarter, — but is a much wider and more significant 
appellation for a metrological monument of the most 
scientific kind, than any of the Greek forms. It 
coincides too, in some degree, with the leading 

1 From Tvpbs, loheat, and d/xdu, to collect. — Bees' Cycl. 

From TTvpCov koI /x4\ltos, a cake of pointed figure, and sweetened wWi 
honey, as used in the Bacchic rites. — Mr. Kenrick and Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, in Rawlinson^s Herodotus. 

From the Arabic ahram, or hdram. 

From perami, ' lofty ; ' tkouglit to be the same with the Hebrew 
Charaboth, which in Job iii. 14, obviously signifies ' a sepulchre,' 
though rendered in our version 'desolate places.' — Hev. G. Trevor^ 
M.A. 

Yrom pduro, *a king;' and mist, *a race' or * generation,' in the 
Coptic language. — Wilkins, Disser. de Ling. Copt. 

The name of Pyramid in Egyptian appears to be hr-hr. — Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson. 

See also a whole essay on the derivations of the name by M. 
Jomard, in the great French work. 

2 The above words in italics are merely written down by us, rudely 
phonetic, as we heard them. But, on referring to Bunsen's Egypt's 
Place, where no such origin for the word Pyramid is hinted at, and 
where the Great Pyramid itself is positively claimed for a sepulchral 
monument only, — we have since found at p. 4/4 of the Egyptian voca- 
bulary, in vol. i., ' p^r = division ;' and again, in volume iv. p. 107, 
in the chapter on Egyptian numerals, *X (10) = Ment, met, Copt.* 



■ 



122 



INTRODUCTION. 



[dIV. II. 



mechanical features of the whole Pyramid ; which 
are, — that it is a mathematical body with five sides 
(including the base), and with five corners ; or, 
masonically, five corner-stones. 

Hence, if the metrology taught by the Great 
Pyramid is to coincide, either with its name (where 
we cannot pretend to be quite certain), or figure 
(where we are quite certain and perfectly assured 
of the facts), — we must expect to meet frequently 
with multipliers and divisors, powers and times, 
both of ten and five. That is, whenever the subject 
really admits of such numbers with advantage ; for 
there are some things to which even decimal divi- 
sion, notwithstanding all its ravishing beauties for 
many minds, cannot be applied. An example, too, 
of these inflexible subjects, is held up by the Great 
Pyramid at once to all men, and at very first sight, 
— in its vertical height, as compared with the 
length of the four sides of its base, being arranged 
with particular care to be in the proportion of the 
radius to the circumference of a circle ; two things 
which are incommensurable evenly, — not only in 
this world, but in every other throughout all the 
bounds of the Universe. 

With this proviso, we proceed at once to consider 
the several measured features of the Great Pyramid, 
in an order suited to the heads or principal natural 
divisions of any large and comprehensive system of 
Metrology. And in that spirit, have to deal first 
with — 



SECTION I. 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 

A COMPLETE system of these measures will evi- 
dently embrace cubic and superficial, as well as linear; 
but the two former being merely geometrical vari- 
ations of the last, — we have only to employ ourselves, 
so far as scientific physical standards are concerned, 
in seeking for those of linear measure. Now, such 
standards have been already looked for by many and 
many an author, in the sides of the base of the Great 
Pyramid ; even before they knew that the terminal 
points of those magnificent base-lines, had been care- 
fully marked in the solid rock of the hill, by the 
socket-holes of the builders. (Vol. i. p. 528 ; vol. ii. 
p. 134.) 

My own measures of the mere present masonry- 
courses, — correcting by estimation for the extra 
breaking away and ruin at the corners, — yielded 
about 8950 inches for the mean length of one of 
the four sides of the base, exclusive of the ancient 
casing and backing stones ; and having elsewhere 
(p. 27), elected to take 101 inches horizontal, 
for their thickness on one side, — we must add twice 
that to the above measure, — and accept 9152 inches 



124 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[dIV. II. 



as the origirital length of one side of the base of the 
finished Pyramid. But this determination is affected 
by such very large errors of observation (+50 inches 
at least) that it is not worth any attention in presence 
of measures by other men, who have operated upon 
the actual socket-marks alluded to above. 

Now the only man, who ever had the privilege of 
measuring all four sides of the Great Pyramid's base, 
between their respective corner-sockets, is my young 
friend and sometime fellow-labourer, Mr. Thomas 
Inglis, — representing for the time, Mr. William 
Alton, of Glasgow. And he (vol. ii. p. 134), made the 

North side, . . . 9120 British inches long. 

South „ ... 9114 „ 

East „ ... 9102 

And West „ ... 9102 

Mean, = 9110 

But the north side had been previously measured 
between its two sockets, by the first and always to be 
gratefully remembered discoverers of those sockets, 
viz., the French mathematicians in 1799 ; also by 
Colonel Howard Vyse and Mr. Perring ; and finally, 
by Mahmoud Bey, Astronomer to His Highness the 
late Viceroy Said Basha, in 1862.^ Some other 
names, indeed, might also be given as having 
measured from the north-east socket, — but their 
accounts are not quite clear as to what they touched 
at the north-west corner, where they seem to have 

1 VAge et le hut des Pyramides lus dans Sirius. Par Mahmoud Bey. 
Alexandria, 1865 ; but based on observations made in 1862. 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



125 



looked on the stone, — which has merely tumbled by 
accident into some part of the general area of that 
socket-hole, — as the true and veritable ancient comer 
of the Pjnramid itself. The sole authorities, there- 
fore, to be quoted, stand as follows : — 

British inches. 

North side, by French Academicians in 1799, = 9163 
„ by Colonel Howard Vyse in 1837, = 9168 
„ by Mahmoud Bey in 1862, . . = 9162 

These look fair enough by themselves, — but what 
shall we say on comparing them with Mr. Inglis's 
measure of the same side ; or of the other sides, all 
between their respective and appropriate sockets ! 
Closer together are the results, than those of pre- 
vious centuries, when they are found thus : — 

English inches. 

Professor Greaves, a.d. 1637, a side of base of Great 

Pyramid, = 8316 

Dr. Shawe, . . 1721, „ . = 8040 

Dr. Perry, . . 1743, „ . = 9360 

But a difference of 50 inches in a run of 9100, is 
far too great to be tolerated in the present day. And 
yet we suspect it will have to be borne with, until 
the long-desired open.ing-up of all four sides of the 
base, from end to end, shall be performed by some 
country, or ruler, or people. For, to demand of any 
single scientific traveller to make a correct measure 
over the hills of broken stones, as they are now, — is 
like asking a Londoner to ascertain the horizontal 
breadth of base of St. Paul's Cathedral, by measuring 
over the outside of the dome thereof But the pre- 
sent encumbrances of the ground at the Pyramid, are 



126 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[div. II. 



modern and factitious ; and the lines whose lengths 
we require to know there, were not only nicely laid 
out by the ancient builders on a level surface of 
rock all the way, — but their terminations were well 
defined, by having been neatly and deeply cut into 
the solid rock of the hill. Hence, if modern men 
have not yet ascertained the true length, it is their 
fault, rather than that of the monument, — that 
the residual uncertainties we have to deal with, lie 
among tens of inches, rather than single inches, or 
smaller portions of space still. 

From the numbers actually given above, the pro- 
babilities seem, that the northern side is rather longer 
than the others. But that may arise merely from the 
rubbish-heaps there being, as they undoubtedly are 
(see Map, Plate iii. vol. i.), steeper, more broken, 
and consequently more difficult to eliminate in their 
tendency to give an increased length to a superficial, 
over a horizontal, line. Again, one is almost inclined 
to fancy that Mr. Inglis's mode of measuring must 
have had some constant error about it, when all his 
sides come out so much smaller than one of the sides 
measured between the same marks by three inde- 
pendent observers. But we are hardly entitled, on 
that presumption merely, to give his four measures 
the weight of one only, when taking a mean 
between him and the other three observers ; nor 
yet, looking at the natural reason for some such 
presumption, can we give him the weight of four, 
where each of three good predecessors are accorded 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



127 



only one. Allowing him, therefore, the weight of 
two, — the mean of all four observers (which we may 
after that consider to approximately represent the 
length of the mean of all four sides of the Pyramid's 
base), presents the following numbers, viz., 9142 
British inches. 

Wherefore upon that foundation, derived as it is 
from the best modern measures yet made, comes the 
question — What does that definite length of base- 
side mean, or imply, as a standard of linear measure ? 

Some men, chiefly hieroglyphic scholars and general 
antiquaries, looking at the matter too much in an 
Egyptian point of view, — have pronounced rather 
hastily for the base- side representing the round 
number of 400 ancient Egyptian cubits, or of so 
many of the cubits of Memphis and the Nilometer, 
even. But as that cubit, according to Sir Isaac 
Newton, was about 20 '7 British inches in length, — 
and, agreeably with the various examples of it quoted 
by that very safe authority Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
has hardly ever, if ever, been found to vary more 
than from 20*4 to 21*0 British inches, — and by our 
own determination (vol. ii. p. 340), was more nearly 
20*72 British inches, — that gives a length at the 
utmost of 8400 inches, — which is totally impossible 
to receive, in face of 9142. 

Next came M. Paucton, in France, with his ' Me- 

* trology, or Treatise of Measures, Weights, and 

* Monies, of both Ancient and Modern Nations', — a 



128 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[div. II. 



noble quarto of 960 pages, and he a worthy man, 
publishing in 1780, with the approbation and privi- 
lege of the King. Stating, moreover, on his title- 
page, that ' God had arranged everything in measure, 

* weight, and number and giving on the reverse 
of title, six memorable quotations from Scripture, — 
showing that a care for the justness of weights and 
truth of measures was not beneath the attention of 
the Almighty in legislating for His peculiar people, 
and when granting revelations of His will for the 
instruction of all mankind.^ 

After drawing a theoretical picture of what the 
ancients might have done to preserve a knowledge of 
their measures for posterity, — Paucton takes ground 
boldly on his page 6, in stating ' that they have at 
' least done what is quite equivalent thereto. For, in 

* the first place, they have preserved their linear mea- 

* sure on a monument as durable as a monolithic 
' rock ; and, in the second place, upon a model or 
' type taken from nature, as ingenious and exact as 

* the pendulum itself, viz., a degree of the meridian.' 

This idea is further developed in his pages 1 1 to 
116, and mainly depends upon the belief or assertion 
that — 

500 times the side of the base of the Great Pyramid, 
or 20,000 times the cubit of the Nilometer, 
or 500 times a certain ' stade' measured in ' Laodicea by Mr. 
' Smith of London/ 

all mean the same things or amount to the same 

^ * Omnia in Mensur^ et Pondere et Numero disposuit Deus.' — Ex 
Libr, Sapient, xi. 21. Leviticus xix. 35-36 ; Dent. xxv. 13-17 ; Pro- 
verbs xi. 1 ; xvi. 11 ; xx. 10 ; and xx. 23. 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



129 



length ; and that length is the measure of a degree 
of latitude ; such degree being, the 360th part of a 
circle. 

Now, as Paucton's Egyptian authorities do not 
seem to ascend higher than the Alexandrine Greeks, 
or within some two thousand years of the Pyramid- 
building day, — we may well ask for some further 
proof than *the practice of Ptolemy and Theron,' 
that the Pyramid builders were accustomed to divide 
the circle into 360°. But without pressing that point 
at present, the previous statement may at once be 
settled — by comparing the attributed equality of 
the Pyramid bases' side, with 1-5 00th of such a 
degree, applied to the earth ; for the quantities 
are by modern measure, Pyramid base side = 9142, 
and 1-5 00th of degree = 8750 British inches. 

These conflicting numbers are enough, as a late 
classical friend would have said, to make poor 
Paucton turn in his grave ; for he had received some 
travellers' notes in his day, taken without reference 
to casing-stones or socket-holes either, and making 
the length of the Pyramid base side = 684*2 "pieds de 
RoiSj or 8754 British inches. Indeed, he had been 
cruelly misled about many of the Great P3rramid's 
proportions ; for, amongst other things, he was made 
to believe, that the angle of the sides with the base, 
was 54° 44' ; a monstrosity of modern European 
measure, or guess-work, long since exposed. 



A few years after M. Paucton, appeared on the 

VOL. III. I 



130 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



field, his countryman, M. de Eome de L'Isle, with 
a Metrologij, or Tables for the Understanding of 
Ancient Weights and Measures. But the times 
had then become troublous and foreboding of evil ; 
wherefore it is almost melancholy to read his touch- 
ing dedication : — 

'TO MY COUNTRY. 

* being born again under the auspices of Louis xvi., in the year 

* of grace 1789, M. Neckar being Minister of Finance, and the 

* French nation assembled for the restoration of law and public 

* credit.' 

In addition to length, surface, capacity, weight, 
and money, De Ulsle treats very properly of tinfie 
as a necessary part of metrology ; and in a rather 
long Preface, where he has some small faults to find 
with Paucton's evaluation of Greek measure, he yet 
lauds his Eg5rptian Pyramid meridian degree theory 
to the skies ; considers that its original conception 

* has a just title to rank as one of the chief works of 

* the human mind,' and he would like to see it made 
the basis of a reform of the French measures. But 
he does not add anything to Paucton's theory, nor 
correct his very large errors in the actual size of the 
Pyramid ; and therefore falls irretrievably into the 
same pit with his unfortunate predecessor, — so far 
as concerns the explaining wherefore the Pyramid 
base was made of the precise size we find it to be. 

The sage M. Jomard, the principal author of the 
Pyramidal antiquities, in the great French work 
detailing operations from 1799 to 1801 A.D., — is fully 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



131 



as enthusiastic as any of his predecessors for a 
metrological meaning in the Great Pyramid, — of 
which building he has a special Plate, with lines 
cutting it up for reference to various measures : and 
to which one building he evidently alludes, in 
sundry rhetorical passages where plural Pyramids 
are mentioned. 

Thus, * these Pyramids,' writes he (on page 531, 
Antiquites Memoires, vol. i.), 'to which both ancients 
' and moderns have assigned so many different ob- 

* jects, which have been attributed to vanity by 

* some, to superstition by others, but saluted by all 

* ages as the wonders of the world, — have perhaps 

* served as tombs according to the idea of many 

* authors. But in such case they are the tombs of 

* Princes who either wished or permitted that their 

* remains should attest to posterity the lights of 

* learned Egypt ; and they, the P3rramids, have ful- 

* filled their destination, for they have preserved to 
' us the certain type of the size of the terrestrial 

* globe, and the inappreciable notion of the invaria- 

* bility of the celestial pole.' 

From these generalities the learned author ad- 
vances to particulars, and having Colonel Coutelle's 
measures of the base along its northern side — from 
socket to socket — before him, — is too well informed 
to take either 1-5 00th or 1-40 0th part, — but adopts 
1-48 0th of the terrestrial meridian degree of 360° to 
the circle, as having been intended for one side of 
the Great Pyramid's base. But that result, or 9115 



132 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



British inches, is neither close enough to the mea- 
sured quantity to be received as its representative ; 
nor is any reason whatever given, for introducing 
such a fraction as 1-48 0th, into that particular part 
of the Pyramid. 

Next comes before us the Eev. Thomas Gabb, E.C., 
of Eetford, in 1806, with a whole book, and a very 
well written book too ; but containing only a sort 
of accidental or relative theory about the Pjrramid 
base's side; viz., that it was made one hundred times 
the outside length of the coflfer in the King's 
chamber. Very decided, however, is he on that 
point, having heard 'such proportion to have been 

* ascertained by Bonaparte's savants in 1799,' and 
that they believed said coffer's exterior had been 
intended by the Pjrramid builders as a standard of 
length. Wherefore Mr. Gabb gladly concludes, that 

* that proportion of 1-1 00th is now most incontro- 

* vertibly ascertained ; that the curious granite chest, 
' hitherto incongruously called a sarcophagus, was 

* deposited in its place by the architect himself, who 
' certainly knew it to be commensurate in its length 
' with the side of the external foundations, and did, 
/ no doubt, so design it for metrical purposes ; 

* whence it is another illustration of this perfect 
' harmony, this happy, pleasant, useful commen- 
' surability of the Great Pyramid of J eezeh.' 

Unfortunately, though, the said coffer, as already 
set forth in vol. ii. p. 117, is not very regular in ex- 
ternal figure ; and, on the mean, only measures 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



133 



about 89*71 inches in length : and one hundred 
times that, cannot be looked on as the happy, useful, 
and perfect representation of 9142. 

Lastly, however, comes the late venerable John 
Taylor ; who, though not a scientific man, yet en- 
dued with appropriate knowledge by his Pyramid 
literary researches carried on for nearly thirty years, 
at once transcends in this particular all the most 
learned geodesists of every age and country : for he 
teaches us to look, — not at either a degree, or a 
quadrant, or any other length of any part of the 
surface of the earth, — but to the internal axis of 
rotation, as the one most important linear feature 
of the whole earth — as well, too, in its abstract 
physics, as its practical requirements when serv- 
ing for man's abode ; and more especially in its 
sufiiciency to form, in the best manner, the basis 
of a grand metrological reference for linear measure. 

This position, after its publication, was admirably 
defended and enforced by Sir John Herschel, in the 
AthencBum for April 1860 ; as likewise was the 
venerable Mr. Taylor s second enunciation, viz., that 
five hundred millions of a certain kind of inches, — 
each of them being '001 of an inch only, larger than 
the legalized British inch, — measure the length of 
the axis of rotation of the earth ; with the full ac- 
curacy, moreover, of all the geodesic knowledge yet 
accumulated by mankind, and whether represented 
in the latest trigonometrical surveys or the highest 



134 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



mathematical investigations by the best men in 
France, Germany, Kussia, and England.^ 

In so far, then, we have in the 5, with the many 
O's that follow it, a Pyramidally commensurable and 
symbolically appropriate unit for the earth's axis of 
rotation. But what is the nature of this unit's 
connexion with the length of the side of the Great 
Pyramid's base, already assumed from measure, as 
the rough-looking quantity of, 9142 British inches ? 

Thus it is that John Taylor proceeds. Referring to 
Sir Isaac Newton's most remarkable investigations on 
the length of ancient cubits,^ — wherein that gifted 
author, both shows the Egyptian or 'profane' cubit 
to have been close on 20*7 inches in length; and 
equally proves ' the sacred cubit of the Israelites' 
(a most peculiar and cherished cubit of theirs, which 
they possessed as a people or family ' long before 
' they went down to Egypt,' and which Moses took 
special care that they should always employ iov sacred 
purposes after the Exodus), Sir Isaac proves it to 
have been close on 2 5 inches in length,^ — basing then 

^ The latest authority for the size and figure of the earth (vol. ii. 
Sect. V.) is the noble quarto published last year by the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, after comparing the linear standards of many countries. Two 
methods for computing arc-surveys are there adopted, with the same 
materials observed. The first of them gives the earth's polar axis 
= 500,482,296, and the second = 500,522,904 British inches ; and as 
the former has rather more weight than the latter, the weighted mean 
of the two comes out exceedingly close upon 500,500,000 British, and 
500,000,000 Pyramid inches. The mean equatorial axis is about 
l-300th larger, or near to 502,179,000 British inches. 

2 See page 341 of our vol. ii. 

3 The last length obtained from all his data by Sir Isaac Newton 
for the sacred cubit, is nearly two-tenths of an inch less than 25 inches, 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



135 



on this remarkable research by the greatest master 
mind that ever lived in modern times, John Taylor 
shows, that such a 2 5 -inch cubit is most remarkably 
and astonishingly earth-commensurable, — being, the 
one-ten-millionth of the semi-axis of rotation of the 
earth. Or, whereas the modem French metre was 
chosen by decimal-loving mathematicians, to be the 
one-ten-millionth of a quadrant of a particular meri- 
dian of the earth, — the sacred cubit, received so very 
early into their possession by the descendants of 
Abraham, was the same admirably even fraction, but 
of an infinitely better portion of the earth-globe to 
refer to ; viz., a straight line coming from the centre 
to the surface, along the governing axis of the 
world. An extraordinarily convenient length too, 
for man to handle and use in the common affairs of 
life, is the one-ten-millionth of the earth's semi-axis 
of rotation, when it comes to be realized ; — for it is 
extremely close, either to the length of the ordinary 
human arm, or to the ordinary human pace, in walk- 
ing with a purpose to measure. 

Now this remarkable, or even more than remark- 
able cubit, Mr. Taylor believed the planners of the 
Great Pyramid knew perfectly well of, — even in all 
its grand relations to nature, — though the Egyptian 
people did not. They, the Egyptian people at large, 
deep-dyed idolaters in their hearts, worked their 

and has too generally been the only one quoted ; but it is worth while 
to remember that the mean of all his nine determinations or limits, 
amounts to 25-07 British inches. See 'Hebrew Standards,' Sect, v., 
vol. ii. 



136 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



ordinary work according to their well-known pro- 
fane cubit of 20' 7 inches in length, with its subdi- 
visions, if necessary, into six palms, and each palm 
into four digits ;^ but the planners of the Great 
Pyramid were no more bound to that measure, which 
is void of all modern scientific recommendation, — 
than they were to the degrading animal-worship of 
the dwellers in the valley of the Nile, or to that 
grievous sin which themselves so strenuously, though 
in vain, endeavoured to put down.^ Those purer- 
minded architects indeed contrived, apparently, to 
make their heathen masons labour in such a manner, 
as to be in reality introducing the sacred measure, 
when they least suspected what they were about ; 
and to introduce it too in the most signal and ap- 
propriate manner, or in a form pervading the whole 
building, and with a reference to that which 
measures everything ; for, after many thousands 
of years, the method seems to have been discovered 
with certainty, and to be simply this, viz., — that 
there are as many lengths of the sacred cubit in 
one side of the Pyramid's base, as there are days in 
a year. 

That is, 25 x 365*25 = 9131. But these repre- 
sent Pyramid inches ; and when reduced to British 
inches, are = 9140 ; while the mean length of the 
Pyramid's base side derived from measure, is, with 

* Some hierologists say, in later times into seven palms, and each 
palm into four digits ; see vol. ii. Section v. 
See vol. i. chap. xv. p. 467. 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



137 



some small limits for probable error (see p. 127), 
= 9142. 

The nobler cubit therefore really employed, or in- 
tended to be perpetuated to distant ages, — was con- 
cealed from vulgar gaze, under the veil of the earthly 
connexion between time and space. By no means 
an inappropriate idea, when the standard of length 
is founded on the earth's axis of rotation, the action 
of which mechanically makes the successive days ; 
and when the general form of the whole Pyramid, 
according to John Taylor s grand circular proportion, 
causes its vertical height to present towards the 
continued length of the four sides of its base, the 
proportion of radius to the circumference of a circle ; 
— or a model of the circuit of the mean earth round 
the sun in the course of a year, — and where, on the 
perimeter of the Pyramid, the earth's mean daily 
motion is represented by the round and even quan- 
tity of, 100* inches of length. 

I had formerly imagined, that the expression for 
one side might be, not 365*25 times the sacred cubit, 
but 366*00 times, — as being the nearest even number 
of turns made by the earth on its axis in the course 
of a year ; but under the aspect of more numerous 
Pyramid measures than I was then acquainted with, 
especially those of Mr. Inglis, — the 365*25 ap- 
pears to be the more probable supposition. And 
yet the 366 may perhaps in a manner be pre- 
sent, simultaneously, through means of the pecuHar 
office of the ' pavement,' which lies both around 



138 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[div. it. 



and partly under the Pyramid ; and this is a feature 
which we must pay close attention to, in spite of 
the trouble of so doing, if we would understand the 
smaller and residual features of the monument. 

Architects in modern times, have in their draw- 
inors, plans, or elevations, often finished off the Pyra- 
mid below, according to their own sesthetical ideas 
of propriety, — based either on Gothic or Grecian 
art ; and hence large pediments, bases, flutings, and 
what not While one very well-intentioned and 
venerable investigator of geometrical proportions, 
writes me that he has just arrived, theoretically, at 
a high and noble base for the Pyramid, — which base, 
finished off with a plinth, he conceives would be most 
suitable for enabling a whole row of astronomers to 
observe the Pole-star from, like a row of harpers, 
harping with their harps ! 

But of all these additions to its simple figure, the 
known facts about the Pyramid give no testimony 
whatever. M. Jomard, indeed, in the great French 
work, has, with some appearance of authority, drawn 
the Pyramid with a rectangular base 72 inches high ; 
but that seems merely derived from a misapprehen- 
sion as to the nature of the ' course ' of rock, left 
standing by the builders near the north-east corner, 
merely to save interior component masonry ; and the 
only real authority touching the ancient appearance 
of the lower part of the Pyramid outside, is Colonel 
Howard Vyse with his casing-stones in situ. 



SECT. 1.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



139 



These remarkable stones, according to his tes- 
timony, spring at once, with their oblique exterior 
slopes of 51° 51^ 14", from the upper surface of a 
broad, flat, level, area of exquisite masonry, known 
as ' the pavement / which in that part of the Pyramid 
passes under it to some extent, is 21 inches thick 
and 402 inches broad, from the outer line of the 
casing- stones. Hence the extensive assumption has 
been made by some persons, that a pavement of the 
same breadth and thickness completely surrounds 
the Pyramid ; but, so far as thickness is concerned, a 
portion of pavement is shown in one of our Stereo- 
photographs, taken near the north-west socket, — 
and is found to be barely more than 1 inches thick. 
By examining, however, the angles and positions of 
the joints of this fragment, the inference may be 
pretty safely made, that the lower part of the corner- 
stone of the oblique easing-stone sheet there, must 
have been of rectangular figure, though pyramidally 
bevelled above ; and that it did, by the depth of 
such rectangular part or base, go through the whole 
thickness of the pavement there, whatever that was, 
and into the socket-hole cut for it in the rock below. 
Hence the horizontal distance from outer comer of 
one, to outer comer of another, adjacent socket-hole, 
— measured on the pavement and by means of the 
rectangular edges of the holes worked therein, — is, 
or should be, the true measure of the length of the 
ancient maximum bevelled side of the Pyramid; 
and may be considered equal to, either 9140 or 9142 



140 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



British inches, as already indicated. But whether 
that number would be extended to 9159, — by the 
slope being carried symbolically through the pave- 
ment, and then measured on the level of its under 
side, or at a thickness nearly similar to that which 
obtains at the north-west corner, — is a residual 
problem that must be left, notwithstanding its im- 
portance, for future excavations to settle ; seeing 
that the earth, and the earth only, still retains the 
secret. 

Meanwhile, attending to nothing but what has 
been actually secured by measure ; and remarking, 
too, that all the minute differences of the slightly 
varying theoretical lengths we are now in search of, 
are contained within the mutual discordances of 
the best modern observations, — it may be expedient 
to inquire, whether the Great Pyramid stands 
sensibly alone ; or whether it has many competitors 
amongst the other Pyramids of Egypt, — for making 
so noble a use, as it seems to do, of the sacred cubit. 
That is, for coming either so close, or perhaps 
closer, to the expressive quantity of 9140 British 
inches. Eeferring, therefore, to the works of 
Colonel Howard Vyse, — the best authority on the 
subject amongst all men of all nations, — we find 
that he has published from his, and Mr. Perring's, 
measures for the lengths of one side of the bases 
(always assumed square), of many Pyramids, re- 
spectively as follows : — 



SECT. I.] 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



141 



British Incbod. 



Second Pyramid of Jeezeh, lat. 29° 59' N., side of 

base, = 8493 

Third „ „ „ . . = 4254 

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth, 

all under = 2064 

Pyramid of Aboo-Roash, lat. 30° 2', . . = 3840 

,, Zouyet el Arrian, lat. 29° 57', . = 3600 

Great Pyramid of Abooseer, lat. 29° 54', . = 4320 

Sakkara, lat. 29° 53', . = 4212 

North Stone Pyramid of Dashoor, lat. 29° 49', = 8634 

Southern „ „ lat. 29° 48', = 7402 

Greater Pyramid of Lisht, lat. 29° 38', about = 5400 

Pyramid of Meydoon, lat. 29° 27', . . = 6360 

„ Illahoon, Faioum, lat. 29° 17', . = 4320 

Other Egyptian Pyramids generally, under t= 3000 



Hence there is no other known and measured 
Pyramid throughout all Egypt, which can compete 
in the remotest degree with the Great Pyramid of 
Jeezeh, for possessing after so signal, or anything like 
so accurate, a manner, if indeed in any way, a 
memorial of the sacred cubit. A length, that cubit, 
in its earth-polar radius commensurability, above all 
human knowledge or effort from the beginning of 
history to within the last two hundred years, — to 
have been arrived at intentionally; though when 
once the idea is given out in the present age of the 
world, any one and every one can instantly see the 
many recommendations which attach themselves to 
such a standard for linear measure. 

Most fortunate, therefore, is it for practical 
metrology, that with the theory of the sacred cubit 
in our minds, and the results of recent scientific 
measures of degrees of the meridian in our Ubraries, 
we may entirely dispense for the present with a 



142 



STANDARDS OF SIZE. 



[DIV. II. 



solution of the small remaining uncertainties about 
the base of the Great Pyramid. And, content with 
its measurement having given the cubit's length as 
9142 -r-365*25 = 25*03 British inches, accurate pro- 
bably within '005 of an inch, — we may proceed |;o 
recover with still greater exactness that grand linear 
standard from the earth itself; arranging a scheme 
of linear measures thereupon in the following form, 
but with leading reference to the Pyramid numbers 
of 5 and 10,-^and finishing with 4, in imitation of 
the four sides of the base : — 



Pykamid Lineak Measure. 

I inch, roughly a thumb-breadth, . <= the unit. 

25 inches, roughly an arm, or a pace, length, = 1 sacred cubit. 

100 sacred cubits, or 2500 inches, ; . =s 1 acre-side. 

25 acre-sides, or 2500 sacred cubits, . . =1 mile. 

4 miles, or 100 acre-sides, or 10,000 sacred cubits, = 1 league. 



Comparison of Pyramid, with British, Linear Measure, 
AND with the Earth's semi-axis of Rotation. 



Pyramid measures. 


British measures. 


Earth's semi-axis of 
rotation, assumed = 
250,250,000 British 
inches. 


1 inch, 

1 sacred cubit, 
1 acre-side, . 
1 mile, 
1 league. 


1- 001* British inches, . 

2- 083 „ feet, . 
0-9992 „ acre-side, 

0- 9874 „ miles, . 

1- 3166 „ leagues, 


l-250,000,000th. 
l-10,000,000th. 
l-100,000th. 
1 -4000th. 
1-lOOOth. 



The inch and sacred cubit are the only -Pyra- 
midally authorized parts in the above scheme ; 
though there appears much probability that there 

* '001 of an inch = half a hair's-breadth of the finer human order. 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



143 



will be found by and by, similar authority for the 
acre-side in the ' pavement/ when fully opened up. 
But meanwhile, the above-given Pyramid acre-side 
and mile, come so very close to the British acre-side 
and mile, — that they can hardly be passed by ; and 
the Pyramid league forms so neat a fraction of the 
earth's semi-axis of rotation, as to present the very 
essence of a connecting link between terrestrial, and 
celestial, distance measures. 



SECTION 11. 

STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 

With measures of weight, those of capacity are 
usually classed ; and will be here also, because they 
serve as a bond of connexion between weight, 
which would otherwise be perfectly isolated in 
metrology, and a linear standard supposed to have 
been already determined ; but they further evi- 
dently require, besides the certain mensuration of 
any cubical amount of space, as such, that that bulk 
shall be occupied for the time by some substance or 
matter of a known and uniform density or specific 
gravity. The reference for this purpose usually 
made by most nations, has been to distilled water of 
a given temperature ; and the standard of weight 
then becomes the weight of the quantity of water 
necessary to fill a vessel, whose hollow interior 



144 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



measures a certain previously chosen amount of 
cubical size, or capacity measure, defined in terms 
of the linear standards. 

On this well-known principle the late John Taylor 
announced, after studying many Pyramid writers, 
that the once so-called ^orp/i^r?/, but really granite, 
perhaps syenitic-granite,cofier in the secluded King's 
chamber, — must have been intended to serve, with 
its hollow cubical space or contents, as a standard 
measure of capacity and weight. And he enlarged 
much upon the evident manner in which the whole 
Pyramid was planned and builded, as if its chief 
purpose were to keep that hollow, rectangular, open, 
box-like vessel, and nothing else than that, — in the 
utmost degree of safety that can be materially in- 
sured to anything whatever upon earth. 

So far, he was not altogether original ; for the 
Kev. Thomas Gabb, RC, in 1806, mentions that the 
French savants of 1799, ' give it as their belief that 

* the excavation of this granite chest was originally 

* intended, by the founders of the Pyramid, not for 

* the repository sarcophagus of a corpse, as has been 

* the prevalent but truly ridiculous opinion, but for 

* a standard measure of capacity.' Similarly a cer 

tain Mr. A. P. J. de V , of Paris, in 1812, in 

his Neiv Researches on the Origin and Destination 
of the Pyramids of Egypt, speaks of the coffer in 
the Great Pyramid as a ' vase of porphyry, that 

* can never be taken out of the Pyramid, and was 

* intended to serve as a measure of capacity! The 



SECT. IT.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



145 



English canonymous author of 1706, also obtains 
some measures of capacity from the coffer, — but in a 
manner not dependent on its cubical contents,^ and 
not necessarily forestalhng any of these later authors 
in their simpler and larger conception. 

John Taylor, however, is yet to be noticed before 
each and all his compeers, — not only on account of 
the superior extent and variety of his researches 
touching the coffer, and which should be read in his 
own book, {The Great Pyramid: why was it built, 
and who built it?) ; but by reason of his success- 
fully identifying its cubical contents with that of the 
ancient Hebrew capacity measures on one side, and 
the Anglo-Saxon, on the other. So that, according 
to him, either, four Hebrew chomers, or, one Hebrew 
laver, — and, on the other side, either, four British 
quarters, or, one original Anglo-Saxon chaldron, 
chalder, or chaudron, — equally represent the exact 
cubic contents of the Great Pyramid s primeval coffer. 

This interesting conclusion, however, depended 
entirely on the correctness of the numbers employed 
by John Taylor for the internal capacity of thei 
P3rramid coffer; and though he had taken them 
fairly and with judgment from two good observers, 
viz., Professor Greaves in 1639 and Colonel Howard 
Vyse in 1837, — yet there was a strange mass of tes- 
timony against them, as evidenced by the foUow- 

^ By taking some single linear measure, either from the inside or 
outside of the coffer, looking on such length as the axis of a sphere, 
within whose hemisphere a certain polygoneous figure of a particular 
capacity may be described. 

VOL. III. K 



146 STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. [DIV. II. 

ing table of authorities prepared by myself in 
1864 :— 



Modern Measures of the Great Pyramid Coffer. 



Authors. 


Date. 


iUateriiu 

as 
Named. 


Exterior. 


Interior. 


Lengtli. 


Breadth 


Height. 


Len^h. 


Breadth 


Depth. 




A.D, 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Bellonius, 


1553 


Black marble, 


144- 


72" 










P. Alpinus, . 


1591 


Black marble. 


144- 


60- 


60- 








Q 1 


1610 




84- 


«•{ 


Breast 
High 


};• 






De Villamont, 


1618 


Black marble, 


102- 




60- 








Professor Greaves, . 


1638 


Thebaic marble, 


87-5 


39 -Vs 


39-75 


77-856 


26-616 


34-'320 


De Monconys, 


1647 


86- 


37- 


40- 








M. Thevenot, . 


1655 


Hard porpyhry. 


86- 


40- 


40- 


75?" 


29-? 




M. Lebrun, 


1674 


74- 


37- 


40- 








M. Maillet, . 


1692 


Granite, . 


90- 


48- 


48- 








De Careri, 


1693 


Marble, . 


86- 


37- 


39- 








Lucas, 


1699 


Like porphyry, 


84- 


36- 


42- 


74-? 


26-'? 




Egmont, 


1709 


Thebaic marble, 


84- 




42- 


72-? 






Pere Sicard, . 


1715 


Granite, . 


84- 


42-" 


36- 








Dr. Shaw, 


1721 


Granite, . 


84- 


36- 


42- 


72-'? 


24-? 




)r. Perry, 


1743 


Granite, . 


84- 


30- 


36- 








I. Denon, 


1799 


.... ? 


84- 


48- 


38- 








M. Jomard, 


1799 


Granite, . 


90-592 


39-450 


44-765 


77-836 


26-694 


37-285 


Dr. Clarke, . 


1801 


Gi-anite, . 


87-5 


39-75 


39-75 








M. Hamilton, . 


1801 


Granite, . 


90- 


42- 


42-0 


78-? 


30-? 




Dr. Whitman, 


1801 




78- 


38-75 


41-5 


66-? 


26-75? 


32-" 


Dr. Wilson, . 


1805 




92- 


38- 




80-? 


26-? 


34-5 


M. Caviglia, . 


1817 




90- 


39- 


42-" 


78-? 


27-? 




Dr. Richardson, 


1817 


Red granite, . 


90- 


39- 


39-5 








Sir Gard. Wilkinson, 


1831 


Red granite, . 


88- 


36- 


37- 








■Jol. Howard Vyse, 


1837 


90-5 


39 


41-0 


78 -d 


26-5 


34-5 



( From these particulars, it will be seen that — with- 
"&ut having regard to the almost incredible differences 
amongst minor observers, — the depth element, as 
^jiven by the French savants of 1799, disagrees from 
tihe determinations adopted from Greaves and Vyse, 
by nearly three whole inches ; equivalent in its effects 
on the capacity of the coffer, to an addition of about 
6000 cubic inches! With whom, then, lay the 
burden of such an error as this ; or did it perhaps 
reside in the coffer itself, owing to its not being of 



SECT. 11.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



147 



a regular figure, and having been measured in 
different parts by successive travellers ? 

These were the questions to be practically settled 
in 1865 ; and I very soon satisfied myself at the 
Pyramid, despite all the modern chippings of the 
edges of the coffer ; Jirst, that the errors of its in- 
ternal figure were contained within very narrow 
limits ; and second, that the French savants were 
the parties who had been so unfortunate as to have 
an error of three inches of excess in their measured 
depth, though true to the tenth of an inch as to 
length and breadth. But there was a worse error 
still, pervading both their engravings, measures, and 
descriptions ; an error, too, vitiating the measures of 
all the other known authorities as well, — in that, 
none of them had alluded, so far as I know, to a 
certain ledge which is cut inside the top of the 
coffer sides, on the east, south, and north, and all 
over the breadth of the western side, to a depth of 
1*72 of an inch. 

Greaves, in 1639, describes the coffer as presenting 
a rectangular figure of pure mathematical form ; 
' or two cubes finely set together, and hollowed 

* within ; it is cut smooth and plain, without any 

* sculpture or engraving, or any relevy or emboss- 

* ment ; ' and the admirably executed plates of the 
French national work make it, therefore, a regular- 
shaped, equal, box-sided vessel in the year 1799 ; 
such, also, is the appearance given to it in Sir 
Robert Ainslie s view, copied by John Taylor, into 



148 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



his Great Pyramid: why was it built, and who 
built it ? and there are numerous allusions in older 
authors, to the coffer's having been always a lidless 
vessel, like a water cistern ; a stone box without a 
top ; a granite chest without a cover, and many- 
similar phrases. Yet, the mere presence of such a 
ledge as is plainly now to be seen, not only implies 
the once existence of a lid,— but also that the vessel 
must have been serving as a sarcophagus ; and, 
because, that is the manner, or very near it, in which 
the lids of genuine sarcophagi are pushed on, and 
fastened down, into their places. 

Although an absolute discovery to me at the 
time, this ledge feature, I have since found, is re- 
presented in Howard Vyse and Perring's large 
Pyramid views, published in folio, in 1840. How 
these able authors regarded the feature, does not 
appear ; nor do I know whether the usually irre- 
proachable members of the French Imperial Institute, 
are prepared to maintain the truth of their large 
engravings, for the date at which they were made ; 
or to imply, that the ledge was cut between their 
day, and that of Howard Yyse. In the meanwhile, 
however, most persons wiU probably assume that the 
remarkable cut-out must be far older than the first 
French Kevolution ; and some will even hastily con- 
sider it as entirely subversive of the recent metro- 
logical-cofFer idea. 

So, too, it would be, perhaps, if there were any- 
thing in the present sarcophagus-guise of the coffer 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



149 



in addition^ as to substance, to what was required 
for the original coffer, or mere box-shaped vessel. 
But that is not the case ; for the ledge is merely 
something cut into, or removed away from, such a 
vessel; and something, too, which would be very 
easy for any granite mason to effect, after the box 
form had once been realized. 

We may prove, moreover, that after the coffer 
had had a sarcophagus-appearance given to it by 
the cutting of such a ledge into its top, — it would 
not have made a good sarcophagus according to the 
ideas of the time ; for, at the second Pyramid, 
where there is an acknowledged sarcophagus of red 
granite, and which is, with its lid, in excellent pre- 
servation, — the following system obtains. The lid 
slides on to the top of the body, by means of acute 
angled grooves ; and when finally in its place, cer- 
tain vertically-sliding pegs fall partly out of holes 
in the lid, into corresponding holes in the top of the 
lowered side of the sarcophagus, — completely pre- 
venting the lid being drawn horizontally back ; 
while the oblate spread of the side grooves, prevents 
its being lifted up or taken off vertically. The 
whole thus forms an arrangement which locks itself, 
and is eminently suitable to the purposes of a sar- 
cophagus proper. 

But at the Great Pyramid vessel, though there 
are similar holes in the west side for falling pins to 
fall into, out of a once existing or intended lid, — and 
the arrangement would prevent such lid being drawn 



150 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



horizontally back, after being once pushed into its 
place, — yet the side grooves being rectangular, and 
parallel with the coffer sides, they could not in the 
slightest degree prevent the lid being lifted straight, 
or vertically, up, — and freely exposing the contents 
of the coffer, if any. 

Now this shows a degree of clumsiness in contri- 
vance and inefficiency of workmanship which we 
should be careful how we charge on the architect of 
the Great Pyramid, where everything else is carried 
out with far more skill and perfection than at the 
second Pyramid; and it may even be taken as a 
pretty secure indication, that the cutting of the 
ledge and turning, or attempt towards turning, the 
coffer into a sarcophagus, — were the work of subse- 
quent hands. Whose these were, during the long ages 
which intervene between us and the original builders, 
may be an interesting inquiry to take up when we 
come to the history and personal experiences of the 
Great Pyramid ; but meanwhile their names signify 
nothing to our present purpose, which is solely 
directed to finding out, if possible, by modern 
measures — what were the cubical contents of the 
vessel in its original state, before any ledge was 
ever cut into its fair proportions ; and then ascer- 
taining — if such cubical contents correspond, or not, 
with a certain exact, and even inexorable, quantity, 
derivable from the theory of the Great Pyramid, 
when applied to the earth as known to modern 
science. 



4 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



151 



This theory is shortly, as regards the kind of 
standards now under discussion, — that a cubic space 
is to be formed, with sides having a length equal to 
the one-ten-millionth of the earth's axis of rotation, 
or 50 Pyramid inches.^ A tenth part of such space, 
— or 12,500 cubic inches (agreeably with the Coptic 
interpretation of the name of Pyramid), is then to be 
filled with matter of the mean density or specific 
gravity of the earth as a whole. In which case, 
such a mass will form the grand weight standard of 
the Pyramid ; while the space occupied by an equal 
weight of pure water, at a given temperature, — will 
form the grand cajyaeity standard of the Great 
Pyramid ; or, as we believe, will represent, and be 
represented by, the cubic contents of the hollow of 
the coffer : but this is the point to be tested by 
actual measure and calculation. 

Much in the problem, evidently depends on the 
precise value of the earth's mean density, as com- 
pared with that of water ; and such an introduction 
of that important natural characteristic of density, 
with respect to the mean of the whole contents of our 
earth-ball globe, — is a novelty amongst all known 
human systems of metrology ; the very best and 
most modern of which, either make their weight- 

^ The standard of linear measure is the one-teu-millionth of the 
seml-axia of rotation, or 25 inches ; because, in distance- measuring 
amongst celestial globes, the quantity to be measured is always scien- 
tifically the distance from centre to centre of them. But the moment 
we come to any questions of the earth's actual bulk, the whole 
diameter, from one side to the other, is the effective length to be 
guided by. 



152 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



standard a something entirely accidental, as with 
the English {i.e., so far as most modern Englishmen 
are aware of) ; or overlook every other constituent 
of the earth, except that one article of water; as 
with the French metrical, and other European/ 
arrangements on modern scientific principles. 

Yet if there is commendable virtue amongst any 
of these systems, — and they do take much praise 
to themselves, in referring their linear standards by 
an even fraction to some length scientifically con- 
nected with the size of the earth as a whole, — 
surely there must be similar intellectual advantage, 
in referring all weight and capacity standards to 
the most practical features bearing on the weight 
and capacity of the earth, likewise as a whole. The 
capacity of the earth, indeed, is evidently derivable 
from linear measure and geometrical theory ; but its 
weight, depends altogether upon the proportionate 
amounts and densities of all the multitudinous 
solids and fluids which together make up its won- 
drous bulk ; and in which too, there is a far larger 
amount of solid and heavy, than light and watery 
matter. 

One chief superiority of our earth over the larger 
planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Nep- 
tune,^ — according to that universal genius, the late 
respected Master of Trinity, in his Plurality of 
Worlds, — consists in its possession of so large a per- 

^ The density of these planets, in terms of the earth's mean density, 
is stated in Sir John Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, as 0-24, 0'14, 
24, and 0*14 respectively. 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



153 



centage of heavy solid matter, as to make its specific 
gravity nearly five times theirs ; and led him to 
conclude that their vasty spheres, consisting of little 
but water and mist, can be no sufficient or appropri- 
ate abode for reasoning and intelligent beings. How 
important then for man, both aesthetically to acknow- 
ledge the terrestrial fact of superior density, in the 
principles whereon terrestrial standards for measuring 
weight and density are founded ; — and what a duty, 
religiously, to symbolize his thanks for all the myriad 
curious substances, — all of different densities or 
capacity weights, — and usually esteemed more and 
more precious as they exceed in specific gravity, — 
which the Creator has been pleased to introduce into 
the composition of this earth of ours. For no other 
purpose, too, that the greatest sages can see, — than 
for the present and future benefit, and ultimate high 
civilisation, as well as enjoyment, — of working, in- 
tellectual, and continually advancing mankind.^ 

Fortified, therefore, by this view, — which, in so 
far as it came to me through the Pyramid, is not 

1 Sir Samuel Baker, in his recent explorations in Central Africa, had 
an. admirable opportunity of witnessing some difiBcult social questions 
reduced to their i)rimitive simplicity, and elemental clearness. Hence 
we find him recording that the poorest, lowest, most degraded and most 
miserable of all the nations he met with, were on the marshy banks of 
the White Nile, in a fine warm climate, but a world of water, mud, 
and reedy vegetation, abounding in, and apparently just fit for, hiijjjo- 
potami, crocodiles, buffaloes, wild-geese, and nothing higher. But 
as soon as he reached the hilly country, — especially where the hills 
produced heavy iron, as well as lighter stones and agricultural soUs, — 
instantly there was a most marked improvement in the natives, and a 
rise in their whole style of life and social well-being. 



154 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



of my invention, — let us see how the earth's mean 
density comports itself in the particular coffer ques- 
tion. The numerical value of the remarkable 
quantity (in terms of water), is not yet quite so 
accurately determined by modern science as it 
should be ; but may, for reasons presently to be 
adduced, be taken as 5'70 ; i.e., 5*70 times as 
heavy, as an equal bulk of distilled water at a tem- 
perature of 68° Fahrenheit. Wherefore, on the pre- 
viously announced principles, 12,500 cubic inches 
multiplied by 5*70, or, 71,250 cubic Pyramid inches, 
ought to form the internal bulk of the grand stand- 
ard of capacity-measure for the Great Pyramid. 

Now what does the interior of the coffer measure, 
when restored, — by reference to many of the origi- 
nal traces which happily still remain, — to its original 
unsophisticated shape and true internal size ? 

Eef erring to the measures in vol. ii. p. 122, the 
mean length, breadth, and depth, inside, by sixty 
measures, came out, in British inches, 77*93, 26*73, 
and 34*34 respectively. These are, in Pyramid 
inches, 77*85, 26*70, and 34*31 ; and give — by 
being multiplied together — 71,317 ; or too much 
by rather less than 1-1 00 0th. 

Of the practical closeness of this approach to the 
theoretical quantity, we may best judge, by comput- 
ing the cubical contents of any acknowledged sarco- 
phagi, treated in the same manner as unledged ves- 
sels ; for then, the sarcophagus of the second Pyramid 



SECT. IT.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



155 



is found to give by the measures in vol. ii. p. 272, 
66,410 ; or 64,554 by Howard Vyse's numbers ; 
that of the third Pyramid by Howard Vyse's 
measure/ ==46,2 19 ; a sarcophagus in a large tomb 
near the Pyramid, pictured in the great French 
work, = 51,117 ; while that in the fourth Pyramid 
= 29,610; and in the fifth Pyramid, = 39,775 
(both of them, according to Howard Vyse) ; and 
others are still smaller. These others are further 
more or less ornamented artistically on the ex- 
terior ; and in so far, stand entirely removed from 
the simple conception of vessels for purposes of 
mensuration ; whose only claim to admiration should 
be, the closeness of their realization of simple truth 
and exact physics. Yet this idea is not so gener- 
ally admitted as it might be, — for I was lately rather 
scornfully attacked by a really very able member of 
one of the learned professions in public, and in 
private a wealthy, highly- educated, representative 
man of the nineteenth century a.d., with — ' but if 

* this Great Pyramid cofler was intended for such an 

* important destiny as to be a standard of measure 
' for all nations, pray what sort and amount of orna- 
' ment is there about it V 

Of that species of meretricious perfection, then, 
let all men know at once, there is nothing whatever 
about the Great Pyramid cofier ; while there are 
traces, on the contrary, that if anything else was 
indulged in beyond the rectangular figure, it was 

^ Volume ii. p. 123, of Vyse's Pyramids of Gizeh. 



156 STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. [DIV. II. 

rather in the direction which the venerable Mr. 
Jopling has maintained during some years past ; as, 
that it was formed with views of relative commen- 
surability ; at least in so far that the cubical contents 
of the outside were made just twice those of the 
inside. An entirely theoretical conclusion of Mr. 
Jopling's was this idea, for none of the recorded 
measures came even approximately near the desired 
quantities ; but on referring to my measures in 
vol. ii. p. 119, where the linear dimensions are cor- 
rected, for the first time in the history of such 
measures, for the error of figure of the hitherto 
assumed perfect planes of the sides, they will be 
found, expressed in Pyramid inches, to be 

(89-62 X 38-61 X 41-13) 2 = 71,160 
the mean of v/hich, with the interior determination, 
allowing for errors of measurement and straining of 
figure by the tilted position of the coffer, comes to 
71,238 ; while the theoretical quantity required, is 
71,250 ; showing an error of barely l-6000th.^ 

Let the uncertainties, however, of our present 
measures touching the true size of the coffer's interior, 
or of this practically obtained number, 71,238, — be 

^ The sarcophagus of the second Pyramid, treated similarly, without 
reference to its cover, or ledge, yields 82,200 nearly, against 66,410* ; 
-the sarcophagus of the third Pyramid, deeply carved outside, gives 
62,160, against 46,219'; the sarcophagus of the fourth Pyramid, 
38,440, against 29,610- ; and that of the fifth Pyramid, 70,565, against 
39,775- : leaving the Great Pyramid's coffer, therefore, perfectly wmywe 
throughout all Egypt yet measured ; and, as well for the absolute con- 
tents of the interior, as for the duplex commensurability of interior 
and exterior. 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OP WEIGHT. 



157 



considered 100 cubic inches ±, though they are pro- 
bably less ; — then it is most important to note, as 
comparing modern science on the whole, with the 
primeval tradition of the Pyramid, — and for under- 
standing our own place in * universal scientific his- 
' tory,' — that the uncertainties of the theoretical 
quantity of 71,250, — as depending on the imperfec- 
tions, or at least unexpected and anomalous differ- 
ences found amongst the best modern scientific 
determinations of one of the natural elements in- 
volved in the question, — amount to several hun- 
dreds, and perhaps even thousands of inches ! 

The usually received quantity, as an instance, for 
the mean density of the earth, has been for some 
years past, not the 5'70 we have assumed, but 
5*67 ; as depending on the late Francis Baily's 
repetition of the Cavendish experiment in 1842, 
— where his mean results, for several different 
branches of the trial, varied between 5'6604 and 
5*6754. (See vol. xiv. of Transactions of Eoyal 
Astronomical Society.) But though Francis Baily's 
was by far the best determination ever made, up to 
that time, — his successors were not satisfied with it ; 
and, on one side, the present most learned Astrono- 
mer-Royal, with all the power of the ancient National 
Observatory at his disposal, has since tried a different 
method of arriving at the same quantity in nature ; 
as likewise, on another side, has Colonel Sir Henry 
James, with the far more extensive means of the Ord- 
nance Survey establishment placed under his hand. 



158 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. [DIV. II. 



If two men and two offices had been picked out 
from the whole nation for undertaking this question, 
no others probably could, or would, have been 
selected as more proper and efficient for it, than these 
two chiefs; and the wisdom of the choice has been tes- 
tified by the Eoyal Society of London printing both 
their papers, descriptive of their respective proceed- 
ings, in extenso in the Philosophical Transactions. 
Wherefore, by looking to the results recorded there, 
we may have a measure at once of what the powers 
may be of modern science in that particular field ; 
and they appear to be thus : — Had the Astronomer- 
Roy als 6*565, been the only new determination, — 
the earth's mean density (the mean between the 
above numbers and Mr. Baily's being taken), would 
have been raised up from 5*675 to 6*120, and the 
theoretical cofier numbers from 70,938 to 76,500 ; 
but had Sir Henry James's 5*316, been the only 
modem repetition, — the received mean would have 
been reduced to 5*496, and the cofi*er numbers to 
68,700 ; or, with similar reference to both, it would 
have been raised to 5*852, and the cofier numbers to 
73,150. Indicating, in fact, that the question of the 
earth's mean density, though a thing exact in itself, 
and well known to the Almighty,— is so exceedingly 
difficult to man, that modern science is hardly sure 
of being right in the unit's place of it ; and is quite 
incompetent as yet, to speak positively of its tenths, 
hundredths, or thousandths. While the advance in 
accuracy of this sort of observation has been so 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



159 



nearly imperceptible during the last quarter of a cen- 
tury, that hundreds of years may pass away — before 
even the best philosophers will have determined, 
from the earth, what a very moderate man may 
determine from the coffer, viz., — whether, in the theo- 
retical expression already assumed, the earth's mean 
density ought to be expressed by 5*69, 5'70, or 5*71. 

We must confess, that 5*70 appears to us not only 
the quantity indicated within very narrow limits by 
the coffer, — but that which is pointed to also by the 
earth-experiments, though within wider limits ; on 
giving, as judgment requires, a much greater weight, 
to Baily s, than to the two subsequent determina- 
tions. (Vol. ii. p. 451). Hence, in assuming 5*70, 
for the value of the earth's mean density — ex- 
pressed in terms of water, — we are not only within 
the limits of the best individual observations of 
that quantity by the first modern philosophers, — 
but, as close as can be, to the most rational mean 
of all their measures. And if any one chides us for 
not waiting contentedly for a few centuries more, 
until a much better earth determination, — and one not 
depending on a mean amongst hideously discordant 
single results, — shall have been obtained by modern 
science ; we are compelled, amongst other things, to 
state in self-defence, — that both the explanation of the 
theory of the Great Pyramid (which has been waiting 
for four thousand years already), and the settlement 
of vexatious agitations respecting the best metrology 
for existing mankind, can admit of delay no longer. 



160 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



Hence, while in the matter of linear measure, the 
Great Pyramid both originated the idea of reference 
to the earth^s semi-axis of rotation, by a one-ten- 
millionth for a standard ; and has also furnished, 
from its own base side the material length of such a 
standard with considerable exactness, say to within 
0*01 of an inch, — we yet preferred taking the length, 
much within that O'Ol of an inch, from modern 
scientific knowledge of the earth, when employed in 
accordance with the Pyramid idea ; and capable 
then, of giving the standard true, probably to within 
0*001 of an inch. But with weight and capacity 
measure, we must not only accept as a gift the idea 
of referring to the earth's mean density, — rather than 
to the density of only one of its myriad components 
— from the Great Pyramid ; but must also receive 
therefrom, the exact numerical value of that mean 
density element— in shape of measures of the cofier, 
treated according to the Pyramid formula ; and cer- 
tain, within a very small fraction of those large differ- 
ences, which are found among the best existing of 
direct earth-mean-density measures. 

Our proof, then, that the coffer is the right vessel 
originally intended for a weight and capacity 
standard, — depends upon its measured contents 
coming out close to what was expected by a certain 
theory, closely based upon the previously proved 
linear standard. But seeing that that theory must 
also, be partly founded on, or rather tested by, modern 
determinations of the earth's density, which deter- 



SECT. II.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



161 



minations are by no means very close or accurate, 
— the proof may be regarded as not an absolutely 
certain one. Most valuable, therefore, is some 
further evidence which the Pyramid itself affords, 
illustrating not only that the coffer's size is no 
accidental matter, but that it was something had in 
extraordinary regard by the architect, when building 
in the mighty granite blocks of the King's chamber. 
For by those blocks he has given us another 
numerical test, by which we may prove that the 
present coffer was the original one ; and is still 
therefore the right vessel in the right place, viz., 
the chamber originally prepared for, and adapted 
to, it ; and which would suit no other known 
Egyptian sarcophagus or coffer-like vessel in the same 
strikingly appropriate manner, or in any way suitably 
with the admirably scientific linear-standard theory. 

The Goffer belongs to tlie King's Chamber. 

In the so-called, in modern times, 'King's 
* chamber' of the Great Pyramid, stands the coffer 
now ; but what was the apartment designated 
originally ? 

Over its doorway of entrance, and on the outside 
thereof, or as forming the south wall of the ante- 
chamber, is a remarkable symbol, which has been 
variously described as consisting of four, or five, 
lines. Our measures of the thickness of each line, 
and the width of the separations between them, 
compared with the whole breadth of that wall, in- 

VOL. III. L 



162 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



dependently measured (see vol. ii. p. 97 ; also Plate 
XII. vol. ii.), prove incontestably tliat there are four 
deeply cut, equidistant vertical grooves, so placed 
as to divide their containing wall into five ver- 
tical strips ; illustrating, therefore, a division into ' 
five. 

This, too, is all that can be really stated about 
them ; for, as to the architectural apology that they 
were grooves for ropes employed in lowering certain 
supposed portcullis -blocks in the antechamber, — 
that was not a usual Egyptian practical method of 
accomplishing such work ; and there are no corre- 
sponding grooves on the opposite sides of the room 
or on the floor ; nor have any good reasons been 
given, why the grooves on the south wall should 
pass along its entire extent in height, or from 
actual top next the ceiling to very bottom, as 
marked by the low entrance into the King's chamber, 
« — when the supposed portcullis-blocks, and even the 
utmost reach of their sliding frames, were only a 
small part of the same height. 

Hence all that we can declare as the fact, is, that 
near the interior of a building whose ancient name, 
it is said, was * a division into ten,' — there is one 
wall typifying, or rather positively illustrating, 
' a division into five/ And this symbol is the last 
object seen by any one entering the King's chamber, 
as he makes his final stooping progress to enter that 
important room ; for the sign may be said to be 
fastened over the doorway thereof outside, and to 



SECT. II.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



163 



belong therefore rather to the large King's chamber 
than the small antechamber. 

Is that symbol, then, — so remarkably held forth 
to every entrant, — the true name of the larger 
chamber ; or is it intended to call attention to 
something of a similar character therein ? 

Let us see. 

The coffer, according to the metrological theory, 
is founded, in part, on the one-ten-millionth of the 
earth's axis of rotation ; or, fifty inches. 

This is something suspicious of a connexion, 
especially if divided by the Pyramidal 10, but not 
enough ; and on looking round the room, an attentive 
observer may soon perceive a more striking illus- 
tration of a division into five ; in that the four 
walls of the room have each, four horizontal joint 
lines, actually dividing the walls' whole surfaces 
into Jive horizontal stripes or courses. (Plate xiii. 
vol. ii.) 

Rather remarkable is it for testing the sufficiency 
of modern travellers' descriptions (for no Greek or 
Roman visitors were ever in this room), that some 
of them have stated these walls to be composed in a 
single course, and others in six courses, or variously 
as thus : — 

Sandys, a.d. 1610, says — * Eight stones flaggc the ends, and 

* sixteen the sides.' 

Professor Greaves, 1639. — ' From the top of it descending to 

* the bottom, there are but six ranges of stone, all which, being 
' respectively sized to an equal height, very gracefully in one and 

the same altitude run round the room.' 



164 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



Lord Eqmont, 1709. — ' The walls were composed of five ranges 
' of stone.' 

Dr. Shaw, 1721. — * Height (of five equal stones) sixteen feet.' 
Dr. Pocock, 1743. — ' Six tiers of stones of equal breadth 

* compose the sides.' 

M. FouRMONT, 1755. — 'The walls are composed of six equal^ 

* ranges.' 

Dr. Clarke, 1801. — ' There are only six ranges of stone from 

* the floor to the roof.' 

Dr. Richardson, 1817.— 'Lined all round with broad flat 
' stones, smooth and highly polished, each stone ascending from 

* the floor to the ceiling.' 

Lord Lindsay, 1838. — * A noble apartment, cased with 

* enormous slabs of granite twenty feet high.' 

W. R. Wilde, and Mr. R. J. A., 1837.—' An oblong apart- 
' ment, the sides of which are formed of enormous blocks of 

* granite reaching from the floor to the ceiling.' 

E. W. Lane, and Mrs. Poole, 1843. — ' Number of courses in 

* walls of King's chamber, six.' 

Poor John Taylor, too, misled himself and others 
in this particular, by making a copy from Sir Eobert 
Ainslie's^ view of the King's chamber, the fronti- 
spiece of his first edition of the Great Pyramid : 
why was it built, and who built it ? for therein are 
pictured six courses, as clear as the art of the 
engraver can make them. 

But that the number is five, I presume I may 
state with certainty, and without apology, — from 
having measured them again and again ; besides 
comparing the individual height of each course, and 
the number, with the whole height of the room in- 
dependently ascertained ; as likewise did Mr. Inglis 
afterwards, with the same result (see vol. ii. p. 305) ; 

* Sir Robert Ainslie's Views of Egypt, 1840. 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



165 



and we may even venture, therefore, to state the 
right designation of the chamber to be ' the chamber 

* of five,' or sometimes * the chamber of the standard 

* of fifty.' True, there are not also five courses in 
either ceiling or floor ; but there are four walls or 
vertical sides against those other two sides, and these 
two are irregular in the number of courses or joints 
they do possess. That is, the floor consists, it may 
be said, of six courses, or stripes of stones crossing 
the room from north to south ; and the ceiling, of 
nine large beams ; but the widths of both floor- 
courses and ceiling beams are unequal taken conse- 
cutively, or in any other way ; and have therefore 
not had the attention bestowed on them, that was 
eminently paid to the wall- courses, in bringing out 
the idea of number and regularity of division. 

The walls, indeed, are in this respect deserving of 
most particular notice ; for, with one exception, 
presently to be described, every one of their courses 
is of equal height v/ith every other, and runs round 
and round the room at the same height ; just as, in 
so far, well and eloquently described by Professor 
Greaves. Such an arrangement, too, being not only 
quite difi'erent from the ordinary Pyramid masonry, 
— where, if the purpose was to build a wall of so 
much area, the builders looked little or not at all to 
the regularity in size or shape of the stones, so long 
as the joints were good, and the surface-planes even 
— (sufticiently demonstrated both in the walls of the 
Grand Gallery, and in the pavement, according to 



it 



166 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



Howard Vyse, besides the neighbouring instance of 
the walls, both limestone and granite, of King 
Shafre's tomb), — not only different, we say, from 
the ordinary Egyptian mason's ideas of what need, 
or should, be done in mere wall-building, but a 
thing especially difficult and expensive to realize in 
granite. This is on account of the hardness and 
amorphous character of that material, causing the 
quarries seldom to yield two blocks of the same size 
or shape; wherefore, the expense and waste of 
trimming a continued length of more than 6000 
inches of granite blocks, near 50 inches broad, to a 
uniform height, must have been immense ; and 
not to be undertaken by any one, — certainly least 
of all by sage, religious-minded men, — without some 
very peculiar and important reason. 

But there is an anomaly, as already hinted, 
affecting the equal vertical heights of all these 
courses ; for they are each 47 inches high, except 
the lowest, — which is 47 less 5, or 42 inches 
only. More apparent, may be considered this dif- 
ference, than real ; for it is only an effect to the eye, 
caused by the granite floor being introduced within, 
and up within, the granite walls of the chamber by 
the amount of five inches ; — the blocks of this 
lowest wall- course itself, when examined at the 
sides of a hole at the north-west angle of the floor, 
being seen there to be really 47 inches high, like the 
rest. But still, why even that apparent anomaly ; 
why that too visible breaking in upon the other- 



SECT. II.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 1C7 



wise perfect symbolization of five pervading the 
entire room ? ^ (See Plate xiii. vol. ii.) 

The following consideration may have something 
to do with the reason ; especially when we remember 
that the five-inch space concerned, though quite an 
unmeaning fraction when measured in terms of the 
profane Egyptian cubit and its subdivisions, — be- 
comes a most peculiarly Great Pyramid quantity, 
both with reference, 1st, to the length of the earth's 
polar axis, 2d, to the number of inches which it, the 
five-inch space, contains, and Sd, to its actual fraction 
of the sacred cubit of the Pyramid and the Israelites ; 
viz., a fraction of l-5th. The coffer stands on the 
floor, amongst the stones of that lower course of the 
four walls, like a small vessel within a larger one of 
the same capacity-measuring kind, but of a higher 
order ; what proportion then, does the one bear to 
the other, in cubical capacity ? 

The length of the room, by our measures, is 
412*55 British, = 412*14 Pyramid inches; the 
breadth, 206*30 British, = 206*09 Pyramid inches; 
and the corrected, and by the Pyramid builders 
corrected, depth of that lower course is about 42 
inches. About only, is all we can say, so lamentable 
are now the dislocations of the floor blocks ; for, 
though described as admirably smooth and level in 

^ Over the doorway, inside, the five courses of the north wall are 
interfered with for a small space, by two of them joining into one, to 
form a stout roof-block for the said door ; but that is a constructive 
requirement, only to be looked at for a moment, to be allowed at once 
without prejudice to the chamber's whole idea. 



168 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[div. II. 



Howard Vyse's time, they now vary an inch and 
six-tenths in places ; and give, on a mean, of ten 
points measured, a depth for this course, of 41 '8 4 
inches ; but indicating, that a majority of high 
places had been needlessly taken, and that the true 
mean of the whole would have been between 41*84 
and 42*0 ; say, 41 '9 Pyramid inches. Then— 

412-14 X 206-09 x 41*9 = 3,558,899 cubic inches, 

^3,558,899 ^^^^^ 
and ^' — = 71,178. 
50 

Now, inasmuch as the 1-5 0th of the cubic contents of 
that course, if left by the builders at the uncorrected, 
or original depth of 47 inches, — would have been 
79,842 cubic inches, — we may see that their cor- 
rection of that one element, by an even quantity of 
the Pyramidally characteristic 5 inches in 'the 
chamber of five,' has at once brought out a result 
almost exactly fifty times the cubic contents of the 
coffer proper, or 71,250. 

The result, too, may originally have been some- 
what closer ; for, as the walls of the chamber do not 
now present such marvellously close joints as many 
old authors have described — (' it is really impossible 

* to force the blade of a knife between the joints ; 

* this has often been related before, but we actually 

* tried the experiment, and found it to be true,* says 
Dr. Clarke in 1801 ; whereas, now, some of the 
joints rather gape in our photographs of them in 
1865) ; — we may expect some small alterations 
of the interior size of the chamber to have occurred 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



169 



in the direction of enlarging it, at least in length and 
breadth. Assuming, then, the original measures to 
have been laid off in even Pyramid inches, and 
taking the nearest inch always to what the respec- 
tive parts measure now, we find that — 

412- X 206- X 42- 3,564,624 ^ ^ 
50 = —50— = ^1^292. 

Or actually closer than before, both to the measured 
contents of the coffer, and the theoretically deduced 
value it should possess, as the Pyramid standard of 
weight and capacity. 

Hence the chamber is constructed commensurably 
to the coffer, and the coffer to the chamber, with fifty 
and five as the ruling numbers. But there exists 
even more testimony of this sort, identifying the 
whole Pyramid also, with the coffer and its chamber ; 
in a quarter too where I had certainly never ex- 
pected to find anything of the kind, viz., the com- 
ponent courses of masonry of the entire building. 

Place of the King's Chamber in the Pyramid. 

These grand courses, which are seen so prominently 
on the outside of the Great Pyramid in the present 
day, from having had their once outer covering of 
casing-stones stripped off, are — as often described — 
rude and rectangular. Yet though rude even to 
barbarism, if intended for outside work, they are 
strongly and consistently built ; for not only is 
cement used abundantly in every joint, and the 
break-joint well managed, but the stones are keyed 



■ 



170 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[div. II. 



and wedged into each other, so that hardly can one 
be extracted from the mass, without being first 
broken in pieces, (a feature which should be well 
weighed beforehand by any one who rashly proposes 
to * drive tunnels right through every part of the 
'Pyramid and then all the stones of each course, 
are arranged in admirably horizontal layers, extend- 
ing for certain all around, and apparently also, 
through, the whole P3rramid.^ 

The French savants early noted the faithfulness 
with which every component course of stone was 
carried at the same thickness round every side of, 
and by inference through, the Pyramid ; but they 
also remarked the large irregularities which often 
and even generally occur amongst successive courses. 
So likewise must have, almost all travellers who ever 
ascended the Pyramid; though why those gentle- 
men busied themselves so frequently in counting 
the number of the courses, does not appear ; especi- 
ally as they were content to vary from each other 
between 206 and 255, — as see the accounts of tra- 
vellers throughout the last two centuries. 

In some places, the present visible contour of the 
courses is rather interfered with by debris ; but 

^ A single case of discrepance appears at the north-east angle, where 
a part of one of the courses is broken in upon by a double layer ; but 
on close examination, that small top layer is found to be merely a 
making up of a ' left part ' of the standing rock to the same height as 
the course of masonry proper. There are also instances in the mea- 
sured courses, of two thicknesses of stone being occasionally employed 
in place of one ; but that is positively to keep up the full thickness of 
the whole course ; and can be distinguished from two small courses 
by oUowing the run of the platform for some distance. 



SECT. II.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 171 

towards the west side, of the south-west angle, it 
is freer than elsewhere ; and one may contemplate 
from below, and at a distance, the formation of the 
courses, under various angles of solar illumination, 
with eminent advantage. This I used often to do ; 
and over and above special anomalies in single 
courses, noted the rate at which the whole of the 
courses gradually decreased in thickness, with their 
height, up the Pyramid side. 

Thus, near the ground, they were very large, and 
gradually diminished in size as they ascended, with 
some few minor variations. But at the thirty-sixth 
course from the bottom, all of a sudden a much 
larger series of courses begins ; i.e., larger than the 
very small size which the original ones had gradually 
dwindled down to there. One could fancy an overseer 
coming to the men at that stage, and telling them that 
they had contracted the size too rapidly, and must 
enlarge again ; or, that a new series of quarries had 
been opened, yielding larger blocks than the older 
ones. But whether the alteration was voluntary or 
accidental, it is equally plain that unless it had been 
introduced, there would have been above that point 
a larger number of courses in the Pyramid side than 
what now obtain ; and in such case, there would 
not have been found the peculiar commensurability 
which seems actually to exist and cannot be alto- 
gether accidental. For on referring in vol. ii., and 
Division i. of vol. iii., to all available measures of the 
individual heights of the courses on one hand, and 



172 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



[DIV. II. 



comparing them on the other with all determina- 
tions of the level of the King's chamber floor, — it 
will be found, that the fiftieth course of the whole 
Pyramid from the pavement upward, is practically 
identical with the floor of that already remarkable ' 
chamber. Or, such fiftieth course forms the plane, 
on which stands the mysterious coffer, — making use 
of a standard of 50 inches, in its tank of 50 times 
itself, in the chamber of five, or the chamber with 
walls in five courses, and with the symbol of five 
inscribed over its entering doorway. The mensura- 
tion numbers, with their errors, are as follows, — 

Fiftieth masonry course, vertically above Pyramid's pavement, as 
measured by — 

MM. Jomard and Ceeile, in a.d. 1800, = 1675 British inches. 
MM. Le P^re and Coutelle, . 1801, = 1696 
C. Piazzi Smyth, in April . . 1865, = 1686 ,, „ 
Messrs. Aiton and Inglis, in May 1865, = 1702 „ 

Mean height, = 1690 

Floor of King's chamber above Pjrramid pavement, as measured by — 
Howard Vyse and Perring in . 1837, = 1665 British inches. 
C. Piazzi Smyth in April . . 1865, = 1680 „ ,, 
Aiton and Inglis in May . . 1865, = 1720 „ „ 

Mean height, = 1688 

Thus the Pyramid itself appears to be closer in 
these two elements, than are the observations of 
any two modern observers on one and the same 
element ; and shows a point where future scientific 
men may usefully distinguish themselves, and re- 
deem at the same time the modern exactness and 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



173 



power both of physical science and instrumental 
investigation. 

Meanwhile the case, so far as now proved, fully 
joins the other metrical phenomena ; and enables 
one to say that there is more, and even far more, 
than accident — in having come again and again, in 
connexion with this chamber, upon these construc- 
tive allusions which it makes, to fives and fifties in 
accordance with the scientific theory of Pyramid 
metrology. And this too, although its more osten- 
sible commensurabilities, so far as made out by Sir 
Isaac Newton on Greaves' measures, had nothing 
to do with five or ten, but only with the profane 
cubit of Memphis, and its division into six and 
twenty-four, or, according to some, into seven and 
twenty-eight, parts. Hence we seem to be fully jus- 
tified in condensing a practical conclusion of the 
whole, in the neat, and, so to speak. Pyramidal form, 
in which it enables a small standard of Great Pyra- 
mid weight to be described, but with a noble refer- 
ence to universal weight, and capacity, measure. For, 
if the weight of the whole, original, cofier's contents 
of water (at the temperature of 68° Fahrenheit) be 
divided by fifty times fifty, there is produced what 
may be called a pound weight of the Pyramid ; and 
which can be referred to, or scientifically checked 
anywhere all the world over, in weight, as, * 5 cubic 
* inches of the earth's mean density.' 

The arrangements of this most cosmopolitan 



174 STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. [DIV. II. 

standard, to form a practical system of weight and 
capacity measures, are expressible thus, — the inter- 
vening multipliers or divisors being understood to 
be arbitrary, except in so far as they accord with 
the already established Great Pyramid numbers and' 
proportions : — 

Pyramid Weight Measure. 



Earth's mean density, 
substance of, in Pyramid 
cubic inches. 

Unit = 1 grain, . . . = 0005 

100 grains = I dram, . . . = O'OS 
10 drams = 1 ounce, . . . e= 0'5 
10 ounces = 1 pound, . . , = 5-0 
10 pounds = 1 stone, . . . = 50*0 
10 stones = 1 cwt., . . . = 500 

25 cwt. = 1 ton, . . . = 12,500 

50 tons «= 1 rock, . . . = 625, 000 

Pyramid Capacity Measure. 

Sacred Hebrew Standards. Pyramid cubic Inches 

(Vol. ii. p. 470.) of bulk. 

Unit = 1 drop, . . . , t= 00285 

100 drops = 1 spoon, . . . . = 0*285 

10 spoons = 1 glass, . , . . = 0*85 

10 glasses = 1 pint, . . . . = 28*5 

10 pints = 1 gallon, . . . . = 285*0 

10 gallons = 1 bushel, . . . = 2,850*0 

25 bushels = 1 coffer = 1 ark, or laver, = 71,250 

50 coffers = 1 keel «= 1 * molten -sea,' = 3,562,500*0 



Relations of Pyramid Capacity, and Weight, Measure. 



1 drop of water, at temp. 

1 spoon „ 
1 glass 

1 pint „ 

1 gallon „ 

1 bushel ,, 

1 coffer ,, 
1 keel 



68° Fahr., in we 



ight = 



1 grain. 
1 dram. 
1 ounce. 
1 pound. 
1 stone. 
1 cwt. 
1 ton. 
1 rock. 



SECT. II.] 



STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 



175 



The relations again of these Pyramid weights and 
measures with the British Imperial system, at their 
most important points of connexion, are — 

For Weight. 

. ^ ( 0-960 grains, old English. 

1 gram Pyramid, . . . ^ \ o.^2o\, new English. 

1 pound, .,...= 1 '028 pound avoirdupois. 

I cwt., ■= 0-918 cwt. „ 

1 ton ^(1-148 ton 

' ( 0-956 ton, shipping. 

And for Capacity. 

1 drop Pyramid, , . . = 0*792 drop apothecary's. 

1 pint, = 0-987 old wine pint. 

1 gallon, =1*031 gallon imperial. 

1 coflfer, =1 '007 of four quarters imp. 



Determination of Weights on the Pyramid 
system. 

Much importance is usually attached among 
metrologists, to an easy method of determining 
weights from linear measures; and the English 
arrangement has been much decried on this par- 
ticular point, in comparison with the French. But 
the Pyramid system appears to combine most of 
what is advantageous in either, with some merits 
that are peculiarly its own. 

For, the number of cubic inches in any mass 
having been obtained, — its weight in lbs., is simply 
l-5th of that number : or, if the bulk has been 
worked out in cubic cubits, — its weight in tons, is the 
same as the number of such cubits with l-4th more 



176 STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. [DIV. II. 



added to them.^ That is, the weight will be so 
many pounds, or so many tons, respectively, if the 
quality of the substance as to density be like that 
of the mean contents of the whole earth ; but if it 
be of the heavier, as gold, or the lighter, as water* 
an alteration must be made accordingly ; or, in 
short, a table of specific gravities must be referred 
to, as with the English, French, or any other 
system. 

The usual tables, however, at present most fre- 
quently met with, are arranged in terms of water as 
unity ; except, indeed, the astronomical, which have 
long used the more exalted Pyramid unit, of the 
earth's mean density. We may therefore appro- 
priately conclude this section, by an example of a 
general table of specific gravities, arranged to suit 
the requirements equally of the ancient Pyramid 
metrology, and the most advanced modern astro- 
nomy. 



Specific Gravities. 

Earth's Mean Density, = 1. 

COSMICAL. 



Sun, 


. 0-25 


Mars, 


. 0-95 


Mercury, 


. M2 


Jupiter, . 


. 0-24 


Venus, . 


. 0-92 


Saturn, . 


. 0-14 


Meteoric stones, 


. 0-61 


Uranus, . 


. 0-24 


Meteoric iron, 


. 1-23 


Neptune, 


. 014 


Earth, . 


. 1-00 







^ Conversely, the weight of a body being given, to find its cubical 
measure, — multiply the pounds-weight by five, for the number of 
cubical inches; and decrease the tons-weight by l-5th, to find the 
number of cubic cubits. 



SECT. II.] STANDARDS OF WEIGHT. 177 



Terrestrial. — {Specific Oravities.) 



Cork, 


. 0043 


Aluminium, . 


0-460 


Poplar wood, . 


. 0067 


Red granite (Peterhead), 


0-464 


Larch wood, . 


. 0-095 


Red granite (Great Pyramid), -47 9 


Honduras mahogany, 


. O'lOO 


Bottle glass, . 


0-480 


Lithium, 


0-100 


Diorite (Great Pyramid), 


0-484 


Pitch-pine, 


. 0116 


Jasper, .... 


0-494 


Beech-wood, . 


. 0122 


Basalt (mean of 3 varieties 




Riga fir, 


. 0132 


from near Great Pyramid), 0-500 


Spanish mahogany, . 


. 0-150 


Arragonite, 


0-517 


Potassium, 


. 0-150 


Flint-glass, 


0-584 


Wax, 


. 0158 


Diamond, 


0-618 


Tallow, . 


0166 


Sapphire, 


0-701 


Oakwood, 


. 0170 


Ruby, .... 


0-751 


Sodium, . 


0-170 


Arsenic, 


1-01 


Distilled water, 


0-175 


Chromium, 


I 04 


Sea water, 


. 0-180 


Tellurium, 


1-10 


Water from Dead Sea, 


. 0-218 


Cast antimony. 


1-18 


Lignumvitse, . 


. 0-234 


Cast zinc. 


1-26 


Calcium, 


. 0-280 


Cast iron. 


1-27 


Bone of an ox, 


. 0-291 


Cast tin, 


1-28 


Magnesium, 


. 0-310 


Bar iron. 


1-36 


Ivory, . 


. 0-320 


Hard steel. 


1-37 


Graphite or plumbago, 


. 0-340 


Cast brass. 


1-47 


Brick, 


. 0-.351 


Cast copper, . 


1-54 


Great Pyramid casing-stone, 0*367 


Cast bismuth. 


1-72 


Glucinum, 


. 0-370 


Cast silver. 


1-84 


Gypsum, 


. 0-381 


Cast lead. 


1-99 


* Paving stone,' 


. 0-424 


Mercury, 


2-38 


* Common stone,' 


. 0-442 


Cast gold. 


3-38 


Strontium, 


. 0-450 


Hammered gold. 


3-40 


Desert sand from near 




Pure platinum. 


3-42 


Sphinx, 


. 0-454 


Platinum, laminated or 




Flint, 


. 0-455 


beaten into leaves. 


3-87 



SECTION III. 

STANDARDS OF HEAT. 

Inasmuch as all known substances, both fluid and 
solid, vary in size and specific gravity with every 
VOL. in. m 



178 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. [DIV. II. 



accession of imponderable heat, some definite tem- 
perature must be referred to, when dealing accurately 
with standards either of length, capacity, or weight ; 
and thus it came, that many years ago, the British 
linear standards were referred for their zero of 
length to the temperature of 62° Fahrenheit, and 
the French metrical system to 32° of the same 
scale. Not indeed expressed by the French authori- 
ties in that scale, for they refused to be bound, as 
the English so easily allowed themselves to be, by 
the whim of the Dutchman Fahrenheit ; and per- 
ceiving early the intrinsic connexion between heat 
and other subjects of metrology, they, the French 
authors of the metrical system, very wisely made 
their subdivisions of the great natural unit of heat, 
conformable to their other decimal arrangements, 
whence their now celebrated Centigrade scale of the 
thermometer, having at the freezing point, and 
100 at the boiling point of water. 

In practice, indeed, some unexpected difficulties 
were found in the way of realizing, as a heat re- 
ferring point, the 0° of their scale for all the French 
standards of measure ; and in the same searching 
furnace of practice, the British referring point of 
62° Fahr., has been somewhat departed from in its 
full integrity and simplicity. Yet, inasmuch as the 
necessity of referring any and every part of metro- 
logy to something definite on the water-scale of heat, 
has rather grown, than lost, in importance in the 
eyes of modern philosophers, with all this increase of 



SECT. III.] STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



179 



perplexity and trouble, — more attention than ever 
must be paid to its ultimate refinements, in any 
system which may hope to continue before the world. 
Let our first inquiry therefore, at the Pyramid be, 
whether it possesses any heat-reference for its 
standards of measure ? 

No indications, indeed, of a thermometer of any 
acknowledged kind, are to be seen in the Great 
Pyramid ; but a little reflection will soon show the 
attentive visitor, that the whole building forms in 
itself a something more important stiU, towards 
attaining success in carrying out practically, even 
the most refined operations of metrology ; for the 
Pyramid's enormous mass of solid, and slow con- 
ducting-of-heat, masonry, at whose overwhelming 
amount the world has hitherto merely wondered, or 
jeered, or inveighed, or abused, must have the useful 
and inevitable effect of remarkably equalizing the 
temperature on anything, as the granite coffer, con- 
tained within its substance. 

The linear standard, it is true, does not seem to 
have that protection ; for, being the length of one 
side of the base of the Pyramid, and defined by the 
corner-sockets, it depends not so much on the 
building, as the natural rock of the hill. But there, 
we presume, that not the most critical geodesists 
of the present day, would pretend that any season 
temperature correction could possibly be required ; 
for in all their own practice, whenever they have 
measured base lines directly, or trigonometrical lines 



180 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



indirectly, on any part of the surface of the earth, 
whether by day or by night, summer or winter, or 
even year after year, they have never considered any 
reduction for variations of temperature admissible 
or sensible : the variations felt on the surface, being 
supposed to be merely skin-deep, over a uniform heat 
below, and unable to produce any mechanical altera- 
tion of size. 

Equally then, at the Pyramid, must the linear 
standard, seeing that it is not a loose bar of brass, 
but part of the earth surface, — be considered by the 
involuntary testimony of all modern geodetical 
practice, to be invariable in the temperature which 
governs its size ; and whatever that temperature 
may be, the capacity standard is bound to the same, 
— by being surrounded and covered in, in its place in 
the King's chamber, — with so huge a mass of nearly 
solid building, — that variation of season, cannot be 
felt within its interior. A necessarily constant and 
therefore definite temperature, exists for each of the 
Pyramid standards ; and, in so far, they can be in- 
troduced worthily amongst the most perfect inven- 
tions of modern science towards the same end, — if we 
can discover what that definite temperature is ; and 
if, also, there be anything about it, either in amount 
or character, indicative of design in the builders, or 
desire on their part to have obtained that particular 
temperature, rather than any other ? 

Now here, is one of the most curious parts of the 
whole Pyramid question ; for, on referring to the 



SECT. III.] STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



181 



French observations of temperature in and out of 
the Pyramid, they will be found to indicate that the 
temperature is close to 68° Fahr., or what might be 
called a temperature of l-5th ; that is, l-5th the 
distance between the freezing and boiling of water, 
measured upwards from the freezing point. And if 
that quantity be further supposed to be divided into 
fifty parts, — suitably with the 50 -inch standard re- 
ferred to for weight and capacity measure in the 
chamber of Jive, or the King's chamber reached by 
fifty courses from the ground, — then the whole 
distance between freezing and boiling will be re- 
presented by 250 ; while 1000 of the same degrees 
represent as nearly as it has been measured, or 
given out by the ' Difiusion of Useful Knowledge 
* Society,' that very notable physical point in the 
temperature scale, where heat begins to give out 
light, or iron is seen to be red-hot in the dark.^ 

All these numbers, then, are eminently coincident 
with the divisions and subdivisions of the rest of 
the Pyramidal metrology ; while the reference to an 
earth temperature, viz., that of the Pyramid hill, 
depending chiefly on its parallel of latitude, and ex- 
pressed only, but not regulated, by the accurate 
mensuration afforded in the physical nature of 
water, — is perfectly suitable to the principle already 
shown to have been followed in capacity and weight 
measure ; or that of employing for their regulation 

^ Diflfiision of Knowledge Society's NaturaJ. Philosophy, vol. ii. 
p. 63. 



182 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



the whole earth's mean density, but for their 
practical expression, water. Hence, design will be 
begun to be indicated in the temperature arrange- 
ments of the Pyramid, if the heat point of 68° Fahr. 
be really found to prevail there, on further measures 
being obtained than the few and scanty French 
ones^ already alluded to. 

The first and most definite inquiry, therefore, to 
be made with this view, is to ascertain the tem- 
perature of the King's chamber ; and the moment 
that was made by myself, and equally whenever it 
was made (see the observations in vol. ii. p. 207), 
extending from 19 th January to 1st April, the tem- 
perature came out, not 68°, but closer to 75° Fahr. 

Of this there was no doubt whatever, for varia- 
tions of two or three tenths of a degree are not 
worth talking about in presence of 7°. Was the 
whole proposition, therefore, negatived ? By no 
means, as yet ; for what feature of the Pyramid 
is there, which renders at once by measurement, in 
the present day, its ancient proportions ? None ; 
seeing that in every case the first measure only gives 
us the original building plus (perhaps I should say 
minus), some awful amount of dilapidation, destruc- 
tion, or alteration, and which must be immediately 
inquired into as to its numerical efi'ect. So it is 
with the heat question ; and the first anomaly to 

^ The temperature is stated by M. Jomard and Colonel Coutelle to 
have been 22 ° C. in the King's chamber, 25*° C. in tombs outside, and 
17-° or 18-° C, in Joseph's Well at Cairo. 



SECT. 111.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



183 



force itself on the attention of a careful observer is, 
the finding that while the King s chamber marks 
75°; the Queen's chamber below, marks 74°; and 
the well mouth, lower still, marks 73°. 

*Ah!' then might even an untutored country- 
man easily see reason enough to exclaim, on find- 
ing, — in such a latitude and elevation above the 
soil, — ^mean temperatures decreasing with descent^ 
and all of them too great ; * Ah ! there is a centre of 

* disturbance up here aloft, and prevailing to a 

* larger extent in the King's chamber than in lower 

* parts of the building ; the cause of it must be 
' searched for without delay.' 

One source of the anomaly is without any doubt 
the daily visits of numerous parties of travellers, 
with their multitudinous Arabs, all of them supplied 
with lighted candles, and abounding in animal 
spirits, dancing their hornpipes ' over King Cheops' 

* tombstone,' banging the cofi'er for accompanying 
music, and throwing ofi* waves of heat all the time ; 
which heat-waves, first entering the air of the 
chamber, and not being able to escape thereby, as 
the ventilating tubes are now choked up, — must in- 
fallibly affect the walls. But as these walls are 170 
feet thick, no sensible carrying away by conduction 
or radiation from their outer surfaces can possibly 
take place ; and there seems no other eventuality 
in store, than a continual rising of temperature in 
the King's chamber, so long as these ceaseless evolu- 
tions of imported heat of a higher temperature take 



184 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



place, and no counteracting eflfect can gain ad- 
mittance. Even when a small party had visited the 
chamber on one occasion, March 25, I found after 
they had gone, an increase of 0*4° in a thermometer 
inside the hole of the northern air-channel ; and, 
more notably still, when I was, although solitarily, 
watching for three hours, yet in the confined space 
of the forced passage intercepting the northern air- 
channel further on, — and representing therefore more 
nearly the eflfect of a large party almost filling the 
Kings chamber, — the thermometer rose 3*6°, or to 
78-2° Fahr. 

Hence a likely remark that an observer, seeing 
and feeling all these things, may probably make, 
will be, * What a wise idea and necessary institution 

* those air-channels of the ancient builders must 

* have been, to keep up equality of temperature in- 
' side the Great Pyramid ; or rather to prevent 

* disturbances to the said equal temperature accru- 
' ing. For, if living men were intended and expected 

* to visit the inside, nothing but a current of air 
' could efl&ciently carry away the doses of heat they 

* would involuntarily throw out, so long as they 

* were there ; and which doses, if not bodily carried 

* away, must go on, in such a locality, perpetually 

* accumulating.' Important of course that the air- 
channels should not be too large, lest the heat of a 
summer's day and cold of a winter one should 
thereby enter too freely to the central apartment of 
the Pyramid ; but on comparing the smallness of 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



185 



the bore and length of stone channel of these air- 
tubes of the Pyramid, with the similar elements of 
culverts in the new Palace of Westminster, — and 
allowed there, on the testimony of critical examiners, 
to give something very like the mean temperature of 
the year, to air passing through them, even on the 
hottest summer's day, — there seems to be abundant, 
and even superabundant, security that the same con- 
trolling effect will be exercised at the Pyramid. 

When Colonel Howard Yyse opened both of the 
air-channels in 1837, he speaks of * the sudden rush 
* of air that took place,' — indicating pretty clearly 
the anomalous state of temperature into which the 
King's chamber had previously grown, during the 
long closing of these important channels. And had 
he observed thermometers then, and at frequent in- 
tervals subsequent to his successful unlocking of 
the vents, — he would have found the extra heat 
draining away, from day to day, just as the waters 
of the great Ethiopian lake are reported to have 
done, when their northern barrier was broken 
through in the days of Joseph's patron king, Phiops, 
Aphophis, or Apappus. But what thermometrical 
point the chamber would have lowered down to, at 
least by this process of merely drawing off the 
extra heat, or to what point it was lowered before 
the air-channels were again stopped up, — is very 
difficult to say ; and though the world is now so 
much increased in wealth, it may be long before 
another equally liberal-minded man to Colonel 



186 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



Howard Vyse will be found, to undertake the clear- 
ing out of the air -channels once more from the 
mischievous quantities of sand and stone thrown 
into them ; and allow of the temperature experi- 
ment being tried again, and this time more fully 
and scientifically. 

In the dearth, however, of such opportunities, 
we will venture our own opinion, that the lowering 
would by no means amount to the 7° required to 
reduce the 75° at present observable, to the 68° of 
the hypothesis ; and because, a part of the anomaly 
is due to another source, and one equally unintended 
by the original builders, — viz., the practical absence 
of loatery vapour. The climatal efiect of this most 
important natural agent has been well entered into 
by Principal Forbes, in his paper on Mean Tem- 
peratures, in the 2 2d volume, part 1, of the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and 
with the efiect of showing, from an inductive 
examination of the relations of mean temperature, 
latitude, and the relative proportion of land and 
sea in a given parallel, — that there would be in 
latitude 30°, an increase of 19° Fahr. in the mean . 
temperature, were the surface made entirely of land, 
in preference to entirely of water. 

Now, though we all know that neither the globe 
nor the parallel of 30° north, is composed entirely 
of land, yet the region about the Pyramid speaks 
more of desert than of ocean ; and besides that, in 
confined localities, as inside any of the tombs, and 



SECT. III.] STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



187 



even over definite tracts of the desert, — caused by 
the hold of the ground upon the air, and the not 
'perfect mobility of the latter, — there are some very 
close imitations occasionally found of the tempera- 
tures proper to a globe without water. Hence it is, 
that temperatures higher than 68°, as 73° and 74°, 
are found even in the well of the Great Pyramid, 
in the sepulchral chamber of the second Pyramid, 
and many other localities not visited by very large 
numbers of travellers or Arabs. But all these 
temperatures come within, and abundantly within, 
the limits assigned by Principal Forbes to 30° of 
latitude north, on either the total land or total 
water hypothesis, i.e., between 80*9° and 61*9° ; 
while they would also be infallibly reduced some- 
what, and in the direction of 68°, if an evolution 
of, and ventilation by, watery vapour were freely 
allowed in their vicinity ; and an approach thereby 
made to the natural circumstances of the parallel as 
a whole. 

That, on one hand, the builders intended watery 
vapour to be present, may be assumed ; first, from 
the part which water plays in the capacity measures 
of the coffer; second, from the existence of the 
lower well, which, though in commencement only, 
descends from the floor of the subterranean chamber 
straight down towards the well-water level of the 
region, even as the square well of the sepulchral 
chamber in King Shafre's tomb does descend to, and 
reach, it ; and third, from the fragments of tradi- 



188 STANDARDS OF HEAT. [DIV. II. 



tion gathered by Herodotus and others as to the 
tomb of King Cheops, the builder of the Great 
Pyramid, being at the bottom of the structure, on 
an island surrounded by the waters of the Nile. 
And that, on the other hand, by such introduction 
of the Nile waters into the lower parts of the Pyra* 
mid, the temperature of the hollow portions of the 
upper part of the building (communicating by open 
passages with the lower), would be brought to some- 
thing exceedingly close to the temperature of l-5th, 
or 68*° Fahr., may be concluded from several sources. 

First, general earth observation and physical 
theory. 

These are given well in Principal Forbes's paper, 
already alluded to ; the observations being the ex- 
tensive collections of all countries made by Professor 
Dove of Berlin, and the theory, — Principal Forbes's 
physical theory, — connecting them all together ; 
and they give, for the mean temperature actually 
existing in 30*° of latitude north, the former 69*8°, 
and the latter 69*4°. The reduction of these quan- 
tities to the latitude of the Pyramid, or 1' 10" south 
of 30°, is practically insensible, amounting only to 
0*015° Fahr. ; but their reduction from the sea 
level, at which alone they apply, to the elevated 
position of the Pyramid at its base, or 2580 inches 
there above, is much more important, and unfor- 
tunately rather uncertain ; for though in our own 
country, say in latitude 53°, the decrease of tem- 
perature with elevation has become pretty well ascer- 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



189 



tained to be, at the rate nearly of 1° for every 3312 
inches of height from the surface of the earth, — a 
much more rapid decrease may be expected in a 
latitude of 30°, where the surface is exceedingly 
heated by continual sunshine, while the streams of 
the atmosphere over it, must present a balance of 
many, and more shaded, latitudes. The only obser- 
vation, too, which I was enabled to make bearing 
on this point, viz., one between the minimum 
temperature simultaneously of East Tombs and the 
summit of the Great Pyramid, — shows the rate 
exceedingly greater, or V for every 1000 inches of 
ascent ; but that is probably exaggerated, for the 
mean temperature at least ; and the result we are 
therefore brought to for the mean temperature of 
the base of the Pyramid, as derived from both 
general earth observations and approved physical 
theory, is something between 69*0° and 66*9°; the 
mean whereof happens to be, 68*0° Fahr. 

Good observations for mean temperature at the 
Great Pyramid itself, would of course be preferable 
to these deductions from observations taken in 
every other part of the world except the Pyramid ; 
but such observations are wanting, for no person 
capable of observing has ever stayed there long 
enough. My own observations bear on the ques- 
tion no doubt, but, extending over only a third part 
of the year, cannot be employed without an uncer- 
tain reduction of the first four, to the whole twelve, 
months. Let us see, however, what they indicate. 



190 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



The atmospheric observations (vol. ii. p. 26 5) taken 
daily by self-registering thermometers, give for the 
simple mean of maximum and minimum thermo- 
meters (a very usual, though not perfectly accurate, 
method), 64*6° for the period in question ; while the 
discussion of the hourly observations taken once a 
week during the same time, and safe from some of 
the sources of error to which the minimum ther- 
mometer was exposed, give 63°*4. Wherefore, 
doubling the weight of this result on account of 
its instrumental superiority, the best mean result 
deducible from both methods would seem to be, 
63-8° Fahr. 

Then for the reduction of any number obtained 
during the four months employed, to a whole year, 
the following data have been collected from the 
following sources : — 









Reduction of 










mean temp, of 

first four 
months, to the 




Date. 


Place. 


Latitude, 




Authority. 








whole twelve 










months of the 










year. 






( Towns of ) 
( Scotland, ) 




Fahr. 




' Meteorological 


1856-1865 


56° 12' N. 


+ 6-9° 




Society of Scot- 
land. 


1840-1851 


Dublin, 


53 23 


+ 60 




Rev, H. Lloyd, 
D.D. 

Royal Engineers 


1853-1865 


Malta, 


35 54 „ 


+ 10-0 




and Military 
Medical StaflF. 


1862 


Bombay, 


18 54 „ 


+ 2-8 




Bombay Obser- 
vatory Volume. 


1848 


Aden, 


12 46 „ 


+ 4-4 




Col. Sykes, Phil. 
Trans. 



Some of these numbers we fear are not so accu- 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



191 



rate as they might be, for one set assumes that 
observations at 9h. 30 m. A.M., and 3h. 30 m. p.m., 
necessarily give the mean temperature of all the in- 
stants composing 24 hours, — whereas it will be seen 
from our table of hourly corrections (vol. ii. p. 261), 
that these instants are both in excess, one of them, 
indeed, very near the time of maximum solar in- 
fluence ; and the other observers have seldom noted 
more than the simple points of maximum and mini- 
mum, the latter marked on a thermometer not so 
sensitive as what is employed for the former. 
Taking, however, from them all a positive cor- 
rection of + 6°, for the seasonal eflfect, and an 
elevation effect of — 1° from our own experience to 
reduce from the meteorological station to the Pyra- 
mid base, — we have for final result, and as deduced 
from local atmospheric observations, 6 8 '8° for the 
quantity sought after ; in place of 68*0° even. 

And lastly, referring to the well temperatures, 
which are often thought to give at once the mean 
temperature of a country without further trouble, 
the mean of twelve observations (see vol. ii. p. 202) 
of Cairo wells gives 69'9° ; of ten observations of 
agricultural wells in the alluvial flat opposite to the 
Pyramid, 69*1° ; and of six in King Shafre's tomb- 
well, closely approaching in position, age, and 
character, any water well in the Great Pyramid, 
these give 64*6° Fahr. 

The further small corrections which these raw 
observations may require for season and elevation, 



1 



192 STANDARDS OF HEAT. [DIV. II. 

I will not attempt to inquire into, with the scanty 
means for that purpose at my disposal. When, too, 
we find that every result, whether from theory, 
atmospherical observation, or well-water observation, 
oscillates closely upon the temperature of l-5th, or 
68° Fahr., — it is probable a long series of measures 
would have to be carried on daily, and for many 
years, before any one could decidedly say from local 
data alone, whether the true quantity is below or 
above that peculiar point.* In the meanwhile, 
however, it is most likely plain to every one, that 
both watery vapour and hypsometric elevation are 
required in the latitude of the P^Tamid, to prevent 
the actual mean temperature being too high : or, 
these things being given, that a very different lati- 
tude from 30°, could not have been fixed on for the 
Pyramid with any appearance of a temperature of 
l-5th ; the mean temperature of 20° north latitude 
being no less than 7*5° greater, and of 40° north 
latitude 12 '3° less, than for 30° north latitude, 
according to the general collection of observations 
and the theory, already mentioned. 

Hence, compared both with nature, and the 
modern European scales of temperature, the as- 
sumed, and apparently the real, Pyramid scale of 
temperature reads as follows : — 

^ The annual mean temperatures by observation at fifty-five stations 
of the Meteorological Society of Scotland were, in 1856, = 45-7°; in 
1857, = 48-0° ; in 1858, = 46 6° ; in 1859, = 46-8° ; in 1860, = 44-5° ; 
in 1861, = 46-9°; in 1862, = 46 9°; in 1863,= 468°; in 1864, = 
45-5° ; and in 1865, = 46 9°. 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



193 





Pyramid 
Scale. 


Fahrenheit 
Scale. 


Centigrade 
Scale. 


Reaumur 
Scale. 


Iron bright red in the dark, 
Water boils, 

High summer temperature ) 
at Great Pyramid, ( 

Mean temperature at Great ) 
Pyramid, . . ( 

Water at maximum den- ) 
sity, nearly . . ) 

Water freezing, . 


1000-° 
250- 

100- 

so- 
lo- 

0- 


752-° 
212- 

104- 

68- 

39-2 
32- 


400-° 
100- 

40- 

20- 

4- 
0- 


320-*' 
80- 

32- 

16- 

3-2 
0- 



Second part of the Heat question. 

As already indicated on p. 178, so insidious, multi- 
farious, and difficult are the actions of heat, that the 
originally simple references of both the British and 
French systems have rather broken down in practice ; 
and exhibit now, how vain are the eiBforts of man to 
set his own rules to nature. 

Thus the British idea of referring everything 
metrological to 62° Fahrenheit, is generally ignored 
by all Englishmen in their measures of specific 
gravity, where the more even number of 6 0° Fahren- 
heit is preferred ; sundry references too are made 
to the density of water, by some at the temperature 
of 39-2° Fahrenheit, and by others at 40° Fahrenheit ; 
while more recently still, the copies of the standard 
yard made under Government supervision, if found 
too long or too short at the standard temperature of 
62°, are issued, under authority, as being of the cor- 
rect length at some other temperature — as 59°, 63°, 
6 5°, or whatever the individual case of linear error 

VOL. III. N 



194 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. [DIV. II. 



may require, according to the expansion of the 
material from heat. 

In the French philosophers' system, again, it was 
thought to be a magnificent idea at first, to ^lave 
declared the freezing temperature of water their heat 
referring point ; because, there was then no depen- 
dence on any thermometer. But though such a 
temperature may answer with permanent solids, it is 
very inconvenient, and something worse, when using 
these in combination with water to obtain the 
French unit of weight ; and in fact, for that pur- 
pose, the water had to be raised in temperature, 
until it had ceased the anomalous expansions it in- 
dulges in on approaching the crystalline state, and 
had acquired its condition of greatest fluid density 
somewhere beween 39° and 40° Fahrenheit. 

A thermometer, then, must be employed after all 
to get the expansions of the solid vessel, holding the 
water, between 32° and 40° Fahrenheit ; and neither 
of these two temperatures are found agreeable or 
conducive towards good measures being obtained 
by man. For not only does man, as a warm-blooded 
animal, use his faculties to most advantage in a 
temperature very much higher than that of freezing 
water ; but there are pernicious effects to the instru- 
ments he is studying, when the difference of his 
own heat and theirs, amounts to a large quantity ; 
such heat exchanges increasing at a very accelerated 
rate, with the simple increase of the differences 
between two neighbouring bodies. So important is 



SECT. ITT.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



195 



this consideration in some inquiries, that we have 
heard an eminent Indian geodesist hastily declare, 
that ' he would have his experimenting and instru- 

* ment-making room heated up to blood-heat, say 

* 98*4° Fahrenheit." But then he soon after allowed, 
that such a temperature would be rather too high for 
his full purpose ; for though 98*4° Fahrenheit, may 
be the heat of man's interior, it is not that of his 
exterior and neighbourhood, — besides being, in the 
air breathed, too relaxing to both body and mind 
when at difficult work. 

Lastly, too, we have to chronicle the inglorious 
termination of the French heat-referring point, for 
their solid and official metre ; for the said metre 
bar having been found too short by a very notable 
quantity, owing to an error in the triangulation of 
France recently discovered, — the freezing point has 
been given up, and that parent of all the metres is 
now referred to, as representing its intended length, 
only when it has been expanded by rising to a 
temperature of something near to 50° Fahr. An 
accidental temperature, in fact ; the accident of an 
accident ; representing nothing great in nature ; 
and liable to be altered again at any subsequent 
time, to some other accidental quantity, when a new 
error in the steps by which the metre was obtained, 
shall unhappily be discovered. 

The friends of the French metre, either hush up 
this result ; or, affect to look rather too kindly upon 
it, and say, — * How beautiful that the French metre 



196 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. [DIV. II. 



* should be self-adjustible, and always show mankind, 

* through means of more or less heat- expansion, the 

* length of one-ten-millionth of the quadrant of the 
' meridian passing from the North Pole through the 

* city of Paris to the Equator.'^ But supposing, or 
allowing to them, that it does so, — they must them- 
selves confess, that they keep up their connexion 
with that one natural linear unit, and not the best 
of its kind in the world, by sacrificing their con- 
nexion with another unit of a difierent natural 
element, and not less important, — \\z., the heat 
unit.^ 

If then, both the British and French heat 
references have failed, in practice, to hold men 
true to their ancient covenants with them,— is 
there any chance that the Pyramid reference, if 
tried, would fare any better ^ 

We believe it would, and for the following 
reasons : — 

* The friends of the metre are not often quite so clear in their 
statement of the fact, — for they delight sometimes, in referring the 
metre's origin, even as a decimal scale, to ' one of the great circles of 
' the earth,' — when really only l-4th i>art of such circle was ever at- 
tempted to be referred to, — and the decimal division cannot apply 
equally to both. Neither, again, do they often let their readers know, 
that late researches on the figure of the earth, have shown that 
quadrants of the meridian in the northern hemisphere, vary in length 
with their longitude ; so that the length of the French quadrant ia 
local and national only, not universal and cosmopolitan to all the 
nations of the earth. (See vol. ii. p. 450.) 

2 In the enlarged Natural Philosophy of the present day, expanded 
as it has been by the dynamical theory of heat, — questions of heat are 
more momentous to the prospects of life and energy, in and throughout 
the universe, than anything connected with a little more or less linear 
proportions. 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



197 



Isty As a temperature of l-5th, and marked by 
50° on its own scale, it would have certain 
numerical advantages in arithmetical operations ; 
or, the evenness of the Centigrade, with the greater 
expressiveness of the smaller degrees of Fahrenheit. 

2dy The temperature of l-5th, or 68° Fahr., is 
most admirably adapted to human beings to breathe 
and labour in ; or literally for life and work ; feeling, 
as we have experienced again and again in Egypt, 
simply pleasant, fresh, and wholesome, without sense 
either of numbing cold, or oppressive heat ; and 

3d, There seems a prospect of its bemg a vastly 
more important natural unit, than what has been 
hitherto mentioned ; and a something, therefore, 
which all men endued with sense, would be as 
careful how they altered, as they would be morally 
with regard to removing their neighbour's land- 
marks. We have hitherto, for instance, merely 
spoken of the temperature of l-5th as being by 
nature, or art, or both, that of the Great Pyramid, 
in the particular spot of the earth where that build- 
ing was set down ; but what will nations say if that 
temperature be, and that one place be found to 
have, the mean temperature of the whole surface of 
the earth ; and yet this may be infeiTed, at least to 
the degree of accuracy whereto modern observation 
enables us to proceed. 

In some works, no doubt, and works much spread 
among the people, the temperature of 50° or 51° 
Fahr., is mentioned as that *of the whole earth/ 



198 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



Of the whole surface of the earth, may be presumed 
to have been meant ; for, if we were to take account 
of a molten interior, there would be an inconveniently 
high result for mankind to examine metrological 
standards in ; and climate, which is so important to 
man's well-being, is an affair of surface, and super- 
ficial influences on the earth, only. Even in this 
necessarily limited view of the case, however, the 
above authors seem to have mistaken a determination 
of the temperature in latitude 45°, or the middle point 
of a meridian line along the surface, for that of the 
area of the ivhole surface of the earth. The latter is of 
course the true reference, and the middle parallel in 
either hemisphere for surface, is by no means 45° ; 
but, if computed as a sphere, comes out 30°; or the 
exact latitude of the Pyramid as already mentioned, 
all but the small defalcation of 1' 1 0". 

Hence, the annual mean temperature of the 
parallel of 30° latitude, is more likely to be the 
mean temperature of the whole surface of the earth, 
than is that of 45°. But not necessarily with exact- 
ness ; for it must depend, partly on the rate at which 
the temperatures increase, or decrease, on either side 
of the parallel ; and also, on the difference of tem- 
peratures in the two hemispheres of the world. Of 
this last, indeed, very little is known as a whole ; 
for though in low latitudes, southern parallels are 
colder than northern, there is no necessity, — as 
Professor Dove has remarked, — that the same feature 
should still prevail in higher latitudes. 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



199 



As a first approximation, then, let us take the 
northern hemisphere alone, and ascertain the tem- 
peratures both of 30° latitude, — which parallel evenly 
divides the surface between Pole and Equator, — 
and of the latitudes 48° 35' and 14° 29', which like- 
wise evenly divide the surfaces between the Pole 
and 30° latitude on one side, and between 30° 
latitude and the Equator on the other. 

The data for this purpose are extracted from 
Table iii. of Principal Forbes's important Memoir, 
above quoted, and appear as follows : — 





Temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit. 


Latitude. 






Forbes's Formula. 




Observations col- 


Theory by 








lected by Dove. 


Forbes. 












All land. 


All water. 


North. 










60° 


29-8 


27-5° 


18-4° 


37-4° 


60 


42-5 


43 


39-9 


46-5 


40 


56-5 


58-0 


Cl-4 


54-9 


30 


69-8 


69-4 


80-9 


61-9 


20 


77-5 


76-6 


96-5 


67-3 


10 


79-9 


79-6 


106-3 


70-6 





79-7 


80-0 


109-8 


71-7 



Whence we derive the mean temperature for lati- 
tude — 

Fahr. 

48° 35' Lat. By theory, . . = 45-1° 
30 „ „ . . = 69-4 

14 29 „ „ . . = 78-2 

And the mean, doubling the middle ) _ ^ 
latitude co-efficieut, ) 

The first approximation, therefore, by doing little 
more than attending to the nature of the circum- 



200 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



stances really concerned, when the surface of the 
earth is in question, — has brought up the quantity 
from the previously believed 50° to 65*5° Fahr., or 
within 2 '5° of the l-5th temperature ; and the chief 
part of that comparatively small difference, may be 
suspected to arise from error in the theory employed, 
when computing for the northernmost latitude. 

That there is such an error may be inferred thus : 
The mean temperature of Scotland, derived from 
fifty-five of the stations of its Meteorological So- 
ciety, having a mean lat. of 56° 30' north, and eleva- 
tion above sea=3072 inches, is for the period from 







Fahr. 


1856 to 1857, or 2 years inclusive, 




46-8° 


1858, or 3 years „ 




46.8 


1859, or 4 years „ 




46-8 


,, 1860, or 5 years „ 




46-3 


,, 1861, or 6 years „ 




46-4 


1862, or 7 years ,, 




46-4 


„ 1863, or 8 years „ 




46-4 


1864, or 9 years 




46-3 


1865, or 10 years „ 




46-4 



Whence any one may clearly see, that the last quan- 
tity is not likely to be much altered by further ob- 
servation with the same instruments and methods ; 
in fact, that it is, with the above limitation, very 
well determined, and probably much better than the 
great majority of stations on which the theory is 
founded. 

But that theory (see second column of above 
Table) makes the mean temperature of the parallel 
of 56° 30' = 32*9° Fahr. ; or hardly raised above 
the freezing point; and in so far, is 13*5° in differ- 



SECT. III.] 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



201 



ence from the observed mean temperature of many- 
years. Only in difference, though, not in error ; 
because the theory attempts to represent that whole 
parallel, while Scotland only occupies one point of 
it, — and that point a locaUty, where ocean abound- 
ing over land, a something of the warmth of a 
water climate over a land one when north of lati- 
tude 45°, ought to be felt. To what extent though ? 
The theory fortunately answers for itself, stating 
that, if the globe were ' all water,' and therefore the 
highest possible result obtained from that source, — 
the mean temperature of 56° 30' north, and at the 
sea-level, would still be only 40*6° Fahr. ; or no less 
than 5*8° below what actually obtains in Scotland, 
where, though there are complaints that the climate 
is very rainy, it is not all water yet. 

Hence although the theory alluded to, is termed 
by its talented author the * rational theory,' in con- 
tradistinction to Brewster's and Mayer's, which are 
' empirical,' or * merely mathematical,' — and although 
it is decidedly in advance of theirs in taking into 
account the distribution of earth and sea over the 
land's surface, — yet, either these have been erro- 
neously estimated ; or, as we rather believe, there 
are other important, though hitherto neglected, phy- 
sical conditions to be taken into account, in deducing 
terrestrial mean temperatures. Whichever be the 
cause, the effect of the results being at last attended 
to by future investigators, will inevitably raise our 
previously deduced mean temperature of the whole 



202 



STANDARDS OF HEAT. 



[DIV. II. 



worlds surface from G5*5^ to something nearer, if 
not absolutely to, 68*0° Fahr., the standard l-5th 
of Great Pyramid heat metrology. 



SECTION IV. 

STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 

As men improve in science, or advance in the 
magnitude and importance of the subjects they apply 
themselves to, — angular measure, seldom heard of 
in primitive society, becomes one of the most impor- 
tant branches of metrology. 

The pure mathematician, indeed, might go on for 
a long time, expressing all his angles in terms only 
of the whole circumference as unity, or in terms of 
the angle subtended by the arc which is equal to its 
radius; but the practical man, whether minera- 
logist, surveyor, astronomer, or many another pro- 
fessional, would seldom attain much accuracy, and 
w^ould infallibly lose a vast deal of time over every 
determination, — unless assisted by some predeter- 
mined system of dividing the circle into small equal 
portions or degrees; and these arranged suitably 
with the prevalent arithmetic of the day. So 
thoroughly was this principle confessed by the 
savants of the first French revolution, that they 
altered the 90°, assigned from Greek- Alexandrine 
example, for the quadrant, to 100° — in order to 



SECT. IV.] 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



203 



make a decimal, or centigrade, scale a pervading 
feature through the whole of their metrical arrange- 
ments. 

But their 100° for the quadrant and 400 for the 
circle, have not taken with the world at large; 
wherefore, after some gallant efforts in the way of 
producing logarithmic tables, astronomical books, 
and angle-measuring instruments arranged on the 
* centesimal' method, — the Parisian savants have 
reverted to the ancient ' sexagesimal ' system, and 
divide once more their whole circle into 360°. Not, 
however, without the step having been pronounced 
by high authority in this country * a calamitously 
'retrograde one in the progress of science;' so 
many advantages are there in a centesimal over a 
sexagesimal arrangement, if properly carried out. 

Although, then, at the present moment, the 
French metrical system is without an angular 
arrangement of its own, — its past history confirms 
our principle, of no metrology being complete which 
does not include angle. Now, at the Great Pyra- 
mid, so much of the importance of the questions 
discussed in vol. iii. Division i. turns upon very 
peculiar angles, and their remarkably close realization 
by the builders, — that a system of angular gradua- 
tion may fairly be expected to have prevailed 
amongst them. 

Against this idea, it is true, there immediately 
arises a class of antiquaries, declaring, that in the 
early day of the worlds history when the building 



204 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



[DIV. II. 



of the Great Pyramid took place, men must have 
been so ignorant of true science, as to have had no 
idea of angle, as angular measure ; and that if cer- 
tain inclines now appear in their work, it is because 
they are the hypothenusal, or joining, lines of the 
ends of certain horizontal and vertical lengths laid 
out in mere, and simple, linear proportions. 

This statement has indeed been met by another, 
and from an antiquary of remarkable mathematical 
and philosophic attainments, too, — with the effect 
of showing that angle, as angle, is after all not so 
very recondite a matter, but that it might have 
easily occurred to intelligent minds in an early con- 
dition in the world. But it is rather our duty 
throughout this book, to take no theories of any 
kind about the Pyramids or their builders for 
granted ; and in this part of our labours, at least, 
to do nothing more than ascertain, what the mea- 
sured parts say for themselves. 

Now, in the Pyramid, there are, by observation, 
two dominant angles ; one of them that of the foot 
of the Pyramid, or ascent of the sides, = 51° 51' 
14*3''; and the other the angle of the passages, or 
26° 18' 10' (see vol. iii. Division, i. p. 34). To 
the former, we might perhaps add the angle of 
the summit of the Pyramid, and the upper angle 
of a horizontal section through the sides,— but 
these being in reality only trigonometrical con- 
sequences of the other, have no separate scientific 
existence. 



SECT. IV.] 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



205 



What proofs, then, can be produced, that the two 
sets of inclined lines which we have read off on our 
present European 360° scale, as 51° 51' 14*3", and 
26° 18' 10", — were derived frona linear proportions ? 

The following is the best I have heard : — Two 
horizontal and one vertical, gives an angle of 26° 
33' 54" ; and twice that, is close to the angle of the 
foot of the Pyramid. Nay, but how close ? Why, 
it makes 53° V 48". 

In the last century, 53° Y 48" might have passed 
as being perhaps the angle of the Great Pyramid's 
foot ; but, since Colonel Howard Vyse's measures, 
and our own (see vol. iii. Division i. p. 28), we 
imagine that no other angle than 51° 51', and some 
seconds, can be admitted. Similarly, too, on referring 
to our chapter on the passages (vol. iii. Division i. 
p. 38), it will be found that 26° 33' 54", is decidedly 
outside the actual angle of all the passages. 

The dominant angles, therefore, must have had 
some other origin than the simple linear proportions 
of ' two horizontal and one vertical ; ' and, that the 
Pyramid builders did look on angle as angle purely, 
we may refer to the azimuth trenches (vol. iii. Divi- 
sion I. p. 30, and Plate xv.), where the absence of 
perpendiculars and the elimination of the inner ends 
of all the radiating lines, appear to form proof posi- 
tive that they were laid out as angles ; and can be 
connected still, by angular measure only. 

As angles then, but on what system of angular 
mensuration? Men call them now 51° 51' 14*3", 



206 STANDARDS OF ANGLE. [DIV. II. 



and 26° 18' 10", — but what numbers did the Pyra- 
mid builders give them ? Having already con- 
demned those, who made the Pyramid builders 
divide the circle into 360°, merely because , the 
Alexandrine Greeks used that method two thousand 
years afterwards, — we must seek something more to 
the point ; and the following general principles, 
highly approved of elsewhere, immediately suggest 
that — 

1st, The method of division should be agreeable 
to what is followed in other departments of Pyramid 
metrology ; and 

2d, The dominant angles of the Pyramid, when 
expressed in those terms, should be as nearly in 
whole numbers as possible. 

For the first, then, we have the following paral- 
lelism afibrded by the French circle graduation with 
their thermometer scale, but substituting the Pyra- 
mid thermometer numbers ; — viz., 250° for the 
quadrant, 1000° for the circle, and decimal subdi- 
visions of each degree. 

And for the second, we have, on computation by 
that system, the two angles above mentioned, ex- 
pressed in even degrees to less than one-tenth of 
such a degree ; or, within those limits of probable 
error, already assigned to good Pyramid practical 
work. This Pyramid system of angle-mensuration, 
too, seems to be the only one yet tried in the world, 
which will give those two angles with tolerable 
evenness ; as illustrated by the following numbers : — 



SECT. IV.] STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 207 



System of Angle Mensuration. 


An<;lc at Foot of 
Great Pyramid. 


Angle of Passages 
in Great Pyramid. 


300° to circle, .... 
Same, with degrees divided deci- ) 
mally, . . . . j 

100 to circle, .... 
32 to circle, .... 
1000 to circle, or the Pyramid method, 


51° 51' 14-3" 

51-85° 

57-02 
14-40 
4-61 
14405 


26° 18' 10" 
26-30° 

2923 

7-31 

2-34 
73 08 



Structural reference to 250° in the Quadrant 

But there is some further testimony in the Great 
Pyramid, and actually marked into the building, as 
to the adoption of 250° for a quadrant. 

We have already shown, that despite the irregu- 
larity of the thicknesses of successive courses of the 
general masonry in the whole structure, — yet the 
final number of 50 was found to extend from the 
pavement, upwards to the floor of the King's 
chamber ; or the chamber where the employment of 
a standard of 5 inches in length, was a distinguish- 
ing feature : and equally, a final number of twenty- 
five courses will be found to extend from the pave- 
ment to the floor of the Queen's chamber, where 
the employment of a standard of 2 5 inches in length, 
was a similarly important characteristic of its sym- 
bolization. But no reason has yet been found for 
the number of courses in the whole Pyramid, and no 
scientific use for the third, or subterranean chamber 
of the Pyramid. Yet, if the King s may be called 
the chamber of the standard of 50 ; and the Queen s, 



208 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



[DIV. II. 



the chamber of the standard of 25, — there seems 
reason to term the subterranean, the chamber of 
angular measure. 

The chief actual, visible, and generally acknow- 
ledged angularly placed line in the whole Pyramid, is 
the entrance passage ; and the chief virtual line which 
must necessarily be referred to, as the zero for that 
species of measure, is the central vertical axis of the 
whole building, — and this axis, if produced down- 
wards, will meet the entrance passage close to, if not 
actually within, the subterranean chamber. The 
entrance passage is indeed actually in a different ver- 
tical and meridian plane from the central axis, and 
would therefore pass by it altogether, without con- 
tact, — but for the former's expansion, at its lower 
end, into the subterranean chamber ; on the floor of 
which Colonel Howard Vyse and Mr. Perring have 
accordingly marked the place of the central vertical 
axis of the Pyramid produced. (See Plate iv.) The 
question, therefore, now is, — standing at that point 
of the floor of the subterranean chamber, — what is 
the angular subtense therefrom, of the whole side of 
the Pyramid, in degrees of the Pyramid, or 250° to 
the quadrant ? 

This question is fortunately very simple to com- 
pute ; for in the triangle A b c (Plate iv.), c b, the 
length of the slant side of the Pyramid, or 7400 
British inches, is computed from the elements of the 
vertical height, angle at summit, and base-side 
length already given, in Division i. 



PI. 4-. 




SECT. IV.] 



STANDARDS OP ANGLE. 



209 



CA, or 7023 British inches, is the sum of the 
vertical height 5820 inches, and the depression of 
the floor of the subterranean chamber below the 
Pyramid pavement, or 1203 inches, as determined 
on page 74. 

And the angle at c, = 38° 8' 46'', or half the 
angle at the summit of the Pyramid, likewise 
already given in Division i. 

With these elements, then, the angle at a, or the 
intersection-point on the floor of the subterranean 
chamber, maybe computed, and found = 75° 15' l" 
of ordinary, i.e., Greek- Alexandrine degrees ; — and 
these, reduced to Pyramid degrees, are = 209*03°. 

If we now therefore turn to page 6 2, for the num- 
ber of masonry courses in the whole Pyramid, they 
will be found to be stated, subject to a small resi- 
dual uncertainty, as 210 + 2 or 3 : including, in 
fact, the very number computed ; and forming as 
good a numerical proof of the quadrant having been 
intended to be divided into 250 degrees, as had 
been before deduced for the cubit being divided into 
25 smaller portions, which we call inches. 

Itinerary Measures, 

Rather an antiquated, and now practically ex- 
ploded form of linear measures would it be, to have 
one standard on which to measure the length of a 
day s journey, and another to ascertain the length 
and breadth of a field. But we use the term here, 
to designate a particular class of linear measures 

VOL. III. o 



210 STANDARDS OF ANGLE. [DIV. II. 

which are bound up with angle, and rendered com- 
pulsory on all those who journey by sea ; viz., 

* nautical miles/ as distinguished from * statute 

* miles/ 

The latter, of course, every one knows as arising 
from the mere multiplication — according to Act of 
Parliament — of smaller measures of length ; and con- 
sisting, at the present moment, in Great Britain, by 
name either of 1760 yards, or 5280 feet, or 63,360 
inches. But the former, or nautical miles, are 
nearly confined to navigators and geographers ; and 
depend on the system in vogue of angle-mensura- 
tion, combined with the size and figure of the earth. 
Omitting at present the small variations due to the 
spheroidal figure of the world, the nautical mile is 
the length of 1^ of arc (or the 1-6 0th of a degree, of 
which degrees 360 go to the circumference of a 
circle), on the surface of the earth near the sea-level ; 
and is valued by most authorities as near 72,984 
inches.^ 

Hence we see at once that the approximation — 
between the lengths of a nautical, and a statute, mile 
— is something very distant ; and though tolerated 
hitherto, is productive of continual confusion in 
many practical operations, — as in stating the speed 
of ships ; the registration of revolving anemometers ; 

1 At the Pole, the vahie is 73,037 ; and at the Equator, 72,783. 

* As the lower latitudes are more frequented by shipping than the 

* higher, 40° has been assumed as the average latitude. Also as the 

* curvature of the earth is different on the prime vertical and on the 
' meridian, the circle of curvature, crossing the meridian at 45° of 
' azimuth, has been employed.' — Raper's Navigation. 



SECT. IV.] STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



211 



and many other subjects, where a difference of so 
much as l-7th of the unit can by no means be 
permitted. 

Now let us see how this matter would be regulated 
in the Pyramid metrology. 

1st, The Pyramid mile is in length (see p. 142), 
equal to 62,500 Pyramid inches. 

2d, The Pyramid knot being considered the 
1-2 5th of a Pyramid degree, of which 250 go to the 
quadrant, will be almost exactly, — and on a mean 
between the Pole and Equator, — equal to 62,995 
of the same inches. 

Hence the difference between a nautical mile and 
a statute mile would, on the Pyramid system, be 
reduced from the present large amount in British 
navigation, of l-7th, to so low a fraction as 1-1 2 5th, 
— a quantity that might be neglected in most practi- 
cal operations, to the saving of much valuable time. 

Compass Points. 

Amongst other features of diversity which prevail 
presently between those ' who go down to the sea in 
* ships,' and those who remain on dry land, is this 
often most inconvenient one, — that the former em- 
ploy 360° to the circle in all their astronomical 
and more exact proceedings, but 32°, or 'points,' to 
the circle when alluding to azimuthal direction; 
whereas the latter employ 360° for everything 
angular. And yet, that there is no absolute necessity 
for so striking an anomaly, occasional seamen of 



212 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



[DTV. 11. 



education sufficiently testify from time to time, by 
taking the direction, where great accuracy is re- 
quired, of either a ship's course or the wind, in terms 
of degrees of which 360 go to the circle. This 
they do, when they once make up their minds to it, 
with facility ; and are then able to reap advantage 
immediately, — in the resulting computations which 
may be required, — from all the numerous trigono- 
metrical tables which are prepared and published 
for degrees of the 360° order. 

But the general sailor, having observed the same 
natural things in terms of compass points, has either 
to reduce his points, half-points, and quarter-points 
to degrees proper, — an awkward proceeding, on ac- 
count of the incommensurability of 11° 15^ or one 
point, 5° 37' 30" or a half point, 2° 48' 45'' or a 
quarter of a point, and 1° 24' 22*5'' or l-8th point, 
to 360°,— or he must refer to a special set of tables 
prepared for entry by points, half-points, quarter- 
points, etc., which tables are comparatively rarely to 
be met with, and are understood to be adapted only 
to the rudest and clumsiest of work. 

Seeing how stoutly the sailors have stood out for 
ages against the recognised land method of dividing 
a circle, there is no prospect of controlling them to 
uniformity by Act of Parliament ; and the only 
chance of producing that desirable bond of union 
amongst men, would seem to be, by offering them 
something eminently recommendable in itself for 
their own purposes. 



SECT. IV.] 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. 



213 



Now the conveniences which seamen find in their 
method of points of 32 to the circle are chiefly, the 
fewer numbers they have to deal with then, as com- 
pared against degrees having 360 to the circle. But 
the inconveniences are,— the difficulty of treating 
arithmetically the barbarous fractions which arise, 
when directions have to be defined with greater 
accuracy than a whole point; without saying any- 
thing further on the bad commensurability of all of 
them, with angles reckoned in the usual manner. 

Hence, if there is to be a practical method of 
compass directions on the Pyramid system— it must 
be, not by degrees, but by * points' containing many 
degrees ; attending, however, rigidly to this, that 
the Pyramid metrology can never admit of such an 
anomaly as eight points to the quadrant. But there 
may be ten ; and then each point will contain 25°, a 
most proper content for any standard of the Pyramid. 

On this principle, too, the eight chief cardinal points, 
so-called, are retained, as N., N.E., e., s.e., s., s.w., w., 
and N.w ; and the only variation is, whether between 
these named points there shall be four divisions, as 
at present, or five. Four may be the easiest in 
some senses ; but five presents no difficulty, at the 
same time that it is more expressive and exact. 
A greater number than five could not be admitted, 
because there would be an uncertainty in distin- 
guishing at once by the eye which was which. Set 
out, for instance, ten even divisions, and few persons 
will be able to say instantly, on ocular inspection 



214 



STANDARDS OF ANGLE. [DIV. II. 



only, which was the fourth, or fifth, or sixth ; but 
set out jive similar divisions, and any one can say at 
a glance which is the second, or third ; or first, or 
fourth. 

This is a peculiarity connected with the number 
5, which we are told has been practically turned to 
account by the musicians of all modern nations in 
their choice of the number of lines wherein, or 
whereon, to write the notes of music ; four would be 
too few for their purpose, and six too many to dis- 
tinguish by the eye in a moment ; but five serves 
either purpose. The same feature of advantage is 
further found when subdivisions have to be made 
with the eye ; so that if we have a scale divided 
mechanically to tenths of inches, and require to 
read off to hundredths, — i.e., to subdivide each tenth 
into ten parts again, — a mistake of one of those tenths 
may often be made by inexperienced persons mea- 
suring in 'haste ; but if the same scale be divided 
mechanically into half-tenths, so that the estimator 
has only optically to divide each space into five 
parts, there is hardly any possibility of erring then, 
to the extent of any one of those parts. 

Hence we may see, that there is reaUy something 
noteworthy in the Pyramid system, and increasing 
its adaptability to all kinds of metrology, even in 
this one feature of making so much as it does of 
the number 5, as well as the number 10 ; and we 
trust that sailors will take kindly to the fact. At 
all events, in this manner they may have, if they 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



215 



choose, between the eight cardinal points, five 
smaller points, each equal to a whole number of 
Pyramid degrees taken in groups of 25. And 
should they desire, as doubtless the best among 
them will, to steer closer still than to a single point, 
— if they will divide each of these Pyramid points 
into five parts, these will still be equal to a whole 
number of Pyramid degrees, or 5 degrees each ; 
and will express very nearly as small a quantity in 
nature, as the troublesome half of a quarter of a 
point on their present system. While a further 
division still by five, will bring them to Pyramid 
degrees ; and enable seamen then to speak in full 
and sympathizing community of terms, with all who 
make use of angular mensuration in its highest and 
strictest form. 

See Plate v., for these things graphically repre- 
sented. 



SECTION V. 

STANDARDS OF TIME. 

In Eome de Flsle's metrological tables, the de- 
partment of time-measures occupies a considerable 
space, — illustrating thereby the widespread belief, 
that time is one of the subjects to be treated of in 
any complete metrology. Later still, in the same 
country, not only did the arrangements for the new 
French metrical system confirm the same fact, but 



216 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



involuntarily indicated the further truth, — that there 
are some features about time, which refuse to be 
bound by any rules invented, or to be invented, by 
man. 

Thus, decimal division and multiplication were to 
have been the rule of everything throughout the 
metrical system ; and therefore its authors, on 
coming to ' time,' began upon the week as hitherto 
kept in the world, — and changed its contents from 
seven, to ten, days. The difficulty indeed there, 
was spiritual rather than physical, yet cogent never- 
theless ; and will be, so long as the greater part 
of civilized nations believe, that the period of 
seven days was appointed by Almighty God as a 
rule to be perpetually observed by man. The 
grounds for believing this, we may examine after- 
wards; at present we have only to deal with the 
fact, that the French metrical system practically 
ignored the belief, in their decades of days ; and 
then proceeded, or symmetrically should have done 
so, to their next steps in time-mensuration, viz., 
the periods of 100 days and 1000 days. 

But then it was, that they were met, and de- 
cidedly overthrown, by nature ; which has caused 
the year of the earth's revolution round the sun, to 
be so extraordinarily marked by changes and sea- 
sons, — the study of, and compliance with, which 
are absolutely necessary to man's existence on 
earth, — that the period during which these seasons 
accomplish their cycle, is of infinitely more vital 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



217 



importance to humankind, than all the niceties of 
decimal arithmetic. The year is in truth one of the 
units of nature, as is the day ; each and both of 
which must be observed by man, if he would live ; 
and the day, whether taken singly, or in tens (the 
decadal weeks of the French metrical system), can- 
not be made by any decimal arrangement to give 
evenly the actual length of the year, which all our 
readers well know consists of 365 days, and very 
nearly a quarter of a day. 

The year, then, in spite of attempts at alteration, 
is still the same in France as it used anciently to be, 
before the metrical system was ever thought about ; 
and so is the week too ; for the metrical reformers 
found it in the end, as practically impossible to im- 
pose a decimal arrangement there, against the moral 
and religious prepossessions of mankind in favour of 
seven, as to fight against the physical arrangement of 
365*242 days in the solar tropical year. As so signal 
a failure, then, of their attempts has been the result, 
pity 'tis they ever tried the proposed alteration ; 
but they were driven on probably by the popular 
enthusiasm of the moment for decimalizing every- 
thing, — without waiting to consider whether every- 
thing can, or ought to be, decimalized. Now this 
piece of common information, so useful for the 
framers, as well as the subsequent employers of 
metrological arrangements, but which the Parisians 
were void of in the last century, — was furnished 
ages before in a most conspicuous manner at the 



218 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



Great Pyramid : for the first feature held up by the 
general form of the whole building, is, the incom- 
mensurable relation evenly, — as we have already had 
occasion to mention, — of the radius to the circumfer; 
ence of a circle (see vol. iii. p. 20) ; a proportion 
indeed which no man through all time coming, will 
ever be able to divide evenly, upon either a decimal, 
or duodecimal, arithmetical system. 

Again the incommensurability evenly of the day 
and the year is exhibited practically in the same 
ancient structure, by the expression of the number 
of whole days and the portion of a day, constituting 
a year, in terms of the sacred cubit, in the length 
of one side of the base of the Great Pyramid ; which 
combination too, of time distinctions with linear 
standards, seems to furnish further proof positive, 
that time-mensuration was to be treated of in the 
Great Pyramid, as well as other more usual topics 
of * weights and measures.' 

A still further warning seems to have been 
given to the effect, — that the seven days compos- 
ing a week, formed an essential interior institution ; 
though how this was to be represented with clear- 
ness and certainty in a Pyramid where the arrange- 
ments, proportions, and parts generally go by fives, 
may not appear immediately on the surface ; and in 
fact, presented itself to me only recently, when con- 
sidering the measures contained in Volume ii. 



Yol. 111. Div. II 




Fl. b. 




Ejilur^ em^M^y of tTi^y l^wer 
riqTii Jiandy jjor^ioriy of di^c^ram^ 3 
of PlcL& '2y ^ VoL. Ill, pre^e7*viruj the/ 
somz^y ZM£rs of refer eji^. and. showing 
fAey comrxdenc^ of sjirtbolzeaZy astrojtonij- 
LC4xZy Zm^^ , d^tl£fly, with/ they Hf^u^ of 
coTzstriLctiorv' of they pccsscL^^^ of they 
Greats Pyrafrvid^, ictheny Promy 
PlcUiy.3, VoV I. 



30O0 



uooo 
— h- 



ffOOO 

H 



11 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



219 



The Week in the Grand Gallery. 

Of all the internal architecture of the Great Pyra 
mid, the Grand Gallery is the most unique, ano- 
malous, colossal, and hitherto entirely unexplained. 
Why, for instance, was it made so enormously high, 
when the passages both before and behind it are so 
distressingly small ; these so low that no man can 
move through them without stooping painfully, 
the other so high that a visitor s torch can hardly 
show him the roof ; and all this in a building where 
our careful inspection of the joints, sizes, qualities, 
and fittings of the stones convinced us, that every- 
thing had been well considered, and thoroughly 
calculated beforehand, with a view to the maximum 
of economy, combined with efficiency, for some 
worthy purposes intended. 

A further development on Plate vi., of the geo- 
metrical theory of the Pyramid (illustrated in small 
upon Plate ii.), showing that the direction of the 
celestial equator enters the north end of the Grand 
Gallery, from an astronomical intersection on the 
base of the Pyramid, — had led me, in 1864,^ to look 
on the Grand Gallery as connected with time ; and 
then, the seven architectural overlappings which 
every one has remarked in the side walls, suggested 
a possible connexion with the week of seven days ; 
this idea being further strengthened, — on believing 
that the vertical height of the Grand Gallery, an 
expression for which was also obtained from the 

' See Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid. Pai-t iv. 



220 



STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



same geometrical and astronomical diagram, — must 
be seven times that of one of the ordinary small 
passages, which might be considered to represent 
unit days. 

To such an idea, then, what answer is returned 
from our measures last year ? 

First, That the vertical heights of the small pas- 
sages are by no means uniform ; that of the inclined 
passage entering the Grand Gallery from the north, 
being 53*0 British inches ; and that of the hori- 
zontal passage leaving it at the opposite, or south, 
end, being only 43*7 British inches. Such an amount 
of difference would be fatal to the two lengths mean- 
ing the same thing in linear measure ; but then it is 
not linear measure for its own sake, which is now 
being sought ; for that having been settled and 
proved with all exactness in the base of the Pyra- 
mid, does not need being proved anew ; and, indeed, 
there are indications in other places besides this, — 
as in the mutual incommensurability of the lines 
employed for the shape of the coffer, — that men 
were purposely by such differences deterred from 
seeking linear standards inside the Pyramid, or any- 
where else than the one true place for them, viz., the 
sides of the base of the entire Pyramid. 

But in our late discussions about the coffer, we 
neglected its figure, as an ultimate object, — because, 
mere figure is of no essential importance for the 
purpose of capacity measure ; and we considered 
only the cubical contents. In the Grand Gallery, 



SECT, v.] STANDARDS OF TIME. 221 

therefore, we must on the same principle similarly 
neglect the differences between the passages of 
entrance and exit from its either end, and consider 
only their mean value, which is 48*4 inches ; and 
then ascertain how many times that goes into the 
height of the giant hall. 

The height and length of this important feature 
of the Pyramid's interior, have been thus variously 
given by diverse authorities : — 



Authority. 


Date. 


Height, supposed 
always to be vertical, 
of Grand Gallery, 
from inclined floor 
to roof. 


Length, supposed 
to be always along 
the incline, of Grand 
Gallery, from north 
wall to south wall. 




A.D. 


British inches. 


British inches. 


Greaves, 


1639 


312 


1848 


De Monconys, 


1647 




1947 


Thevenot, 


1655 




1944 


Maillet, 


1692 


300 


1488 


Egmont, 


1709 


270 


1632 


Shaw, .... 


1721 


270 


1632 


Dr. Perry, 


1743 


288 


1800 


Foiirmont, 


1755 




1848 


De Binos, 


1777 


288 


1632 


Coutelle, 


1800 


320 


1595 


Jomard, 


1800 


323 


1461 


E-ichardson, . 


1817 


312 


1440 


M. Caviglia, . 


1817 


360 


1824 


AVilliam Turner,^ . 


1820 


* about ' 600 


' about ' 4200 


Howard Vyse, 


1839 


336 


1872 


E. W. Lane, . 


1840? 




1896 


C. Piazzi Smyth, 


1865 


339-5 


1883 



Out of these various heights, it is to be hoped I 
may be excused for preferring my own, seeing that 
the practical measure is a very difficult one to make 
at the place, without some special apparatus being 

* Journal of a Tour in the Levant. London, John Murray, 1820. 



222 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



provided ; and which apparatus is not mentioned 
as having been possessed by any of the former ob- 
servers. My own result, too, being the mean of a 
large number of measures (see vol. ii. p. 86) taken 
at various parts of the length of the Gallery, can 
claim to represent the mean height of the whole 
Gallery ; and, with its assistance, we find 48*4 going 
into 339*5, 7*014 times ; or certainly sufficiently 
close to seven times even, to enable any one to dis- 
tinguish that it is 7, rather than 6, 8, 9, or 10, 
which is intended. 

The Sabbatical Week in the Queen's Chamber. 

A division by 7, suddenly occurring in a Pyramid 
generally devoted to tens and fives, requires 
emphasis to assure one, after thousands of years 
have passed away, that it was no mistake or accident 
of the builders, but an intended purpose of their 
system. Accordingly, we have already seen the 
local division of 7 repeated twice in the Grand 
Gallery, and shall find it yet twice again before 
leaving the neighbourhood. 

From the lower northern entrance point of the 
Grand Gallery, there radiates off, pursuing a nearly 
horizontal direction thenceforward to the south, a 
passage, known as the horizontal passage, leading to 
the Queen's chamber. Source of unnumbered per- 
plexities has been this passage to Pyramid mea- 
surers ; for some begin to measure its length at once 
from the north wall of the Grand Gallery ; some 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



223 



from the beginning of its own horizontal floor, 
twenty-two inches south of that ; and others again 
from the point of its passing under the floor of the 
Grand Gallery, nearly 200 inches from the first 
starting-point. This latter idea, however, seems just 
as unsupported by the whole facts concerned, as that 
of other men beginning to measure the length of 
the Grand Gallery from the same point, — merely 
because it is a signal beginning, yet not the first, of 
its inclined floor-plane. 

Now the manner in which the Grand Gallery floor 
seems to terminate at some distance from its northern 
end, is undoubtedly very striking in an architectural 
point of view (see Plate vi. vol. i., and Plate x. 
vol. ii.) ; and as it connects itself with the roof of 
the horizontal passage passing under it, — deserves 
some attention in this inquiry ; especially on con- 
sidering, that that roof is the only fully finished part 
of the horizontal passage, whose floor is indeed so 
entirely unfinished as to be no floor at all, in 
a Pyramid sense of masonry. While further 
symptoms obtrude themselves on the eye, to the 
efi'ect — that all this northern end of the horizontal 
passage was once intended to be built up and con- 
cealed, beneath an apparent continuous inclined 
floor of the Grand Gallery ; which would then have 
extended from its northern wall the whole way up 
to the grand step in front of the southern wall. 
Nevertheless, attending for the time, only to the 
forms and finish actually before us, — breakages ex- 



224 STANDARDS OF TIME. [dIV. II. 



eluded, — the distance from the north wall to the 
mean of the two cuts-ofF, by whose united effects 
the great triangle, viewed in section of the Grand 
Gallery floor, is terminated northward, has been 
found equal to 217*8 inches (vol. ii. p. 58.) 

Taking this, then, as a pointed or pricked-off 
part of the length of the horizontal passage, — how 
many times does it go into the entire length ? That 
quantity being by our measurements 1519'4 inches, 
the answer is 6*98 ; or practically 7 times, and cer- 
tainly not 6 or 8, or any other simple number. 

This, however, is not all which the passage has to 
indicate ; for at its farther or southern end is a 
portion having a suddenly increased depth or height, 
— after a proportion of 68 to 46 nearly, — and in 
length equal to 216*1 inches. A simple matter, yet 
stumbled at grievously by modern authors ; for the 
great French work in its fine engravings ignores 
this deep step altogether ; and Chevalier Bunsen, in 
his Plate xi. vol. ii. of Egypt's Place in Universal 
History, turns it, the step, the wrong way, or makes 
that part of the passage of decreased height. But 
Colonel Howard Vyse's measures agree entirely 
with ours, and enable the statement to be put forth 
confidently, — that the southernmost part of this 
passage is the largest and noblest in its proportions of 
height ; while in length, it is practically again l-7th 
of the whole passage, or, more accurately, 1-7*03. 

Now here is the first possible indication of a very 
diflerent thing from a mere division by 7 ; for many 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



225 



early nations are said to have counted by sevens, 
and by weeks of seven days, too ; the practice being 
attributed to them by modern savants, on account of 
the facility of the days of the year being almost en- 
tirely disposed of without large remainder for inter- 
calation, by fifty-two weeks of seven days each ; 
and similarly the days of the month, by four weeks 
of the same length. But the Egyptians of the 
Pjnramid and earlier days did not even make this 
use of 7, preferring to divide their lunar month of 
29*53 days, into three portions of ten days each, or to 
use a decadal week ; and the year into three seasons, 
the inundation, the growing, and the harvest ; much 
less, then, did the Egyptians attend to, or respect, 
a period of seven days ending with a sabbath, i.e., one 
day of a more important character following six ordi- 
nary ones. In fact, such approved books of reference 
as Kitto's Gyclopcedia of Biblical Literature and 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, together with all 
their authors quoted fronx, profess entire ignorance 
of either the Egyptians or any other early heathen 
nation having been acquainted with the week as we 
now understand it from the Hebrews, — viz., again, 
seven days ending with a sabbath day ; though com- 
munities in different parts of the world had simple 
weeks of a variety of days — five, seven, nine, and ten. 

Agreeing, then, with these authors in the mere 
fact that a week of seven days ending with a sab- 
bath is a far more rare, peculiar, and advanced in- 
stitution than one of seven days merely, — but 

VOL. III. p 



226 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



acknowledging the Pyramid principles which we 
have submitted to elsewhere ; or that nothing im- 
portant can be considered intended to be proved, 
unless in the finest and truest of workmanship, — w,e 
must leave this entrance passage, though it does bear 
some constructive resemblance to the definition of 
the Hebrew week, and enter the chamber it leads to, 
viz., the Queen's chamber, so called. 

Why so called, it is difficult to say with any good 
reason conformable to tradition or discovery ; for if 
kings were reported to be buried inside great 
Pyramids, queens were said to be buried in small 
Pyramids outside ; and here, in this chamber, not the 
smallest line or scratch of a hieroglyphic, such as 
tombs proper to Egypt abound in, or any remnant of 
the ordinary sepulchral preparations, has been found 
in modern and provable times. One of the early 
Arabian historians, indeed, Aboo Djafar Mohammed 
Edrisi, who flourished about seven hundred years 
ago (see Howard Vyse's Pyramids, vol. ii. p. 335), 
speaks of this chamber as * a square room, wherein 
' was an empty vessel, and on the roof of the room 

* are writings in the most ancient characters of the 
' heathen priests.' He afterwards visits the King's 
chamber, and describes that as * a square room also ; 

* and with an empty vessel similar to the former.' 

All this description, is evidently inapplicable to 
the Queen's and King's chambers as we know them 
now ; but how much we may retain as true, is not 
easy to say, on the historian's own merits. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



227 



Mr. Perring, again, whose ideas as an engineer 
and architect, and while still working under Colonel 
Howard Vyse, were sound — considered that this cham- 
ber was merely a hollow space for storing, during 
the building of the Pyramid, the huge blocks of stone 
with which the first ascending passage was after- 
wards completely filled up, solid, from the inside ; 
the men escaping by the well, in the manner he has 
indicated. And Mr. Perring having had the blasting 
and clearing out of some of these strange fillings of 
the passages in other Pyramids, — where he was the 
first man, since the original builders, to make an 
entry, — we bow so far to his authority ; at once 
confessing the probability, both that the first ascend- 
ing passage of entrance in the Great Pyramid was 
so rammed ; and that the blocks wherewith it was 
rammed full — when everything else in the structure 
was complete, — may have been kept waiting the 
occasion in the Queen's chamber. 

The Queen s chamber, then, in actual fact and 
utilitarian reality, served, or may have served once, 
as a store-room for stone blocks ; but was that all 
the purpose the builders had in view when con- 
structing it ? Few parts of the Pyramid have ful- 
filled one purpose alone ; and not only have we 
seen already, in the azimuth trenches, that both 
mortar-mixing during the building, and mummy- 
burying afterwards, had followed the institution of 
a peculiar angular arrangement, — explainable only 
on the hypothesis of its having served an important 



228 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



feature in the theory of the building. But the 
most casual observer who looks to anything at all, 
in this Queen's chamber room (and many hasten 
away quickly on account of the close smell and un- 
ventilated air), must be enraptured with the original 
whiteness of the stone, and microscopic fineness of 
the workmanship on the blocks lining or forming 
both walls and roof ; for some parts of them, cer- 
tainly several of the joints in the west wall, are the 
closest and most accurate in the whole Pyramid. 

That being the recorded and positive case, then, 
every maxim of the building we have learned yet, 
points to something else of a nobler order having 
been once intended for the chamber, than mere 
storage of stones. Let us look at it therefore, firsts 
in a merely mechanical point of view. The floor is 
nearly square, ie,, 205 by 226 inches, or vastly 
nearer such a form than is any other room in the 
Pyramid ; besides which, this chamber includes 
between these approximating lengths that special 
length we were just discussing, of the higher and 
nobler terminating seventh portion of its own enter- 
ing passage, viz., 216 inches. 

We may next remark that the room is seven- 
sided ; not walled, but sided like a crystal or a 
geometrical figure ; for it has a floor, four walls, and 
two ceilings, on account of the covering above being 
angular, or in two halves, each inclined about 31° to 
the horizon. But what are the proportions of these 
seven sides as to area ? for unless something similar 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



229 



comes out in that way, we could not think of them aa 
units of the same order. The following is what ap- 
pears on merely taking the rude lengths, breadths, 
and heights as given by present measure (see vol. 
ii. p. 66) :— 



Square inches. 

North wall, . . . 226 x 183 = 41,358 
South wall, 
East wall, 
West wall. 



North roof. 
South roof, 
Floor, 



226 X 183 = 41,358 

205 X 214 = 43,870 

205 X 214 = 43,870 

226 X 119 = 26,894 

226 X 119 = 26,894 

205 X 226 = 46,330 



No very distinct story of anything is told by 
these numbers ; and we are driven thereby to con- 
sider, whether the existing measures represent the 
ancient room ; for unless they do, of what service 
can they be in such an inquiry 1 No sooner, too, 
do we look at it with this view, than the question 
comes up, — What method are we to pursue with the 
floor, or about the floor ? for flooring proper, as suit- 
able to a Pyramid chamber, or even passage, this 
chamber is not in possession of. 

Correction for Flooring. 

As already mentioned in vol. ii. p. 62, the floor 
lining blocks of this room, if ever put in, are now 
decidedly taken out and gone ; wherefore we must 
replace them by computation, if we would hope to 
come at the original proportions of the chamber. 
But of what thickness shall these imagined floor 
blocks be ? The evident answer is,—* See if there 



230 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



' are any markings on the walls showing how high the 
* flooring once stood.' On examining the lower part 
of the walls accordingly, nothing was found ; and 
we had to follow the walls upwards from their very- 
bottom, to the level of the first overlappings of the 
niche in the eastern wall, and to the top of the 
northern doorway, — before any horizontal cuttings 
were met with. 

But these three necessary cuts and shapings are 
all on one level ; and therefore, though a floor line at 
their height presents the incongruousness of sealing 
up the entrance to the chamber, — yet seeing that it 
is a symbolic chamber, and was to have been sealed 
up again, and at that same precise height, by the 
completion of the Grand Gallery floor at the north 
end of its entering passage, — this virtual closing up 
of the entrance may be allowed as a trial hypothesis 
in our present research ; and a symbolical flooring 
may be imagined at the marked height alluded to, 
or sixty-seven inches above the actual rude founda- 
tion blocks. Subtracting, then, this quantity from 
the height of each of the walls, we have the 
corrected area of the sides of the room, as 

Bquare inches. 

North waU, . . . 226 x 116 = 26,216 



South wall, 
East wall, . 
West wall, 
North roof, 
South roof, 
Floor, 



226 X 116 = 26,216 

205 X 147 = 30,135 

205 X 147 = 30,135 

226 X 119 = 26,894 

226 X 119 = 26,894 

205 X 226 = 46,330 



Something more is beginning now to appear, but 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



231 



not very clearly as yet ; wherefore returning to an 
examination of the room, and wishing our measures 
had been more exact than they were, when they 
necessarily had the uneven floor stones as their 
base plane, — we are reminded of the presence of 
the colossal niche in the eastern wall. (See Plates 
VII. and VIII. vol. ii.) That niche, we had left out of 
the calculation at first, as being a subsidiary feature 
of the apartment, and rather difficult to deal with. 
What w^as it intended for, for instance ? There is 
nothing like it through all the rest of the Pyramid. 
' I excavated in vain below it, in quest of a sepul- 
* chral pit,' wrote Sir Gardner Wilkinson years ago ; 
and years further off still, other men had burrowed 
a distance of 50 feet eastward into the masonry at 
the back of the niche, searching for treasure, or a 
pathway to the Sphinx, and found neither. 

Our only safeguard here, from numerous unfor- 
tunate errors, would seem to be — mechanical appre- 
ciation of facts and forms ; in which sense, the 
niche is evidently an addition to the bulk of the 
cubical contents of the room ; and the easiest way 
to allow for it would be, — to suppose the east wall of 
the chamber, simply as a plane, pushed outwards to 
such a distance farther eastward, as to produce 
thereby the same increase of cubical space as that 
given by the niche. Now the niche recedes over 
its chief extent, about 41 inches ; but is nearer 140 
inches in some of its middle and lower parts ; though 
how much exactly, we cannot say, on account of 



232 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



modern dilapidation. Let us try, however, 25 
inches, in tlie calculation of the wall ; and then we 
have, — 



or, expressed in terms of ten thousand inches, six of 
the sides of this fair and white-walled chamber re- 
present three each, and the seventh represents five ; 
the latter an important number in its place as a 
Pyramid number, as well as of more actual weight 
than the others. So that we seem to have now the 
original secret of this room before us, in the same 
elemental manner as we had that of the azimuth 
trenches, on measuring their axial angles ; and find 
it to be no other than the culmination of the various 
symbols of a week, which we have been touching on 
indistinctly elsewhere, but now have come to posi- 
tively, and are absolutely shut up with, finding it 
to be a week like the Hebrew week, consisting of six 
ordinary days, terminated by, or founded on, one 
larger, nobler, and, in the Pyramidal terms in which 
they are measured, more glorious than the rest. 



Square inches. 



North wall, 
South wall, 
East wall, 
West wall. 
North roof, 
South roof. 
Floor, 



251 X 116 = 29,116 

251 X 116 = 29,116 

205 X 147 = 30,135 

205 X 147 = 30,135 

251 X 119 = 29,869 

251 X 119 = 29,869 

205 X 251 = 51,455 



Authority for Twenty -Jive Inches, 

But all the approximate accuracy of this result, as 
3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, and 5, in terms of even numbers 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



233 



of 10,000 square inches, — depends on having em- 
ployed a length of 25 inches on the surface of the 
whole east wall, to represent the cubical contents 
given by the greater depth, but smaller surface, of 
the eastern niche ; and though some correction of 
the sort was evidently required by the presence of 
the niche, there has been no structural indication as 
yet recognised in the room, distinctly counselling 
that one, rather than any other, number of inches 
to be used. 

Under these circumstances of mental dissatisfac- 
tion, the idea spontaneously arose, and only recently, 
in my mind, — to test by measure this chamber's 
second and next most striking anomaly to the exist- 
ence of the niche itself; and one equally unex- 
plained by all hierologists and Egyptologists who 
have ever written on the Great Pyramid. This 
second anomaly is, that so grand and admira])ly 
wrought an architectural feature as the niche, 
should not have been placed in the middle of its 
containing wall ! (See Plates vii. and viii. vol. ii.) 

The wall being pointed towards the top, shows 
clearly enough where its central vertical axis lies ; 
and then one sees, as a most painfully evident want 
of ordinary architectural symmetry, that the niche is 
on one side, or to the south of such a line. Not so 
far as to belong altogether to the southern half of 
the chamber, for a plumb-line from the central top of 
the wall would strike within the lower and broader 
part of the niche ; but still, grossly far to the south 



234 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



of the similar feature of the room. So far, that no 
modern — with eyes set square in his head — can fail 
to perceive it as a most notable fact ; and so far also, 
that no ancient Pyramid builders could have com-> 
mitted a fault to so huge an extent ; or have know- 
ingly introduced such a feature, without careful 
calculation beforehand, of the sizes and shapes of 
the fine-qualitied, well-worked stones required to 
give it a form and local habitation. How far, then, 
is the vertical axis of the niche horizontally from 
the vertical axis of its containing wall ? 

Here, I have to regret exceedingly, that no idea 
of the amazing importance of the Queen's chamber 
occurred to me, when there ; and that I merely 
measured general features, standing on the rough, 
uneven floor-stones, and not knowing particularly 
what most required measure. But I fortunately 
took, pretty accurately, the breadth of the base of 
the niche, and the distance of its either side from 
the terminating lines north and south, of the east 
wall ; and computing recently from these, the dis- 
tance of the central axis of the niche, from the central 
vertical line of the east wall, — what was my surprise, 
to find it practically 25 inches ; or, as the numbers 
came out, 25*3 inches ; and again, to find that the 
breadth of the head of the niche was likewise 25, 
or 25*3 inches.^ 

^ The only test for these last numbers, rather inferred than very 
closely measured (as I could not, when standing, reach to the higher 
part of the niche), are, — so far as I know, — Mr. Perring's drawings in 
Colonel Howard Vyse's folio publication on the ' Pyramids of Jeezeh 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



235 



' Why, here at last we have come upon the sacred 

* cubit of the Israelites !' was the very natural excla- 
mation to make ; ' and how, or in what position, 

* have we found it ? In the act of serving as the 

* signal under which has been commemorated the 
' sabbatical week ; that week which may have been 

* a primeval Divine command to all men, in terms 

* of the 2d chapter of Genesis ; but which had been 

* since so generally forgotten by them all, that we 

* may now for the moment distinguish it by the pro- 

* portions of its parts, but without reference to date, 

* as the week of the Hebrews and Mount Sinai. We 

* have this communication, too, in a chamber of the 

* whitest stone of the Pyramid, and one wherein, 

* both by its want of ventilation, and the prepara- 

* tion for filling up the entrance passage to its roof, 

* man was evidently not intended to dwell much. 
' Certainly, he was not to interfere there as a master, 

* or presume to alter any of the symbols of days ex- 

and they give, with some evident errors of drawing, for the breadth 
of the niche at the top, 23 5 ; for the distance of its central axis from 
central vertical line of room, = 26 "0 inches ; and for distance of same 
from plumb-line hanging from top of angle of wall (not qnite the same 
as the half distance between the two side walls), = 24-0 inches. But 
it is a greater strain than any drawing on such a small scale ought to 
be exposed to. 

With regard to the excess of 0'3-inch on my own measures, it is not 
more than error of observation with error of api)reciating dilapidation- 
eflfects, under the circumstances, would render very probable. 
Chevalier Bunsen, too, has remarked, in vol. ii. p. 31 of his Egypt, and 
with reference to a determination of other cubits, * A difference of three 

* lines (old French measure) is certainly no reason for doubting the 

* original identity of two measures which has been established by in- 
' dependent systems, and with dififerent materials for making the 
' calculation.' 



236 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



' pressed by its walls, and indicated by the standard 
' above them, as derived from a source higher than 
' man. The only source, too, which could in primeval 

* days, have furnished, for the sacred cubit, the un^ 
' approachably perfect terrestrial reference which it 

* has ; viz., the one-ten-millionth of the earth's semi- 
' axis of rotation.' 

Authority for the Number Twenty-Jive. 

But we must still delay all quasi-r^Yigiom or 
psychical discussions, and attend merely to mechani- 
cal, or rather to masonic features, used in the archi- 
tectural, not mystical, sense. And then, there is the 
further fact of construction to be found, — that the 
Queen's chamber, — or, as it might more appropriately 
be termed, the chamber of seven, or again, the cham- 
ber of the standard of 25, — has another reference 
still to a standard of 25 inches ; a standard, indeed, 
as eminently and intimately connected with this 
chamber's main symbolization, as the standard of 
50 inches has already been shown to be with regard 
to the King's chamber, and its scientific interpreta- 
tion. 

' Standards of length, equal to 25 and 50 inches, 

* but not necessarily expressed in inches,' might 
any one unacquainted with the Great Pyramid cor- 
rectingly remark. To which, however, the Great 
Pyramid itself answers, *Nay ; but the actual number 

* of the units, of the same length very nearly indeed, 

* as inches, call them by what name you may, must be 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



237 



' respectively 25 and 50 ; for the latter number was 
' shown (p. 172), to enumerate correctly the courses 
' of masonry reaching up to the floor of the King s 

* chamber, from the Pyramid s base ; and now it will 

* be proved, that the number of courses reaching 

* from the same plane to the floor of the Queen's 

* chamber, is apparently 25.' 

As no such connexion has been detected, or even 
imagined, hitherto by any known author, and the 
data are still very scanty, — we will try to lay them 
in all their scantiness and weakness before the 
reader, that he may not be misled by mere assertion. 

First of all, then, for the height of the upper 
surface of the twenty-fifth course of masonry of the 
Great Pyramid above the pavement, — we have the 
following authorities from our vol. ii. sect. i. and v.: — 



MM. Jomard and Cecile, in 1800 A.D. 

MM. Le Pere and CoiiteUe, „ 1801 „ 

C. Piazzi Smyth, ,,1865 ,, 

Messrs. Aiton and Inglis, ,, 1865 ,, 



British inches. 
= 859 
= 877 
= 869 
= 858 

= 866 



Mean height of twenty-fifth course. 

Colonel Howard Vyse and Mr. Perring do not 
seem to have made these necessary measures of 
every building-course of stones in the Pyramid,^ 
imagining probably, and with most persons, that 
there was nothing, in their dimensions, accurate or 
intended beforehand ; but they fortunately did their 
best to measure the next element which we require, 
or the height of the floor of Queen's chamber above 

* See Vyse's Pyramids of Oizeh, vol. ii. p. 110. 



238 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



the Pyramid's base. There, other authorities are 
more rare ; neither is it easy to perceive how to 
proceed, with what those few have given us. For, to 
what part of the Queen's chamber ought we, in due 
architectural propriety, to make the h5rpsometric 
reference ? Not to the present floor, which has been 
already shown to be a mere excavated hole, or un- 
finished pit ; and not to the roof of the apartment, 
because that was not the portion of the King's 
chamber to which we referred, when investigating 
there for a similar commensurability with another 
masonry course. But we referred, then, to that 
room's coffer-hearing floor, which is very notably 
42 inches below the ceiling of its entrance passage. 
And as the ceiling of the entrance passage to the 
Queen's chamber is likewise an accurately formed 
feature, — we take 42 inches below that, and then 
find the horizontal plane there, to be vertically 
above the Pyramid pavement, according to 

British inches. 

Howard Vyse and Perring, . . . . = 833 
And Aiton and Inglis, = 894 

Mean, 864 

or much closer to the height of the twenty-fifth 
course, than any one could have expected from the 
roughness of the measures employed ; and showing 
too, without the smallest doubt, that that course 
is contained ivithin the uncertainties of the floor as 
dependent on modern measure to prove either its 
present existence, or ancient structural intention. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



239 



Now, this is in itself a very noteworthy circum- 
stance connected with the question of 'design \ for 
whereas the Pyramid courses, on the whole, decrease 
in thickness as they ascend (from 58 to 26 inches, 
says Colonel Howard Vyse approximately), and the 
King's chamber floor is as much vertically above the 
Queen 3 chamber floor, as this is above the Pyramid 
base, according to the same authority, — evidently 
that coincidence of both the fiftieth and the twenty- 
fifth courses with these chambers respectively, could 
not have taken place if such decrease of course-thick- 
ness had been perfectly regular. For in that case, 
if 50 had reached the King's floor, less than 25 
would have reached the Queen's, or if 25 had touched 
the Queen's, a greater number than 50 would have 
been required to attain the King's floor. 

But here we may see the efi'ect of that remark- 
able increase in the thicknesses of the courses, which 
takes place between the 25th and 50th, as well as 
the over- rapid rate of diminution from the founda- 
tion courses upwards until the above correction is 
interposed ; and which correction any good photo- 
graph of the Pyramid will show. Show it, too, not 
beginning or terminating with either of these 
courses, for that might have revealed the secret too 
easily ; but occurring sufficiently within their limits, 
to prevent more than 50 being required to step up 
to the chamber of the standard of 50 inches, — after 
25 had successfully marked a similarly placed 
floor in the chamber of the standard of 25 inches. 



240 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. 11. 



Hence the proportions and arrangements of parts 
we have been enabled to describe in the Queen's 
chamber, — not only indicating a week like the week 
of the Hebrews, of six ordinary days and a sabbath 
day, — but connecting it with the sacred standard of 
length of the Hebrews, or 25 inches ; or again, the 
one-ten-millionth of the earth s semi-axis of rotation, 
— are also connected with the finest and best, 
largest and most pervading structural features of 
the whole Pyramid ; so that they could have been 
introduced at no other period than that of the very 
building of the entire monument, and by no other 
man than the original architect himself. 

If, therefore, for the further elucidation of the 
general question of the sabbatical week, — of such 
infinite importance to mankind, — we should desire 
to find the date of its symbolization in this remark- 
able chamber of the Pyramid,— we are thrown back 
on the larger, and more general, question of, ' What 

* is the date of the building of the Great Pyramid 

* itself ? ' And here the authorities to be consulted 
are numerous. 

DATE OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. 

Without at this point going very particularly into 
minutiae or reasons, there is no difficulty in gathering 
that the general progress of literary inquiry during 
the last fifty years has been to increase the received 
antiquity of the Great Pyramid.^ Thus, in and 

1 One exception, indeed, does exist in the Historical Survey of the 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



241 



about A.D. 1817, the date of 1800 B.C. was frequently 
quoted for the building of that Pyramid ; but in Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, published 
in A.D. 1837, the period is extended to between 2083 
B.C. and 2123 B.C. ; and in the same author's sub- 
sequent Murray's Handbook to Egypt, in a.d. 1858, 
the date is raised to 2400 B.C. 

This increase is, however, only a moderate portion 
of what had then grown with the times, and which 
our truly sage British Egyptologist resisted admit- 
ting to its full extent ; notwithstanding, too, that the 
researches of the most learned German philosophers, 
with the indescribable prestige in this country in 
favour of everything German, had been mainly in- 
strumental in bringing about the rfew idea. Thus, 
the renowned Chevalier Bunsen, — the authorized 
English translation of whose great work on Egypt 
began in 1848 and ended in 1860, — gives for the 
date in question, and with the utmost confidence, 
the year 3280 B.C. ; while the equally learned, and 

Aatronomy of the Ancients, by the late Right Hon. Sir George Cornewall 
Lewis in 1862, and a most melancholy affair it is ; for, persisting in 
looking at all things in the world merely through ancient Greek classical 
authors, and employing himself in writing privately on astronomy, in- 
stead of perfecting the establishment and developing the powers of a 
Royal Astronomical Observatory placed officially under his charge, he 
concludes that there are no authentic accounts of anything earlier 
amongst men than the era of the Olympiads, or 772 B.C. (p. 433) ; and 
that ' it is difficult to fix any event resting on a certain tradition which 
« can be carried up to so high a date.' But on page 440, he consents to 
name 1012 B.C. as the higher limit of all possible dates for building, 
either the Pyramids of Egypt or any other of the monuments ' extant 
* in the time of Herodotus.' Neither does he think (p. 445), that the 
whole world has a much higher antiquity. 

VOL. lU. Q 



242 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



perhaps still more practically experienced in Egyp- 
tology, MM. Brugsch and Lepsius, are understood to 
incline in their different publications between 3100 
and 3500 B.C. More recently still, these views have 
been enlarged by Mariette Bey ; and have found a 
most eloquent exponent in his original countryman, 
M. Ernest Eenan, who has a communication on the 
subject in the Revue des Deux Mondes for April 
1865, and insists on a date of at least 4500 b.c. ; 
while Hekekyan Bey, from a different source, and 
publishing in London in 1863, states, on page 15 of 
his erudite and severe work, that the Pyramid of 
Soris (Osiris) and Suphis dates in B.C. 4863. 

All these conflicting determinations are claimed 
by their authors to be based upon, or at least con- 
firmed by, ' the monuments treated in most cases 
from a hierogl3^hic, but in the last from a hydraulic, 
point of view. Astronomy has also been tried, and 
with the following results : — 

In 1839 A.D., Colonel Howard Vyse communi- 
cated^ to Sir John Herschel his principal measures 
of the Pyramid, besides some very crude remarks by 
previous explorers in 1817 a.d., as to their having 
seen the present Pole-star, a "Ursae minoris, by look- 
ing at night * near the period of its culminating,'^ 
out of the inclined entrance passage of the Great 
Pyramid. This statement approached particulars a 
little more than that of M. Jomard; who, in the 

^ Volume iL of his Pyramids of Gizeh, pp. 105-109. 

2 We hope that these gentlemen meant the lower culmination. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



243 



great French work/ speaks in rather a mystic way 
' of the Pyramids having preserved the inappreciable 
' notion of the invariability of the celestial pole ; ' 
and was more advanced, because the said entrance 
passage does not point to the place of the pole at 
all, but to a distance of more than 3° therefrom ! 
Yet the passage, being in the plane of the meridian, 
there may possibly be some allusion contained to the 
meridian transit of a cireumpolar star, with a par- 
ticular north polar distance at the epoch. Such a 
phenomenon, however, is by no means, as the ex- 
plorers of 1817 A.D. appear to have thought, in- 
variable ; but alters so unceasingly, and through 
such large extents, with time, — i.e., the polar distance 
does, at which any given star will in successive ages 
cross the meridian, — that, as Sir John Herschel had 
to explain, the present Pole-star could not by any 
possibility, or at any part of its diurnal circle, have 
been seen out of the tubular entrance passage of the 
Great Pyramid, either at or anywhere near the re- 
puted date of its building ; for the star was then 
so far from being cireumpolar, as to be at the large 
distance of nearly 24° from the pole. 

But what time, in that case, did this eminent 
astronomer take as the date of the building ? 

He seems to have assumed, that *the supposed 
* date' of the literary world in the year 1839 a.d., or 
the epoch of 21 23 B.C., was likely to be true; and then, 
for the facilities of computation, took four thousand 

1 AntiquiUa Memoires, p. 531. 



244 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DTV. II. 



years back from 1839 a.d., and computed for 2161 
B.C., — what large star, if any, fit to be a polar star of 
reference for the naked eye, was at that particular 
distance from the pole, which would have enabled it 
to be seen both at its transit of the meridian beneath 
the pole, and under an angle of altitude at the Pyra- 
mid, equal to 26° 41' — viz., the angle of the entrance 
passage according to Colonel Howard Vyse. On 
solving the problem. Sir John Herschel found, — 
assuming the latitude of the Pyramid at 30°, — that, 
at the date in question, the star a Draconis was in 
the required position within some 28'; or close 
enough, in his very competent opinion, to settle that 
a Draconis was the Pole-star of the Pyramid build- 
ing day, and of the northern hemisphere of the 
world, in and about the year 2161 B.C. 

This was a most original contribution, and a 
splendid advance on the style of Pyramid investiga- 
tion then in vogue ; and inasmuch as the date pro- 
duced, agreed to a handful of years with the approved 
literary dates of the time, — the question was con- 
sidered by most men as finally settled. But when, 
after a few years, the literary dates, under the in- 
fluence of German scholarship, again rose in amount, 
and attained 3200 and 3500 B.C. — the a Draconis 
view dropped out of sight, with any or all men 
aiming at a ' scholarly reputation and at last the 
Egyptian astronomer, Mahmoud Bey, appeared on 
the scene, and by means of a theoretical reference of 
the Pyramid's southern face to the star Sirius, — a 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



245 



reference conceived in his mind on a particular night 
during the spring of the year 1862 A.D., — deduced 
thence an astronomical date of 3303 B.C. as that of 
the building of the Great Pyramid. 

Astronomy seemed thus as ready to confirm the 
new literature, when produced, as it had been to side 
with the old ; and with regard to the 2200 (nearly) 
date of Sir J ohn HerscheFs reference, it might be re- 
marked, — though we are not aware that it has been as 
yet in print, to assist Mahmoud Bey's and Chevalier 
Bunsen's side of the question, — that, if the course 
of a Draconis under the influence of precession be 
traced a little further back in point of time, the star 
will be found to have reached its closest position to 
the pole — almost at the pole itself— in 2800 B.C. 
roughly ; and would again have reached some 3° or 
4° therefrom, or be seen at such a height above the 
horizon as to have its lower culmination in the 
direction of the entrance passage of the Great 
Pyramid, in the year 3400 B.C. nearly. 

In this manner, too compliant with the received 
human authority, astronomy received another short 
meed of praise for its new agreement with the hiero- 
logist's conclusions ; and was then betrayed irretriev- 
ably when their literary dates were presently taken 
up higher again, or to 4500 and 4700 B.C., — with 
indications too, from M. Renan, that they will 
shortly be elevated higher still. 

Now this is not the usual position which modern 
astronomy has occupied in questions of chronology ; 



246 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



and as its failure is due to no real weakness of its 
own, but rather to imperfect knowledge of the 
Pyramid forms to which its doctrines have been ap- 
plied, — it is incumbent upon us to inquire into the 
matter rather closely ; and ascertain, if we can, 
whether the Pyramid is really capable of giving out 
determinate, or only indeterminate, answers as to 
the length of time it has stood upon the surface of 
the earth. 

First, then, let us inquire — 

Whether the Great Pyramid is to be regarded as 

astronomieal at all ? 
Before we can expect to make any advance in 
this question, we must free ourselves of all mere 
vague and inferential hypotheses about the Pyra- 
mid ; and attend more minutely than has been the 
practice hitherto, to the actual measured and 
measurable facts still existing upon, or within it. 

Quite aware that he had not put out his whole 
strength on the occasion, the greatest astronomer 
who has yet taken up the question, wrote, in 1839 
A.D., — that his calculation of a star angle for the 
Pyramid, might nevertheless *be considered quite 
* equal, in point of precision, to any direct observa- 
' tion, that an Egyptian astronomer of that date 
' (2161 B.C.) could have made and in 1849 a.d., 
publishing on the subject again, after additionally 
attending to the physical astronomy concerned, the 
same great authority changed his computed angle 



SECT, v.] STANDARDS OF TIME. 24*7 



from 27° 9' to 26° 16'. But that amount of differ- 
ence, though nearly a whole degree, must still have 
been thought, rather complacently by its author, 
to be quite small in comparison to the average error 
of observation of an * Egyptian astronomer of the 
' period;' because, in seeking for a Pyramid-passage 
observed angle wherewith to compare his anew 
computed angle for the Great Pyramid, — the 
modern physicist, in his book referred to, takes a 
mean indifferently between angles obtained from 
many Pyramids, and varying from 25° 55' to 28° O'. 

Now this constitutes towards the Great Pyramid, 
a strangely unjust procedure ; for it overlooks all 
that building's superior workmanship — so far in 
advance of what obtains amongst the rest of the 
Pyramids ; and all the closeness with which — after 
employing painful, laborious, and enduring methods 
of construction — its three inclined passages were 
made to agree with each other. 250 years ago 
Kepler declared, that if he could only be certain of 
Tychos observations within 8', he would thereby 
be able to alter the whole theory of the planetary 
motions ; and he did thereupon succeed in demon- 
strating, that circular eccentrics were erroneous, and 
eUipses sensibly true. But what would be thought 
of any one testing Kepler's triumphant conclusion, 
by swamping Tycho's observations with others re- 
corded so very badly, as to be seldom within several 
degrees of the truth ! 

Yet this is, in effect, what men have been doing 



248 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



for years at the Great Pyramid. Allowing their 
prejudices to lead them, — indulging preconceived 
notions of what an infantine approach only, towards 
accuracy, could have been made by an ancient^ 
Egijjotiaii astronomer ; and then, forming a resolve 
not to condescend very far towards such a mere 
beginner in the first rudiments of the art. 

But there is so little known now, of what was 
practised either by Egyptian, or any other class of 
men four thousand years ago, or whether an Egyptian 
astronomer was concerned in the matter at all, — that 
such prejudices ought not to prevent us from taking 
account of ancient facts still existing, when they 
present themselves in a clear manner and measurable 
shape. And amongst many facts of this order, are 
the now undeniable ones, that the Great Pyramid 
has totally different proportions and arrangements 
from any other known Pyramid ; and is no more to 
be made answerable for their imperfections, than 
Newton's Principia for ZadkieVs A Imanac. Where- 
fore, the angle of the Great Pyramid's entrance 
passage ive will take only from observations made 
upon itself ; and we shall then find it something 
capable of being defined within a very few minutes ; 
or, taking the measures of all the instruments em- 
ployed into account, within a few seconds. 

These several angles, and their closeness to each 
other, as given at length in vol. ii. pp. 144-161, and 
vol. iii. p. 39, are capable of mechanical testing at 
any time ; but the main point of difficulty that next 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



249 



arises, is, — where exists any proof of these angles 
having had an astronomical intention f 

That the sides of the Pyramid are duly oriented 
and the entrance passage is in the plane of the 
meridian, are much towards that end (see vol. ii. p. 
194, and vol. iiL p. 109), — has been already accepted, 
as we have seen, by so eminent a philosopher as Sir 
John Herschel, and many others. But the hiero- 
logists are even now rising up once more to claim 
the passage as a mere slope necessary for the intro- 
duction of a sarcophagus ; and ask also, ^ What 
' purpose in astronomical observation could be sub- 

* served by a passage which, though looking towards 

* a Pole-star, was blocked up with stone as soon as 
' the building was complete V 

The first objection appears to us of little force, 
seeing that large tombs near the Pyramid accomplish 
the same purpose for their sarcophagi, by means of 
sometimes vertical, and sometimes horizontal, shafts 
and passages. But the second, is a feature not yet 
sufficiently noticed among most Pyramid theorists ; 
who, finding the entrance passage open now, are too 
much disposed to think it was always so, and must 
therefore have been intended to be. used as a 
telescope ; or a means of observing stars by day- 
light, — as the fable reports them to be so observable 
from the bottom of a well : while another theorist 
of a different order, inquires, with deep-felt emotion, 
whether the intention was not rather ' the levelling 
' a tube at Draco V 



250 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



We cannot, however, too fully realize to ourselves, 
that when the Pyramid builders left the Great Pyra- 
mid, its entrance passage was filled up all the way 
with long blocks of stone, and the outward termina- 
tion of it concealed in the masonry of the casing. 
Hence, it could not possibly have been intended for 
observing astronomy ; i.e., the entrance passage could 
not have been intended to be used, after its con- 
struction, for an observatory. Why, then, may be 
reasonably asked, was so much trouble taken in 
placing it both in the plane of the astronomical 
meridian, and at a particular and precise angle 
of elevation therein ? 

To this we answer, suitably with all the metro- 
logical features of the Pyramid we have yet come 
upon, 'for the purposes of symbolical astronomy ; 
' for memorializing, by lines, angles, and positions, 
' sundry facts in astronomy ascertained previously 

* or otherwise, — but necessary to be marked there, 

* and rendered readable in after ages, in order to 

* carry out the full system of standards originally 

* intended. Such a system requires time-measures 

* on the large scale, as well as the small, and 

* references to star directions are the only means of 
' indicating long periods of time with certainty.' 
Such a destination, then, completely gets over the 
difficulty of the passage either having been once 
used for lowering a sarcophagus, if the hierologists 
will ; or having afterwards been built up with solid 
blocks,- for when these are withdrawn, as they are 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



261 



now, the passage is again available for its originally 
intended purpose, if men are only able to read it 
aright. And we may even add the further con- 
firmation, seeing that John Taylor's theory extended, 
has already explained so many of, the angles of the 
Great Pyramid with a correctness of a few seconds, 
— that its expressive lines (see Plate vi.), while 
they acknowledge that the actual building shows 
only one, of the two daily meridian transits of a 
Pole-star particularly marked, — yet accounts for, or 
shows the direction of the other transit, and the 
place of the pole as well. 

Hence, we conclude the character of the astronomy 
of the Pyramid, to be symbolical only ; and in this 
view proceed to discuss some existing interpreta- 
tions. 

Siriadic Theory of Mahmoud Bey. 

This theory takes for granted, and is founded 
altogether on the assumption of, such a symbolical 
character as that just described, and nothing beyond 
it, belonging to the astronomy of the Great Pyra- 
mid ; yet is remarkable for making no mention of 
a Draconis, or the entrance passage, or Sir John 
Herschel, or any thing or person whence we have 
drawn our chief ideas and views. 

All the European friends of the ancient name, 
and warm-hearted promoters of the modern resusci- 
tation of the kingdom, of old Egypt, must have been 
affected most agreeably to hear of a new astronomical 



252 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



theory on the age and objects of the Pyramids, 
being produced in these days by a native astronomer 
of the Siriadic land ; and they will be equally de- 
lighted to find, that in the department of calculation,' 
a full mastery is shown of the best French methods, 
and a skill that would have adorned a memoir from 
any countryman whatever. But there is also, unfor- 
tunately, a more striking omission still, than any 
we have above alluded to, and one rather damaging 
to the author s credit in several ways ; for, with 
one small exception, — and which rather makes the 
matter worse, — not only is there no mention of any 
British traveller connected with either the history, 
measurement, or calculation of the Pyramid, from 
one end of the pamphlet to the other, — but the name 
and labours of even Colonel Howard Vyse, have not 
the least mention, or acknowledgment, though they 
really outweigh those of all other travellers, and 
natives too, put together, for sound and extensive 
numerical data. 

Howard Vyse, as most of the world knows, was 
at the Pyramid for seven months, working hard with 
several hundred assistants ; while Mahmoud Bey 
was there in the year 1862, the date of his paper, 
only four days with two friends. Hence his mea- 
sures are merely a few of the outside of the Pyra- 
mid, and when he requires some from the other 
Pyramids he has to refer to Colonel Howard Vyse's 
measures after all ; but in place of taking them 
from him directly, with acknowledgment of his 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



253 



name, Avhich is indeed still in the mouths of all the 
Arabs about the Pyramid hill, — he, the Bey, takes 
the Colonels numbers, from Chevalier Bunsen's 
copy of them, mentioning only his, Bunsen's name, 
as though he were the original authority. All this 
strange proceeding too, is not for the purpose of 
attaining in 1862 greater accuracy than Howard 
Vyse reached in 1 8 3 7 ; for whereas he attained the 
close Hmits of 2' of error for his angles of the casing 
of the Great Pyramid — Mahmoud Bey is content to 
employ in computation an angle for the same, 
nearly three-quarters of a degree different from his 
own observed, and more than half a degree different 
from the true, angle. While finally, the Bey more 
unhappily concludes his omissions of Howard Yyse's 
name for what he did do, by bringing it in, as ' le 
* General Wyse,' for what he did not do, and would 
have been rather scandalized at its being attributed 
to him, viz., confirming Bunsen's literary date of 
3310 B.C., as that of the termination of the fourth 
dynasty. 

Thus faults there are of commission, as well as 
omission, in this otherwise very creditable Egyptian 
pamphlet ;^ but faults which, depending as they do 
more upon the tastes, predilections, and perhaps 
patriotic fancies, rather mistakenly interpreted, of 
the author, — he has the means of rectifying when- 

1 VAge et h But des Pyramides lus dans Sirius. Par Mahmoud 
Bey. Alexandria, 1865 a.d. ; reprinted from the Bulletins of the 
Royal Academy of Belgium, vol. xiv. 2d series, pp. 171. 



254 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



ever he chooses ; and will doubtless do so in his 
next publication. 

Having now performed all this part of the duty 
which a simple sense of common justice requires, we' 
can turn calmly and kindly too, to consider the Bey's 
Pyramid theory on its own merits ; and the state- 
ment of it appears to be as follows. 

The star Sirius, Soth, or Sothis, the great Dog- 
star, says Mahmoud Bey, was the god of the dead 
with the old Egyptians ; and his hieroglyph was a 
triangle or pyramid, a star, and a crescent. Where- 
upon he, the Bey, proposes, — that the Great Pyramid 
was constructed with its southern face, — placed too, 
as he is most glad to show, very exactly towards the 
astronomical south, — at such an angle of elevation, 
that the supposed beneficent rays of the star Sirius 
should shine down on it, at the moment of the star's 
culmination in the sky, at right angles to the plane of 
the surface of masonry ; and therefore in the most 
powerful direction, he thinks, to transfuse all the 
substance of the Pyramid ; and, through its solid 
substance, about 200 feet thick near that part, reach 
and afi'ect favourably the mummied corpse of the 
monarch, reposing in his sarcophagus in the dark 
and^ mysterious King's chamber near the centre of 
the building. 

As an actual effect, the amount of such favour 
must evidently be rather homoeopathic ; but with 
that, perhaps, we have nothing to do, the present 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



255 



occasion being only with the Pyramid as a scientific 
monument of geometrical design ; and our business, 
merely to see if the above theory is proved by mea- 
surable facts ; for we need hardly repeat, that the 
theory is purely the thought of Mahmoud Bey's 
own mind, and can only be received as one express- 
ing also what were the thoughts of the Pyramid 
builders, according to the proof it may receive from 
the monument itself. 

At present, Sirius, when on the meridian, does 
not shine down directly, or at right angles to the 
southern face of the Pyramid, being some 6° too 
high ; but as precessional movement is concerned 
there, we may compute back, and find when the 
star was at precisely the required height ; and that 
being done, the calculation brings out, according to 
Mahmoud Bey, the year 3303 b.c. nearly. Nor 
need there be any doubt about this result being fairly 
close to the truth; for the Egyptian astronomer's 
mode of treating the case is such as to do great 
credit to his former scientific training at the Im- 
perial Observatory of Paris, not only by his readi- 
ness to make practical use of a formula by La Place, 
but his consideration of the vexed question of the 
proper motion of the star ; bringing out, indeed, the 
very remarkable result, that that anomalous move- 
ment of Sirius in declination during the last five thou- 
sand years has been, probably, to the extent of 3°, — or 
nearly one-third of its ultimate amount of precessional 
displacement. Likewise does the Bey demonstrate 



256 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



that the variations of the proper motion within 
moderate periods of time have been so marked, and 
with a tendency to show in past days a greater 
amount of annual proper motion still, — that it \i 
rather hazardous to fix on what precisely may have 
been the mean quantity of this anomaly during 
several thousand years elapsed/ 

In fact, Sirius is a dreadfully bad star to try to 
fix an ancient date by ; and there is perhaps hardly 
a worse through all the extent of the sky. An orb 
it is to wonder and gaze at for its brilliancy ; but 
what with its recently detected orbital movements 
round some dark body unknown, or preternaturally 
dark, if it is known, in addition to all wx have 
previously stated concerning its proper motion, 
— its place cannot be computed back for long 
periods of time with anything approaching to the 
ordinary accuracy connected with what, by com- 
parison with it, may well be called 'the fixed 
stars.' 

Still, such as it is, Mahmoud Bey computes that 
about the year 3303 B.C., more or less, Sirius, when 
on the meridian, must have been in a rectangular 
direction from the southern face of the Great 
Pyramid. But he wisely allows that that, by itself, 

1 The following are some of tlie particulars : — 
Declination of Sirius by modern observations in a.d. 1850, = — 16° 13' 
,, by Mahmoud Bey's computation for B.C. 3250, = —25 23 
,, the same, corrected for a mean proper motion ) ^2 20 

in declination of 2-2''' in the interval, ) 
Observed proper motion in declination between ) _ i.^/.// 
1750 A.D. and 1850 A.D., ... j 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



257 



is no proof that the Pyramid was built either then 
or for that purpose ; because an immense number 
of stars in the course of a night, and with the pre- 
cessional effect of ages, may be seen for the moment 
of their culmination, at some date or another, in 
such a rectangular direction ; and he adduces, as his 
only proofs of a cogent order, 1st, that the hiero- 
glyphic of the star Sirius, has a Pyramid attached ; 
and, 2d, that his Sirius date agrees with Bunsens 
and Brugsch's dates, derived from other sources. 

From a mechanical point of view, however, we are 
inclined to object — 

First, that there is nothing visible about the south 
face of the Great Pyramid, to distinguish Sirius 
from all other stars near its extensive parallel ; or, in 
fact, to show any exclusive and intended relation- 
ship between that side of the building and any star. 

Second, The angle of the face of any Jeezeh 
Pyramid, was a much more exact matter than 
Mahmoud Bey seems to have been aware of ; and 
that of the Great Pyramid was set to a very peculiar 
quantity, — the same, too, within a few seconds, on 
every one of its faces ; but different by a large part 
of a degree from any other Pyramid. Now sup- 
posing for a moment, that the south face was set 
to its actual angle to suit the Bey s idea about 
Sirius in culminating, — why should great pains have 
been taken to set all the other faces exactly and 
scrupulously to the same angle ; for, at the same 
angle there, or in those directions e., w., and n., they 

VOL. III. R 



258 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



could not have been equally adapted to receive tlie 
utmost transfusion of essence from one and the same 
star divinity, as that one shining down on the 
south side. John Taylor's theory, on the other hand, 
accounts for the angle of every side being similar, and 
gives an independent statement of what the angle 
should be, which agrees with fact as closely as the 
most refined observation can detect. The building 
is, in truth, excellently formed to demonstrate John 
Taylor's theory ; but by no means of the shape, as 
a whole, to realize Mahmoud Bey's idea : for that 
would have been more promising if the south face 
had been rather concave ; and the other three, so 
decidedly convex, — in order to throw off all other 
influence there, — that the Pyramid would not have 
been a pyramid at all, but a huge beehive form, with 
a large slice cut out of one side. 

Third, Overlooking, for argument's sake, the op- 
position of the actual east, north, and west sides of 
any Pyramid to the southern star-view theory, 
and taking only the south side ; granting also for the 
same purpose, that the slope there of any Pyramid 
was always arranged so as to be at right angles to 
Sirius when on the meridian at the time of the 
building, — then we ought to be able to fix the 
relative dates of different Pyramids from the 
differences of these southern angles. Now, in the 
case of the seventh, eighth, and ninth Pyramids 
of Jeezeh, both tradition, and their arrangement 
symmetrically about the base of the Great Pyramid, 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



259 



have led almost all men to be confident that they 
were built subsequently to that mighty monument. 
Yet their angles being all 52° 10', according to 
Howard Vyse, or 52"^ 13' according to Mahmoud 
Bey, quoting through Bunsen, — while the angle of 
the Great Pyramid is 51° 51', — that implies, on the 
Bey s theory, that the former were built in a previous 
age to the latter, instead of a subsequent one. 

Fourth, the hieroglyphic of the star Sirius, is 
stated by Mahmoud Bey, to be * a triangle or face of 

* the Pyramid, a crescent, and a star,' thus ^ But 
a Pyramid, in hieroglyphics, had a peculiar base at- 
tached to it, as see them in the titles of the Memphite 
Kings in our Plate xii. (photographed from Dr. 
Lepsius' Konigsbuch) See also p. 523 of Bunsen's 
Egypt, vol. i. The mere acute triangle above given, 
— a diflferent sign altogether, and far too acute angled 
to stand for a side of the Great Pyramid, — is said 
by Bunsen, at his p. 534, to mean (except when em- 
ployed for Soth), ' a pyramidal cake, a kind of food, 

* ragout ; and to represent the sound sns! 

Fifth, and last, we have to mention, that Mahmoud 
Bey's second supposed proof, viz., his astronomical 
date agreeing with the supposed true date of the 
Eg}^tologists, — is cut from under his feet by the 
further extension, since then, of precisely the same 
sort of Egyptological inquiries ; for these — as 
effected by his adopted compatriot Mariette Bey in 
Egypt, and elaborated by M. Kenan in France, — 
have shown, that on the same principles as Bunsen 



260 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



extended the date of the Pyramid from 2100 B.C. to 
3300 B.C., it should now — when the Museum of 
Boolak has become possessed of more inscribed stones, 
— be extended from 3300 B.C. to 4500 B.C., at least. 
In fact, the Siriadic theory is left without any sup- 
port, and has its most serious refuters in Egj^t itself. 

a Draconis Theory of Sir John Herschel. 

This theory recommends itself much more to the 
reason than that just described ; because, in the first 
place, — it bases itself on one Pyramid passage or 
tube, looking in one direction only, and not on four 
broad surfaces looking in as many diflferent direc- 
tions, only one of which is made any use of ; and in 
the second place, — because the direction in which it 
does look, being not only in the plane of the astro- 
nomical meridian, but close to the pole, appears 
thereby, — besides being astronomically inclined, — ^to 
pick out one particular star, out of all the sidereal 
heavens ; or at least, to confine itself to a very small 
circumpolar region of the sky, where the number of 
large stars must always be extremely limited. 

Hence Sir John Herschel, in selecting a Draconis 
as the star to which the P5nramid builders referred, 
had very few stars to choose amongst ; and has 
happily selected the one and only star, both large 
enough to be reckoned a polar guide by primitive 
men, and which could have been in the prescribed 
position, or 3° 42' from the northern pole, during 
all, or any of, the various dates that have been fixed 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



261 



on by any one whatever, for the Great Pyramid's 
building. Thus there is every probabihty that 
a Draconis, as a particular star, was really made im- 
portant use of, and much looked to, by the men of 
the Great Pyramid ; and the only ultimate failure 
in the theoretical scheme is, — the uncertainty as to 
which of the two occasions of that star being 3° 42' 
from the pole, viz., before or after, the star's closest 
appulse to that celestial pole, was the occasion in- 
tended to be typified. If the latter one was meant, 
the date must be not far from 2200 B.C. ; and if the 
former, 3400 B.C., nearly : but nothing monumental, 
in the scientific way, has ever yet, so far as we are 
aware, been brought up to shed the smallest light 
on the difiiculty. 

Sir John HerscheFs work, then, was excellent as 
a scientific performance so far as it went, — but it 
did not go far enough to reach firm standing- 
ground ; and we have now to inquire at the Pyra- 
mid itself, whether there are any further data there, 
by means of which the balance of evidence may be 
turned to one or the other side ; i.e., to show whether 
the Pyramid was built at the last, or the last but 
one, occasion of a Draconis being 3"" 42' from the 
northern pole ; and a diftercnce of more than 1200 
years waits upon the result. 

Pyramid Data. 

In taking up the Great Pyramid at this particular 
point, we must confess to have originally deduced 



262 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



from, and now to add to, our measures, — a general 
belief in that building's excellent adaptation to its 
original purposes, whatever they were. Hence we 
have been more struck than most of our prede- 
cessors seem to have been, with this apparent 
anomaly, — viz., that if the meridian transit of a 
Pole-star, at a given polar distance, was the pheno- 
menon to be commemorated in the building of the 
Great P3rramid, — why was one only of the two daily 
transits marked, and that one the lower and less 
important of the two ? 

We had, indeed, ourselves pointed out, in 1864, 
that the northern air-channel seems to be in the 
direction of the upper transit ; but that air-channel 
is itself balanced by the southern one, and required 
therewith in a diiBferent problem ; nor can it for a 
moment compare in mechanical importance with a 
passage like the entrance passage, large enough, — and 
indeed the only one in all the Pyramid, — for men to 
enter at. Wherefore the anomaly still remains, of 
the lower and inferior culmination of a Draconis 
having alone been signally marked ; as if, to the 
builders, it had been vastly more important than 
the upper and more visible culmination ! 

Why this strange anomaly, or preference ? 

* For some good reason,' our respect for the long- 
buried architects suggested ; and the following pre- 
sently appeared the most weighty, as well as the 
most simple, reason that could be adduced, — 
* Because when that star was crossing the meridian 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



263 



* below the pole, another and more important star 

* was crossing the meridian above the pole ; and it 

* is not the manner of the Great Pyramid to wear 
' its most vital signs " or meanings" in the most 

* prominent and external situations/ 

That was merely an hypothesis to be tested ; and 
on trying by calculation what star or stars of chief 
importance crossed the meridian above the pole, and 
at any polar distance whatever, when a Draconis 
was crossing below at the 3400 B.C. period, with a 
polar distance of 3° 42', — we could find none. But 
the moment we tried the same thing for its 2200 
B.C. epoch, we alighted immediately on the Pleiades. 

The Year of the Pleiades, 

Now the group of stars variously known as the 
Pleiades, the Seven Stars, the Doves, Brood-hen, 
Gluck-henne, Hen and Chickens, Cabrillas, or Little 
Nanny-Goats, Peliads ; in Hebrew, Ghima, the Con- 
gregation of the Judge ; in Arabic, Wasat, or the 
Centre ; and in Latin, Vergilice, also with an allusion 
to a centre of turning, — are not only an interesting 
and pleasantly regarded cluster to all men in the 
present day, but were propitiously mentioned in the 
Bible as far back as the time of the patriarch Job. 
They were also, as recently shown by the learned 
researches of Mr. R G. Haliburton,^ very extensively 
referred to in the earliest of primeval times, as part 
of a traditional rule of chronology, bearing traces of 

* Barrister of Halifax, Nova Scotia. See vol. ii. p. 370. 



264 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



wisdom of so very elevated a character, as to demand 
at once both admiration and inquiry. 

Mr. Haliburton's works, which have as yet only 
been printed privately in America, appear under the 
title of 'New Materials for the History of Man, 

* derived from a Comparison of the Calendars and 
' Festivals of Nations : No. 1, Festivals of the Dead' 
(extending to 104 closely printed pages) ; 'and 

* No. 2, On the Astronomical Features in the Mosaic 

* Cosmogony' (to 14 pages) ; and much is it to be 
hoped that their acute and persevering author will 
soon be prevailed on to print them in this country 
for the general public. (See also vol. ii. Section v., 
Letters of the Freemasons.) In the meanwhile, we 
may shortly state for him, that the result of his 
inquiries into the literature of many nations, and the 
traditions of most existing savage tribes, — ^has been 
to find traces amongst them all of their having once 
employed a common, universal, original system of 
chronology, based on the Pleiades, and in a manner 
equally simple and perfect. Thus, the year begins 
on that one night when 'the Pleiades are above,' or 
' are most distinct,' or ' when most is seen of them,' 
or, in fact, when they cross the meridian at midnight. 

Now this is a faultless principle of observation, 
that of a midnight noting of a star when at the 
culminating point of its celestial path ; and one to 
which modern astronomy can add little else than 
merely some technical improvement of the means by 
which the principle is to be carried out ; while, as a 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



205 



working method through long periods of time, for 
determining the beginning of a new year, — it is not 
only capable within itself of the utmost precision, 
but has the same exactness after thousands of years, 
as after one year, — subject only to a small and very 
slowly increasing natural correction. Very different, 
therefore, is this, from the hopeless confusions of 
calendar which the more civilized nations of the 
world, — in its subsequent, but still early historical 
days, — were always floundering in, — from accumula- 
tions of the annual difference between the real length 
of the year and their siqjposecl length of it. 

Quite a large chapter in the history of the Chaldean, 
Egyptian, Greek, and Eoman astronomy is it, the 
chronicling the successive approximations made by 
their astronomers as to the real length of the 
tropical year, and their ahuays being wrong. This 
was because they never could conceive the idea of 
the real length being incommensurable in even terms 
of days ; so that, driven on by their own inventions, 
they assumed, say 360 days for the length of the year, 
and then went on counting their years by 360 days, 
until the difference between that and the true num- 
ber, or 5*2422, etc., days, mounting up every year, — 
soon made a calendar that once began at seed-time, 
appear at length to be heralded in by autumn, or 
vice versd. Then a new approximation was tried, 
which brought the calendar year somewhat closer to 
the natural one ; until the Egyptians, — of a day 
long after that of the Great P3n'amid, — seemed to 



266 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



think they had attained the very height of all calen- 
dar regularity, when they made their theoretic year 
to consist of 365 days. 

Yet even then, they had the confusion, that in ' 
the short space in the history of a great nation, of 
1460 years, or really a little more, — the seasons of 
sowing and reaping, winter and summer, passed 
through every month of the year. The Egyptians 
tried indeed to make a glory of their error, — ^for that 
period of 1460 years, produced from supposing the 
fraction of a day to be a quarter of a day exactly, 
they converted into the mystical and highly lauded 
wisdom of their Sothic cycle. But a most confus- 
ing cycle it must have been ; repeated itself in the 
duration of their monarchy more than once; and 
was endeavoured to be bolstered up, and its single 
years distinguished by a variety of complicated con- 
trivances, such as the Phoenix cycle, Panegyrical 
Periods, the Triakontaeterides, etc., etc., which have 
occupied learned men during long ages, and in large 
books, to try to make either effective or clear. 

* Did not the Egyptians then know of the simpler, 

* better, and more efficacious Pleiades year V is a 
question that may be asked. And the answer is, 

* Yes, they knew of it, or had known of it once ; 

* for traces and allusions to it may be found in 

* some of their religious rites, especially in the festi- 

* val of the Isia ; but these remembrances seem to 
' have been involuntary on their pai-t ; for, in so far 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



267 



* as they could, the Egyptians had cut themselves 

* free from the Pleiades year, both as to the stars 

* and the manner of making the observations, — 

* binding themselves astronomical slaves for ever to 
' Sirius Sothis, the great Dog-star, and his heliacal 

* risings or settings/ Hence our only hope of learn- 
ing more, of what was in reality a pre-Egyptian in- 
stitution, would seem to depend on searching the 
traditions of savage tribes ; where, as Mr. Halibur- 
ton shows, knowledge is well-nigh absolutely station- 
ary ; and thereby reveals to us, in the present 
day, and equally whether amongst the Australians, 
Fijians, Mexicans, or Peruvians, that which was 
once communicated to them, and to all men, long 
before the days of the first known observations of 
Chaldean astronomers, or the first recorded thoughts 
of Phoenician sages ; in a word, before any of the 
Eastern empires which have left any historical traces 
whatever behind them, had either waxed or waned. 

The common possession of this Pleiades year by so 
many isolated and far removed races of mankind, is 
a sufficient proof that they did not receive it from 
any one or other of the great nations of antiquity, 
— the Egyptian, for instance, — exclusively ; for they, 
the Egyptians, never had any dealings with Austra- 
lians and Fijians. Besides which, both Egyptians, 
Greeks, Romans, and others such, in proportion as 
they advanced in civilisation, academical learning 
of their own, and national importance, invariably 
sophisticated down, or thinned away the original 



268 



STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



Pleiades method, until hardly a trace remained 
amongst them, to communicate elsewhere if they 
would. Thus, not content with the beauty and 
power of the primitive maxim for observing a star ' 
on the meridian at midnight, — they, the said great 
heathen nations, must prefer to observe it when on 
the meridian at sunrise or sunset, though the twi- 
light nearly rendered the faint stellar ray invisible ; 
then, the star itself was to be observed at its rising 
or setting, with the vapours of the horizon added to 
the difficulties of twilight. And finally, the neplus 
ultra of impossibility for an observer was fixed on, 
when the sages of the profane world had got to the 
furthest possible point from the spirit of the Pleiades 
method of old ; and instead of fixing the begin- 
ning of the year when the sun was at the maxi- 
mum of distance from the Pleiades, or when these 
were * above ' at midnight, and * most distinct,' — they 
made it when the sun was in that group, or its 
constellation Taurus ; i.e., when the Pleiades were 
' above' at noonday , or, not only not distinct, but 
absolutely invisible ; and when no man could directly 
tell, during several months, whether the priests and 
the almanacs were right or wrong. 

The Pleiades method having been thus reduced, in 
the temples of the most humanly advanced of the 
heathen nations, to something well-nigh futility, — 
the arena was considered open to new inventions ; 
and then began those calendar methods already 
alluded to, according to imperfect human estimates 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



269^ 



of the length of the year in terms of days, which 
occupied the learning of the classic world through 
all its history ; exhausted its attention, and kept up 
its praises and admiration for man and his doings, 
— has led to dislocations of the calendar again and 
again, but with glory always to some new man for 
setting it right for a time, — given difierent reckon- 
ings to different nations at varying epochs, — and 
is untowardly felt, even in this present age of the 
world, in the shape of one European people, ' who 
* possess the ninth part of the habitable globe,' 
counting their time differently by twelve whole days 
from all the rest of the civilized world. 

Now the original method of the Pleiades would 
have saved mankind, if they had kept to it after re- 
ceiving the gift, from all this confusion, intricacy, 
and waste of human energy ; for it is, in its appli- 
cation, as universal as it is simple and effective ; 
and can be observed and profited by, wherever man 
lives on the earth-surface. Not only too, does it 
enable the beginning of each year to be fixed ; but, 
if well observed, it proves also what year, each year 
is, in a something which may be regarded as ap- 
proaching to absolute chronology ; or in a cycle of 
time, admirably definite, and so vast, that all the 
known period of man upon earth, has not yet run 
through one-fourth part of it ; and the duration of 
any great nation, nay even the life of a distinct 
language, has in few cases yet amounted to the one- 
twelfth part. 



270 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



Let us explain practically. The Pleiades, as 
stars, come, and as nearly intertropical stars come 
very notably and measurably, to the celestial meri- 
dian of any place 3m. 59s. sooner every night; 
therefore any one who can determine when it is 
midnight, and when these stars are on the meridian 
to the rude quantity of a minute, can determine on 
which night such a year begins. But a tolerable 
astronomer, even with moderate means, can, not 
only determine that phenomenon far more accurately, 
or to a single second, — ^but can measure the place of 
the star from a definite point, the vernal equinox, 
to a second of time also, or less ; and the Pleiades 
increase their distance each year from that point by 
about 3' 5 seconds, through means of the so-called 
precession of the equinoxes. Hence such astro- 
nomer can determine the place of his star on that 
line of its precessional motion, to an accuracy 
abundantly within the quantity of a year's move- 
ment ; or, in other words, he can settle in which 
year's place the star is, and how many years have 
elapsed since the star left its celestial starting-point 
for measuring from, viz., the vernal equinox. And 
inasmuch as that grand efi'ect on the places of the 
stars, the precession of the equinoxes, goes on so 
slowly, that a star does not travel through its whole 
precessional cycle, or begin to repeat itself therein 
until 25,868 years have passed by, — there has been 
no ambiguity as yet, since man began to chronicle 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



271 



anything, as to which of its preccssional rounds his 
celestial referring point is in. 

This, then, is the chronological system of * the 

* year of the Pleiades,' as so admirably worked out 
by Mr. Haliburton from the traditions of all peoples 
and tongues ; and shown by him to have been more 
perfectly followed in the ages preceding the rise of 
the great heathen civilisations, than since. But 
granting the correctness of all his eloquent deduc- 
tions, our readers may ask, * What are the proofs of 

* that system having been appreciated or attended 
' to by the builders, or rather the planners, of the 
' Great Pyramid V 

The Pleiades and the Pyramid. 

When used at any time, according to the above 
indications, by men concerned in metrological 
arrangements, there can be no doubt that the 
Pleiades must have been to them the most impor- 
tant star, or star-group, by far in the whole heavens. 
Many other stars may be infinitely more conspicu- 
ous, as indeed was Sirius the Dog-star, but its splen^ 
dour could have been no more than idle tinsel, 
compared to the metrological aid furnished by the 
Pleiades under that system. Hence, granting for a 
moment a use of the system, we may be morally as 
well as scientifically certain, that for the sake of 
having the Pleiades commemorated on the meridian 
above the pole, a Draconis, — though otherwise, as for 
orienting the whole structure, a useful enough star, 



272 



STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



— must be content to appear helow the pole, if the 
two are to be observed together ; especially seeing 
that at the hour when a Draconis was above the 
pole (the stars being supposed opposite in right 
ascension), the Pleiades must have been altogether 
invisible or apparently under the earth. 

At present the two stars, — for it will be con- 
venient to allude to the Pleiades as a single star, 
selecting for that purpose its principal component, 
9/ Tauri, whose Greek name A Icy one, when reduced 
to an Arabic root, signifies 'the centre,'^ — at present 
we say the two stars are by no means exactly 
opposite, being nearly 30° distant therefrom. But 
neither is a Draconis now at the distance of 3° 42' 
from the northern pole, but rather at something 
like 25°. Compute, however, the place of both stars 
back, as affected by precession, for every past cen- 
tury ; and with every century earlier, a Draconis 
will be found nearer the north celestial pole, and rj 
Tauri nearer to being opposite to a Draconis in right 
ascension ; until, indeed, after retracing many cen- 
turies, you will find there is one, wherein, not only 
was a Draconis precisely 3° 42' from the northern 
pole — but 7) Tauri was then also just twelve hours 
distant from a Draconis in right ascension; or, 
crossing the meridian above the pole, when the 
other star was doing the same below the pole. 

The ingenious author of the article 'Egypt,' in the 

1 Mazzaroth or the Constellations. By the late Miss RoUestoii. 
London : Rivingtons, Waterloo Place, 1862. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



273 



last edition of the Eiicyclopcedia Britannica, does 
not scruple to say, p. 500, that Sir John HerscheFs 
finding the entrance passage of the Great Pyramid 
at the time of its building pointed to a Draconis 

* is not to be regarded as more than accidental 
and for this one reason only, that ^ the entrance pas- 

* sages of Pyramids were always closed at the com- 

* pletion of the building.' Not only however have 
we removed that objection, by showing that the 
Great Pyramid is all along, in every one of its 
features, not an observatory for making new obser- 
vations, but a place of deposit for remarkable 
standards of metrology previously in existence, — 
and requiring in astronomy, solely, that the pheno- 
mena of a particular epoch should be memorialized 
once and for ever, — not only have we thus shown 
the groundlessness of that objection upon our 
view of the case, — but now a new star, and the 
most important of all stars for metrology in the 
early primeval ages, is exhibited in precise angular 
coincidence with what was computed for a Draconis 
in combination with the entrance passage ; render- 
ing therefore the chances against the latter being an 
accident, perhaps seventy times more secure than 
before. 

The Great Pyramid, however, does not leave the 
matter even in that very nearly established state 
only, but furnishes further data for conclusion and 
settlement, of the following order : — 

Firsty for instance, we may now advantageously 

VOL. III. s 



274 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



take account of Lord Valentia's truly sage critique 
of nearly sixty years ago ; when his Lordship asked, 
with all common sense on his side, * Why, if in the 

* opinion of all Egyptologists the Pyramids had been 
' built solely to preserve the sarcophagi of buried 

* monarchs safely, why did not the builders pull out 

* all the fine white lining from the passages, and 

* build up the long holes with ordinary masonry, 

* like the rest of the mass ; for then half the moun- 

* tain-like building, or more, would have had to be 

* pulled down before the concealed central room 

* would, or could, have been discovered ; whereas 

* now, with the fine and polished lining left in, 

* whether the passage itself be internally stopped up 

* or not, the line of it is clearly distinguishable, and 

* conducts a depredator at once and inevitably to 
' the very chamber where, on the burial hjrpothesis, 

* he ought not to go ? ' 

We thank his Lordship for the sensible idea ; and 
can now suggest, that had the builders of the Great 
Pyramid obliterated its entrance passage in the 
efiective manner proposed by Lord Valentia, — they 
would not only, in all human probability, have pre- 
served the proposed sepulchral chamber from viola- 
tion, which seems, from the whole of the facts now 
known, not to have been their purpose ; but they 
would thereby just as certainly have deprived dis- 
tant posterity of the required symbolical key, where- 
with to unlock the secrets of the Great Pyramid's 
primeval chronology ; and that they seemed to 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



275 



have most positively desired, should one day be 
understood. 

Secondly, as a Draconis, — recovered by Sir John 
Herschel, through means of the entrance passage 
being still visible, — may be regarded as the key, and 
the Pleiades, now found, as the lock, — let us see how 
the key works in the lock. Wherefore, compute the 
absolute right ascension of r) Tauri, when it was at 
that peculiar difference of right ascension just de- 
scribed, or opposite to a Draconis at the time of that 
star being 3° 42' from the pole, and what do we 
find ? why, no less than this, that Tauri was then 
at Oh. of right ascension, or in the equinoctial point 
itself, i.e., at the necessary and essential starting- 
point and commencement of all reckonings by 
Pleiades years ; in the very beginning, therefore, of 
the Pleiades chronology, and at the one epoch of all 
others during the last six thousand years, and many 
more too, when, if ever a monument was to be, or 
could be, appropriately erected to symbolize and 
commemorate the Pleiades calendar, it should have 
been erected. 

Not only, too, was the epoch thus remarkable in 
pure astronomy, but in its applied form to agricul- 
ture and the general afiairs of men, it was equally 
precise and noteworthy. For when the Pleiades 
and the equinoctial point were on the meridian 
together at midnight, then the primeval year began 
coincidently with the autumnal equinox of the 
northern hemisphere ; and that autumn, as well as 



276 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



that night became, agreeably with old tradition, * the 
* mother-night of the year/ 

Again, Mr. Haliburton's researches have shown 
(vol. ii. pp. 372 to 438), that amongst most early 
nations there was a very wide-spread idea of con- 
necting both the constellation Taurus and the 
Pleiades stars, with reminiscences of a saving from 
the Deluge and a beginning of ' sweet influences/ 
Why there was such a connexion, otherwise most 
inexplicable, the astronomy of the Great Pyramid 
seems to furnish a very tangible clue. For, though 
there was no particular absolute change among 
known stars about the epoch of the Deluge (for whose 
date see Division iii. chap, viii.), yet, viewing them 
according to the peculiar and very accurate prin- 
ciples of Great Pyramid observation, — there was a 
Pyramidal relative alteration just then of the whole 
sidereal heavens ; and with the efi'ect, of even making 
the most positive antithesis between the normal con- 
stellations for chronological purposes, of antediluvian, 
on one side, and postdiluvian, times, on the other. 

Compute, for instance, for the date of 3400 B.C., 
or any other certainly antediluvian time, what were 
the equatorial and zodiacal constellations on the 
meridian above, when a Draconis was on the meri- 
dian below, the pole, — and you will find them to be 
Serpens, Ophiuehus, and Scorpio. But as the year 
2800 B.C. came on, a rapid displacement of those 
constellations began to be effected, amounting almost 
to a rushing round of the whole heavens (dependent 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



277 



on the exaggerated effects of precession on a Dra- 
conis, then quite close to the pole of rotation of the 
sky). And when towards 2200 B.C., the extreme 
rapidity of that change had passed, — and the dangers 
of the Deluge also, according to the traditional chro- 
nology of every nation, — then, if you compute what 
constellation was above, when a Draconis was below, 
the Pole, — and in the direction of the entrance passage 
of the Pyramid — you will find, that all the former 
mentioned zodiacal stars are entirely departed from 
the visible hemisphere, — leaving Taurus dominant in 
their place, and the Pleiades exactly on the Meridian. 

Hence, too, a chronological method for a stellar 
year, that formerly began in spring, would be 
changed almost suddenly into an autumn observa- 
tion, — explaining further traditions. But let us con- 
tinue to inquire more and more closely into all our 
necessary facts ; and, first of all, into the calculation 
of the proper Pyramid sidereal coincidences, as yet 
only cursorily mentioned. 

Great Pyramid Astronomy. 
The general results of our observations in vol. ii., 
show decidedly that the Great Pyramid, though ap- 
proaching closer to perfection than most persons 
had hitherto allowed, is yet by no means an abso- 
lutely perfect building; and has certain small 
probable errors of construction, partly perhaps in- 
duced from dilapidation-efiects difficult to eliminate, 
but certainly existing in the present day. 



278 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



In a similar manner, all the calculations which 
I am able at present to bring forward, for computing 
the places of the stars four thousand years ago, 
though agreeing in the general facts, have some 
variations. We must not, consequently, expect 
absolute agreement in the inquiry we are entering 
upon, but only a practical amount thereof; and 
then, we shall probably find observation closer 
together with theory, than different modem ob- 
servers at the Pyramid have been hitherto with 
each other. 

The circumstances of origin of these almost 
necessary errors, are not always easy to investigate ; 
and would have been less so still, had not the two 
stars of Great Pyramid reference, viz., tj Tauri and 
a Draconis, both been as it were so admirably 
selected in primal times from amongst all stars, for 
certain qualities of transcendent cosmical physics, — 
that they have hardly any proper motion at all 
sensible in the present state of astronomy ; hence, 
full freedom with them, from all the worst of the 
drawbacks connected with trying to use the Sirius 
Sothis of Egyptian hierarchy, for any of the grander 
purposes of long chronology. 

The first authority for the calculated places to be 
presented before our readers, is at least quite a dis- 
interested one, — ^being a friend of Chevalier Bunsen, 
and his Pyramid date of 3280 B.C. ; viz., the learned 
Professor Heiss, of Munster. This gentleman's 
testimony, moreover, was quite unintended ; for he 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



279 



had merely furnished to Bunsen's fourth volume of 

Egypt's Place in Universal History, two star-maps ; 
one of them showing the precessional movement of 
the pole, and the other the precessional displace- 
ment of the equator of the sky, for several thousand 
years back ; and both maps were actually con- 
structed for the purpose of illustrating a point con- 
nected with /3 UrscB minoris, as the probable Pole- 
star of the ancient Phoenicians. But, as the maps 
contain, besides many other stars, both a Draconis 
and rj Tauri, we may as well ascertain what they 
say about them ; and it seems to be as follows : — 

Ist, a Draconis was at 3^ 42' from north pole of sky in year 2071 
B.C. nearly. 

2d, a Draconis at above date, was not 12h. from rj Tauri, but 
11 h. 23 m. ; and 

3d, 7} Tauri, was at Oh. A.R., or in the meridian of the equinoctial 
point, in year 2100 B.C. nearly. 

Hence, the first and third phenomena agree very 
fairly, but the second is largely in error ; due, with 
little doubt, both to the necessary imperfection of 
small maps, and to these particular star places not 
having been expected to be called for. 

In the second place, we submit two results by 
Sir John Herschel for a Draconis alone. These 
were both computed for Colonel Howard Vyse's 
value of the angle of the entrance passage, or 26° 
41', giving 3° 19' of celestial polar distance. We 
have, therefore, reduced them to the later more 
correct determination of 26° 18' for the mean 
passage angle, and 3° 42' for the north polar dis- 



280 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



tance, using an annual precession in north polar 
distance of 20" ; and find, — 

a Draconis at 3° 42' from north pole, by computation of 1839 a.d. 

in 2011 B.C. ; and 
a Draconis at 3° 42' from north pole, by computation of 1849 a.d., 

in 2158 B.C. 

the last being preferred. 

In the third place, we submit the results of a 
computation for each star in both elements, or 
right ascension and declination, by the formula 
contained on p. 19 of the Introduction to the 
British Association Catalogue, and applied to every 
hundred years ;^ whence it would seem, — 

B.C. 

Uty a Draconis at 3° 42' N.P.D., ... in year 2128 
2d, a Draconis and t) Tauri opposite, or 12 hours ) 1550 
distant in right ascension, J " 

(And 12h. 15m. 30s. in 2100 B.C., a Draconis 
following rj Tauri by that quantity) ; and 
3d, V Tauri, at Oh. A.R., „ 2228 

Here the second item is still very discordant, and 
the first and third not so close as might have been 
desired ; wherefore, we began to suspect the full ap- 
plicability of the formula, to the very much greater 
lapse of time it is employed for here, than any which 
seem to have been contemplated by the worthy 
Francis Baily, to whose long and earnest labours the 

^ The formula being as follows : — 

A a = w + w. sin a. tan S. 
A 5 = w. cos a. 
where m = 46 02824" + y 0003086450". 
n = 20 06442" - y 0000970204". 
o = Right ascension. 
5 e= Declination. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



281 



British Association owes the opportunity of append- 
ing its name to the best star- catalogue the world 
has yet seen. There is something too, even still, 
not quite so well understood about the numerical 
quantity of precession, as it should be ; La Place 
having one annual value, and Bessel another, while 
an excellent author on physical astronomy printed, 
a few years ago, the prudent conclusion : — * This 

* rate of motion, 50*2" per annum for precession, is 

* not perhaps sufficiently well determined to make 
' it worth while to compute exactly the time in 
' which the equinox describes the w^hole heavens, a 

* period between twenty-five and twenty-six thou- 

* sand years.' 

With reference also to some errors that had been 
previously committed in precessional computations, 
Sir John Herschel subjoins to Par. 319 of his 
Outlines of Astronomy the instructive note : — 

'On this calculation the diminution of the ob- 

* liquity of the ecliptic in the four thousand years 

* elapsed has no influence. That diminution arises 
' from a change in the plane of the earth's orbit, and 

* has nothing to do with the change in the position 

* of its axis, as referred to the starry sphere.' 

Now this paragraph is not a little interesting, as 
a reminder, and a timely one, of the extraordinary 
importance in celestial physics of the earth's axis 
of rotation ; that axis which is already referred to 
at the Great Pyramid for the standard of linear 
measure, as well as for weight and capacity measure ; 



282 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



is typified statically, in the vertical height of the 
Pyramid ; and as to its dynamics, in the base thereof. 
Most worthily too, for that axis of the earth's rota- 
tion, with its uniform rate of turning and power of 
keeping its own angular position (that is, of follow-^ 
ing its own laws of slow angular change such as 
precession, in defiance of other angular changes 
going on round about it on a vastly larger scale, as 
in the alteration of the plane of the enormous orbit 
carrying the earth itself round the Sun), — ^that axis 
of the earth's rotation, immaterial though, like the 
orbit, it be, — is endued with more power of perma- 
nency and constancy than any of the other move- 
ments or properties of the earth ; and does directly 
govern both the polar distances of the stars, and 
all our ideas of, and means for, checking the uni- 
formity of our first invaluable standard and unit 
of time. 

Hence, as the fourth example, we exhibit the re- 
sults of the computation of 50*211" as a mean 
amount of annual precession for the whole period, 
supposed to be uninfluenced by any other changes, 
and then find for — 

B.C. 

Ist. a Draconis at 3° 42' N.P.D., the date . . = 2170 
2d. a Draconis and rj Tauri, opposite in R.A, ; first in 

1797 B.C. ; second in 2562 B.C. ; Mean, . = 2180 
(a Draconis following rj Tauri at that mean date 

of 2180 B.C., by 12h. 5m. 28s.) and 
3d. 7} Tauri at O h. R.A. in date . . . . =2176 

The places of the stars in 1800 A.D., and between 
2000 and 2300 B.C., being as follows : — 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



283 





■q Tauri or the Pleiades. 


a Draconis. 


Date. 


Right Ascension. 


Declination. 


Right Ascension. 


North Polar 
Distance. 


1800 A.D. 


h. m. s. 
3 35 37-9 


23° 28' 32 " 


h. m. s. 
13 58 58-5 


24° 39' 59" 


2000 B.C. 
2100 B.C. 
2200 B.C. 
2300 B.C. 


8 59-6 
3 52-2 
23 58 45-1 
23 53 28-2 


5 22 32 
4 49 14 
4 15 55 
3 42 36 


12 12 20-9 
12 8 34-5 
12 4 25-8 
11 59 42-8 


4 38 35 
4 5 18 
3 32 
2 58 41 



Having thus exhibited without favour all the 
widest variations in results, of which the case seems 
well-nigh capable, — we may be pretty certain that 
the true date will ultimately prove to be contained 
within them ; and will be found, if not actually 
2170 B.C., at least closer thereto than the beginning 
or end of the duration of the Great Pyramid s build- 
ing can be to its middle date. 

Star-Maps, explanation of. 

In Plates vii., viii., and ix., the principal features connected 
with the astronomy of the Great P3rramid, are approximately 
represented in a graphical form. 

Plate vii. 

Plate VII. is therefore a star-map, showing both the place of 
the pole of the ecliptic and its surrounding sky for a breadth of 
from 80° to 90° ; near the middle of which space, the circle, — 
described under the influence of precession in 25,867 years 
approximately, by the celestial pole of rotation traversing round 
the pole of the ecliptic, or rather round its own mean posi- 
tion during the whole period, — is duly marked ; together with 
the series of actual places successively occupied in that circle by 
the rotation-pole, at the end of every hundred years, continu- 
ously, from 4000 B.C. to 2000 a.d. of the Christian era. 

This map is of course independent of the geographical posi- 
tion of the place of observation ; and the cosmical accident may 



284 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



be noticed with interest, that whereas the seven larger stars of 
the Great Bear are the most easily recognised group in the sky, — 
and two of the stars forming the preceding side of the square, so- 
called, in that group, serve as the popular ' pointers' to direct atten- 
tion to, and enable beginners to recognise, the present polar star of 
the world, or a Ursae Minoris, — so the two stars forming the oppoi 
site or following side of that square are the pointers, even more 
directly and immediately, to the ancient Pole-star of the world, 
or a Draconis. 

This star will likewise be readily identified by being half-way 
between f Ursae Majoris, and y Ursae Minoris ; also, by having 
another star near it, in the same direction almost as f Ursae 
Majoris on one side of it, has e of the same constellation, and y 
Ursae Minoris on the other, has /3 of that constellation : so that 
a Draconis and its companion are the middle pair, of three paral- 
lel-placed pairs of stars, between the G-reater and Smaller Bears. 

Modern observations do not show any notable proper motion 
affecting the place of a Draconis ; but there is a sensible fluctua- 
tion in its apparent brightness, making its limits of magnitude 
lie between the second and fourth, and in a period amounting 
very vaguely to some two or three hundred years ; so that we are 
only enabled thereby to say, that at the period of the Great 
Pyramid's building, a Draconis may have been brighter than it 
is now, which is somewhere about, and probably rather below, 
the third magnitude, at which we have depicted it. 

Plate viii. 

Plate VIII. is another star-map, but a local one ; and repre- 
senting on a smaller scale, both for the particular year 2170 b.c. 
and for the special latitude of the Great Pyramid, a meridional 
strip of the sky extending the whole distance from the southern 
horizon, through the zenith and to the northern horizon, — with a 
breadth of rather more than 40° on either side of the meridian. 
The meridian line, the prime-vertical, the equator, and the pole 
are indicated by black lines. 

The stars represented in this definite space, are those which 
filled it at the moment when the Pleiades were crossing the meri- 
dian, at night, — say rather — as characterizing the season of the 
year, and a primitive observation for determining the beginning 
of the year — at midnight. 

The map next shows, that the following further coincidences 



Vol. Ill 



WESTERN S/Olflf 





£AS7£/? N S/DJ 



iJuy m^ri^ix)na7^ apjo^/iru^xw. oF th^^ star's ^ U 
w Cf'ossiruj MeridxajTiJ beXow ihj>^ PoUy ocnxL ^ 

SyntJioIs axloptf-cly to express fh^'. mcujjnUii^^^ or bri^U 



PI. 8, 



'OtOr MERIDIAN 




SIDllOr MERIDU\N 



ZrjO B. (J. an^ tJi^y La^i/zLd^/ of ih^ Great. PyrwrnLcb, 
iTi^i^xfii' wiuny ay Brar^jnjs ( at/3 ° /f-Z' JN .F. Bzst. ) 
l^TUi^M^^ f n^^zj^ ihej Equxitor ) arey crossing o/bov^ 



Vol, III 




p; 7. 




Vol. IJI 




E ASTERN SID G 



'jippfWximM-^^'j star TTvap rejjresejdui^ , ^ for theyjr& 
th^j nher'Ld^rva.L appecLrcuzcey of fh^ s tours , they int 
arey crossing thiy Meridzcuv^ <tty ifvidni^JUy ^ buty wh^^xM 
is ow th^y MfiruZiajv^ eiJAer CLdx)vC' or btlow they Po\ 

Sj/nbots €ulopt€dy tv express Ihtiy nza^rtUiLdes or bri^Ju 




OF MERIDIAN 



1883 A. I) . arnL th^ LaJztzide/ of the OrecLtiyrajrLLdyJ 
start/y w7u/?y Fleiitdes ^ f now n^^ar th^ ZeTiiUvJ^ 
nietth^r' <Z DracOTtis , nor ourvy^ ol/te^^ ccrciimpoJ^iyr steur 

Pol 

■^U^s of the st^s, I".^ i 



2. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



285 



must have occurred at that moment, and been peculiar to that 
date of 2170 b.c. :— 

1st, The equinoctial point, or crossing of the equator and 
ecliptic ; and 

2c?, The Pole- star, or a Draconis, must both have been on the 
meridian at the same instant, viz., the instant of the Pleiades 
also being on the meridian. 

a Draconis was indeed below the pole, but that position, com- 
bined with its particular polar distance of 3° 42' in 2170 B.C., 
gave it then to observers at Jeezeh, an angular altitude of 26° 18' ; 
or practically the same as the entrance passage of the Great 
Pyramid, and therefore in so far connecting it therewith. 

Plate ix. 

Plate IX. resembles Plate viii. precisely, in so far as it is in- 
tended to show, for the latitude of the Great Pyramid, the 
appearance of the meridional portion of the starry heavens at 
night, just at the instant when the Pleiades are crossing the 
meridian ; but the date, in place of being the long-past date of 
2170 B.C., is now the future, or near-present one of 1883 a.d. 

With this difiference of date, ' precession,' not to say anything 
of ' proper motion,' accumulating through the long interval, has 
introduced many changes in the appearance of the usually re- 
puted ' fixed stars ; ' as thus — 

1st, The ecliptic no longer cuts the equator symmetrically in 
the same right ascension as the Pleiades. 

2d, a Draconis is no longer on the meridian either above or 
below the pole ; neither is it at 3° 42' from the pole. 

And *6d. No other circumpolar star is on the meridian either 
at that, or any other, north polar distance : so that the entrance 
passage of the Pyramid, in the present day, points at vacancy ; 
but assists thereby in indicating the remarkable importance of 
the several consentaneous phenomena which are depicted in 
Plate VIII., as then, and then only, or in the year 2170 B.C., 
accompanying the meridian passage of the Pleiades. 

The figures of the constellations which appear in red lines on 
each of these three Plates, vii., vm., and ix., are chiefly introduced 
to render the stars more easily identifiable to readers in the pre- 
sent day; and not to indicate now, ideas supposed to have prevailed 
in the primeval world. But as the figures may prove to be a first 
step towards knowledge in that direction, — the subject will be 
alluded to again, with such a view, in Div. in. chapter ix. 



286 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



Great Pyramid A ttestations. 

Just possible is it now, after having succeeded 
thus far, in showing astronomical agreements with 
Great Pyramid construction, — that the supporters of 
the elongated hierological dates of 3300 B.C., 3700 
B.C., and 4500 B.C., etc. etc., may object, ' that any 

* number of concurring astronomical phenomena, 
' even though indicated in the lines of a building, 

* and too numerous and exact to be attributed to 
' accident, does not prove the building to have been 

* erected at that date ; for the lines might have been 
' computed by theory for so many centuries back, 
' or so many centuries forward, from the building 

* date, when there was no such visible coincidence, 

* or even any approximation to it in the sky/ 

Such objection may be made, though with less 
and less force in proportion to the complication of 
the problem and the early age of its supposed nu- 
merical performance ; but the most signal and unique 
answer that may be returned for the Great Pyramid, 
of all the monuments in the world, is this, — the 
Great Pyramid has a theory (John Taylors deve- 
loped), whereby its metrological features have been 
already abundantly illustrated, and especially the 
interwoven character of its time, and space, symbols. 
Now this theory, already honoured with success at 
many other points, indicates by its lines equally the 
position of the Great Pyramid in time, as in space, 
i.e., in its latitude on the surface of the earth ; and 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



287 



we have visited the building in the spot where it 
actually stands, and found by measurement that it 
does sensibly, or to within a few seconds, fulfil the 
latitude, or space, requirement. Therefore it would 
seem, that the resulting conclusion should be in 
favour of a high probability, and something that 
must be admitted until more direct and positive 
evidence can be adduced on the opposite side, — that 
if we could by a miracle overtake the time that is 
passed, and revisit the Jeezeh hill at the date of 
2170 B.C., as indicated by the theory, we should 
certainly find some part or other of the building 
then in progress ; or in other words, the operation 
itself would be abundantly visible from that com- 
puted point of time, — even as the consequences of 
the operation are to be seen now, from the similarly 
computed point of space. 

And now we come to some further constructive 
details in the building itself, which are well worth 
attending to. In Plate vi., the two culminations of 
the Pole-star, including the polar point, are sym- 
bolically indicated in the height of the northern end 
of the Grand Gallery, as seen from the centre of the 
base of the Pyramid ; and having before remarked 
that the equatorial line of the sky, as seen from an 
important astronomical intersection of the base, 
enters the lower north end of the Grand Gallery, — 
we may presently add thereto, that the line of 
direction of the Pleiades, as seen in the year 2170 



288 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



B.C., or 4° 22' north declination, approximately 
strikes the middle height of the Grand Gallery from 
the same point ; a symbolism which, combined with 
the seven overlappings, might well seem to bear 
out the ideas of those who have thought, for other 
reasons, that this slanting corridor was a part of the 
monument specially devoted to ' the seven stars/ 

With our own more practical tastes, however, we 
rather incline to note the remarkable observing 
qualifications of the combination of a polar, with an 
equatorial, star. An astronomer of the present day 
desirous of obtaining time with the utmost accuracy, 
procures a transit-instrument, which contains in its 
coUimation, the essence of a T-square, — or of the 
correct base of a square Pyramid ; levels its axis, 
orients it by looking at the Pole-star when on the 
meridian; and then, and not till then, observes 
another star near the equator, to obtain the time 
by. Even thus does the Great Pyramid indicate 
that its fiducial lines were first oriented by a Dra- 
conis near the pole, and then the time obtained by 
the Pleiades ; which group, though now upwards of 
2Z° from the equator, was in the year 2170 B.C. 
only 4° 20' therefrom, or, to all practical intents and 
purposes, formed a good equatorial * clock star/ 
Thus each of the Pyramid stars had a special 
purpose to fulfil; and the astronomy of the Great 
Pyramid would not have been complete or capable 
of accuracy, symbolic only, or rather memorial 
though it be, without both of them being employed. 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



289 



Neither, perhaps, would the Great Pyramid be 
thought fully furnished, unless, besides a system for 
minute accuracy in procuring time at the instant, 
some further and grander arrangements were made, 
capable of indicating the total length of the whole 
cycle, in terms of which such periodical time is to 
be chronicled, — viz., the full length of the * Great 
* Year ' of the Pleiades. Now this is, and must evi- 
dently be, the period of the precession of the equi- 
noxes ; and we have just witnessed one prudent man 
of the present day declining to risk the computation 
of the exact length of the cycle, — so many are the 
minutely disturbing causes which may be brought 
to light in its course. Until recently, indeed, the 
published statements have been very various ; or 

25,816 years, according to ... Tycho, 

25,920 ,, ... Kicciolus, 

24,800 „ ... Cassini, 

and 25,740 „ „ ... Bradley ; 

but now the number ascertained by Bessel, or 26,868 
years, has most favour ; and this must be our test, 
— ^because the best one available, — of whether the 
Great Pyramid speaks here also in terms of astro- 
nomical truth. 

Much struck with having found inches in even 
hundreds when measuring the diagonals of the 
sockets (see vol. ii. p. 135), and connecting that 
with the length of 100 inches representing the 
time-unit of a day, when the perimeter of the whole 
Pyramid represents a year, or 100 inches x 365*242; 

VOL. III. T 



290 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[div. it. 



reflecting also on the extraordinary importance of 
diagonal equality to prove a square, and the pro- 
bability of the symbol of the whole chronological 
system pervading the entire monument, if any pa^ 
of it, — I computed the diagonals of the base of the 
Great Pyramid from the previously observed mea- 
sures of the sides and angles contained ; and then, 
allowing an inch for a year, the cycle of the Pleiades 
seemed to appear at once, in the sum of the two 
diagonals. 

9140 British inches, we have elsewhere assumed 
as the most probable length of one side of the base ; 
and that number being equal to 9131 Pyramid 
inches, yields, for the sum in question, 25,827 of 
the same inches. Or if, as we have also shown else- 
where, the base may for some purposes be measured, 
not on the upper, but the lower surface of the pave- 
ment, so as to give 9150 Pyramid inches in the 
side, the sum of the diagonals then amounts to 
25,880 of the same units. The mean of the two, or 
25,854, is certainly an amazingly close approach to 
the 25,868 of BesseFs cycle for precessional change, 
— or, as usually expressed, for the circle described 
about the pole of the ecliptic by the pole of the 
equator : but perhaps more correctly to be defined 
as the circle described by the pole of the equator, 
under the influence producing the precessional 
movement round its own mean position in space ; 
for the rotation of the mass of the earth about its 
polar axis is the grand fact which rules everything 



1 



SKCT. v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



291 



material, as well in all human astronomy as in the 
symbolisms of the Great Pyramid. 

Conclusion of the Metrological Inquiry. 

Let us pause now for a moment, and consider the 
stage we have reached in this progress of plain 
mechanical interpretation of the measured facts of 
the Great Pyramid. 

A most comprehensive metrology arranged in 
five diflferent branches, appears, indeed, to have been 
discovered, each of them imbued with characteristics 
of a most commendable, and even excelling, kind ; 
but the objection may nevertheless, or rather on that 
very account, be raised, — and we beg to be excused 
for always relating most fully any or all serious ob- 
jections whenever we hear of, or wherever we meet 
with, them, — for our prevailing desire is to afford 
our readers a full view of either side of the argu- 
ment, as the only method of ultimately reaching the 
truth, — the objection, we say, may be taken that, 
Jlrst, the foundations of the units and standards 
concerned in that supposed metrology are vastly too 
high, or deep, or difficult in scientific investigation 
to have been arrived at by a primitive people ; and, 
second, the units and standards themselves are in 
every case utterly diverse from the units and stan- 
dards of the same branches of, or subjects in, metro- 
logy, as employed by the ancient Egyptians. 

Now the reasons mentioned under these two heads 
are fairly stated by the objectors ; and the latter one 



292 STANDARDS OF TIME. [DIV. II. 



especially, is most perfectly as well as pointedly 
true ; and we would ourselves, previous to our ex- 
perience of the Great Pyramid inquiry, have looked 
rather suspectingly on any book or person found 
either attributing to any ancient people a higher 
degree of acquaintance with astronomy and terres- 
trial physics than what is certainly known and 
generally practised in the present day, — or finding 
something amongst them totally alien to all their 
acknowledged manners and customs throughout 
their whole historical period. But any one so doing 
would be acting to a certain extent under the in- 
fluence of prejudice in favour of what he knew, or 
supposed he knew, before ; and would be only 
justified therein, if his old beliefs were established on 
very firm data, and the new ideas rested on no addi- 
tional, or certain, or sufficiently numerous facts to 
allow of chance coincidences being eliminated, and 
something approaching to proof established. 

So far, however, is the Great Pyramid from being in 
this latter questionable condition, that it possesses in- 
finitely more facts capable of close and accurate mea- 
surement than does any other subject of equally long 
standing on the surface of the earth ; and we have 
now before us a greater number of, and more refined 
observations as to, those facts than have ever been 
seen in print before. Hence we have considered our- 
selves not only allowed, but pre-eminently called on, 
to drop all past prejudices as to what early nations 
might be supposed able, or not able, to do ; and try 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



293 



what the measured features of the Great Pyramid, 
taken merely on their own inorganic merits, can 
say for themselves. 

If, then, after having long followed this, in prin- 
ciple, unexceptionable course, certain all the while 
of the unrivalled closeness of our measures, — we find 
developed before our wondering gaze a consistent, 
continuous, and most philosophic system of metro- 
logy, explaining far more of the measurable lines 
and angles about the Great Pyramid, than any other 
theory has ever done or attempted to do, — what 
answer shall we return to the sweeping judgment 
enunciated by Chevalier Bunsen on p. 658 of vol. iv. 
of his Egypt's Place in Universal History, and re- 
ligiously believed in, we are told, by a vast majority 
of the heads in the literary world, — a judgment pro- 
nounced, indeed, originally upon Sir J ohn Herschers 
and John Taylor's researches, but more applicable 
now, if at all, to our own ? The words are, in the 
authorized London edition of 1860 a.d. : — 

* The groundlessness of the fancies which have 

* been again very recently indulged in about the 

* astronomical purposes of the Pyramids, and about a 

* hidden symbolical system of astronomy, is demon- 

* strated by that thorough conviction which is forced 

* upon us by a view of the monuments and the 

* reading of the hieroglyphics.' 

The following is all the answer we propose — 
simply to examine the alleged demonstration of 
Chevalier Bunsen on the same principles we have 



294 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



been testing the Great Pyramid by, or with little 
beyond plain common mechanical sense. On which 
understanding, let us inquire, first, what monuments 
these are, so undefiningly alluded to ; and, second, 
what sort of a view of them is it which is required 
to be taken ? 

If a material view of any of the standing monu- 
ments of the land, we believe that Chevalier Bunsen 
was never in Egypt to enjoy that important and in- 
structive sight ; and if a literary view of them only, 
through the works of other men, what were the 
monuments viewed ? For if they were not the 
Great Pyramid, they can hardly be received as being 
more weighty in a question of and about the Great 
Pyramid than the Great Pyramid itself ! We fear, 
too, that the mention of * the reading of the hiero- 

* glyphics' shows that the monuments which the 
scholarly Chevalier preferred for explaining the 
Great Pyramid by, were not even other Pyramids of 
any kind or degree, but merely small buildings or 
excavations, like the tombs — things of no sort of 
resemblance to the Great Pyramid, and not un- 
frequently of a very different age. 

Chevalier Bunsen's knowledge of the Great Pyra- 
mid's wondrous mass of building, ' in number, 

* weight, and measure,' appears to have been con- 
fined to his copyings from Howard Vyse, and to 
some unfortunately manipulated contributions by 
Mr. Perring ; the Chevalier s statement, too, of these, 
is accompanied with so many slips or misrepresen- 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



295 



tations of his own, that in the course of ten pages 
(155-165 of his vol. ii.) we have marked twenty 
notable errors of facts and features of mechanical 
construction. 

We do not detail each and every one of these 
errors here, partly because to find out mistakes in a 
copyist when the original authority can be referred 
to, is rather supererogatory for the advancement of 
science ; and partly because, in charity, we remem- 
ber how very difficult it was in our first Pyramid 
book of 1864 to realize all the facts of the Pyramid, 
on other persons' mutually contradicting descrip- 
tions alone. But there is one of the faults of the 
eminent German author of too serious a nature, 
and too wilful on his part, to be passed over in 
silence, and it is this, — after having profited his own 
volumes most largely, both in the plates and descrip- 
tions from Howard Vyse's labours, Chevalier Bunsen 
indulges in successive ungenerous animadversions 
on the laborious and successful explorer he has been 
borrowing from. Thus, as one example, M. Bunsen 
tells his readers, in page 164 of his Philosophy of 
History, * Vyse has made a collection of quotations 
' from different travellers in the sixteenth and seven- 
' teenth centuries, to prove that Dr. Clarke (1801) 

* did his countrymen an injustice by asserting that 

* the sarcophagus was broken to pieces by English 

* soldiers. The French savants merely remark that 

* they did not find the lid.' 



296 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



The first sentence of this extract gives to Colonel 
Howard Vyse rather a fool's errand to collect quo- 
tations of one and two centuries earlier, for the 
purpose of proving that the coffer had not been 
broken to pieces in 1801 (the occasion of English 
soldiers visiting the Great Pyramid), when he knew 
of his own observation in 1837, and all the world 
did too, that it, the coffer, was not * broken in 

* pieces ' even then ; but the Colonel is grievously 
misrepresented by the German philosopher. Dr. 
Clarke's charge was, see pp. 198 and 199 of volume 
V. of the fourth edition of his Travels, that the cofi'er 

* was entire when our troops were landed in Egypt 

* that they began, alas ! the havoc of its demolition/ 

* and left behind them a sad memorial of the British 
' name ; but only succeeded in accomplishing a 
' fracture near one of the angles.' And to this 
charge. Colonel Howard Vyse, jealous of the honour 
of British soldiers under false accusation, showed 
most conclusively that they did not hegin the first 
fractures of the coffer, — because French and Italian 
travellers of preceding centuries had recorded, and 
even gloried in recording, that they had broken off, 
and carried away small bits of it. In fact. Colonel 
Howard Vyse s note on the subject, at the foot of his 
283d page, volume ii., is logical, moral, and eloquent. 
But what shall we say of the concluding sentence of 
Chevalier Bunsen's paragraph, already given, under 
any of these heads ; for, as it stands there, it has no 
visible connexion with what precedes, and when we 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



297 



refer to the Great Egyptian work for what the 
French savants did say, we find in a note to page 75 
of Ant {quit Ss, DescriptioUy torn, ii., not the innocent 
phrase w^hich Bunsen states is what they * merely 

* remarked/ but the following version of Dr. Clarke's 
erroneous charge ; — * Since the French expedition, 

* the sarcophagus has been broken, as they pretend^ 

* by English soldiers/ ' Depuis Texp^dition Fran- 

* ^aise le sarcophage a ete brise, k ce que Ton pr^- 

* tend, par des soldats Anglais.' 

Neither would the untenable nature of Chevalier 
Bunsen's paragraph have been explained, had more 
of his preceding matter been introduced, while some 
of his errors of another kind would have been 
thereby exhibited ; for only six lines previously, he 
states that the cofier (sarcophagus) of the Great 
Pyramid, * is somewhat shallower and shorter, than 

* that of the second largest Pyramid.' Shorter it is, 
but not shallower ; on the contrary, very considerably 
deeper, my measures, and Colonel Howard Vyse's, 
for the former vessel's depth, being 34"3 and 34"5, 
respectively ; and for the latter's, 29*4 and 29*0 
respectively : my own being expressly stated to ex- 
clude the ledge in both cases ; that ledge, which, in 
the case of the Great Pyramid coffer, is so strange 
an omission on tlie part of the French savants, and 
which Chevalier Bunsen does not brino: to light. 

In fact, upon the proportions of the Great P)n:a- 
mid, as printed by Chevalier Bunsen, in company 
with his frequent blunders, — we doubt whether any 



298 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



[DIV. II. 



metrological theory could be got to hold. But there 
is no proof yet, that he made even an attempt to 
see whether such a theory would hold on either his, 
or any one else's numbers ; and he has therefore no 
right to issue dicta, controlling those who have, and 
to charge them before the world roundly and utterly 
with indulging groundless fancies. 

Hence, there is not one measure of line or 
angle, and not a single description of material or 
mode of building about the Great Pyramid, that we 
have founded on in all the previous pages, — and laid 
the particulars of before our readers at length, — 
which need be altered to the smallest extent, at 
least on account of any of the sweeping judgments, 
or rather most ' groundless fancies ' and erroneous 
numbers contained in all Chevalier Bunsen's four 
large and very learned volumes. 

Some small alterations in our final figures, we 
may have to introduce in future years (if we live to 
see them), when new, better, and completer obser- 
vations than our own, shall have been made at the 
Great Pyramid ; when the four sides of the base 
and the whole pavement surface shall have been 
cleared of rubbish ; the portcullis pierced ; the 
Grand Gallery compared with the Polar star ; the 
air -channels opened; and the subterranean water- 
chamber reached. But in the meantime, we cannot, 
if we would, escape from the grand and accomplished 
fact, that a magnificent metrology, worthy of all 



SECT, v.] 



STANDARDS OF TIME. 



299 



attention from scientific, commercial, and philosophic 
men, has been evolved from a sound method of treat- 
ment of all the best obtainable measures of the 
entire Great Pyramid, both inside and outside, up 
to the present instant. It is, in fact, the stones of 
the Pyramid, themselves * crying out.' 

If, then, so much early excellence in pure mathe- 
matics, terrestrial physics, and practical art as this 
resuscitated Great Pyramid Metrology implies, — 
seems to be inexplicable, as the hierologists insist it 
is, according to their long-taught ideas of Egyptian 
society at the period, but yet to stand on a broad 
and sure basis of mechanical proof of its own, — let 
us submit those hierological ideas to a more search- 
ing scrutiny, from a monumental point of view, 
than they have ever yet undergone; and inquire 
thereby, whether the puzzling anomaly complained 
of, may not prove the forerunner in discovery, of 
some remarkable events in the history of human 
life and its trials on the earth. 



DIVISION III. 
NOTES IN GREAT PYRAMID HISTORY. 



* When I have he7it Judah for me, filled the how with 
' Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, Zion, against thy 
' sonSy Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty 
* man.' 

Zechaktah IX. 13. 



NOTES IN GREAT PYRAMID HISTORY. 



CHAPTER 1. 
MONUMENTAL DOCUMENTS STILL TO BE PROCURED. 

Successive ages have witnessed both writers 
and theorists clustering strangely about particular 
features of the Great Pyramid ; instinctively con- 
vinced apparently of something important being 
there, and fully borne out in such an impression by 
subsequent discoveries, though all their own guesses 
were usually very wide of the mark. In the 
number of such attractions of concealed truth, are 
to be placed many of the points alluded to in the 
curious work, of 1706 A.D., attributed to Professor 
Greaves ; and amongst them, perhaps the following, 
where the anonymous author writes, — * and the best 

* reason that can be given why they' (the metro- 
logical standards of the Hebrews, Saxons, and other 
nations commemorated in the Great Pjrramid,) 

* were expressed with so much obscurity, that in all 
' likelyhood they might for ever remain unintelligible, 

* is, that the contrivers of these antient monuments 

* had a fore-knowledge by Divine Revelation, that 

* in the latter days they should be understood.' 



304 



MONUMENTAL DOCUMENTS [DIV. TIT. 



Without attempting to go to all the serious length 
and extent of this unknown author, — we would yet 
remind our readers, that the several features accom- 
panying the peculiar arrangement of joint-lines in ' 
the floor of the entrance passage, as discovered by 
ourselves just under the junction point of its ceiling 
with the granite portcullis of the first ascending 
passage, — led us inevitably to the conclusion (vol. i. 
p. 156) that the builders had left there a sign by 
which future men, expected to visit the building, — 
not indeed soon after, but in long subsequent ages, 
— should be enabled, whatever the language they 
spoke, at once to find out the particular ceiling- 
stone which hid the narrow ascent to the Grand 
Gallery and upper chambers, with all their truly 
wonderful symbolization of standards in weight, 
capacity, and time. 

As it happened, the key never required to be had 
recourse to ; for the accidental dropping out of the 
one important ceiJing-stone, when Khaliph Al Ma- 
moon was quarrying in the neighbourhood,^ dis- 
closed the secret of the existence of the first ascend- 
ing passage to him and his accompanying Arabs. 

* But would the key ever have been interpreted 

* without such an accident ? ^ — is a question we have 
abeady been asked, and by those to whom it is our 
desire and duty to endeavour to answer as well as 
we can. Wherefore we reply mainly as follows : — 

* Much, almost everything, depends on the mental 

1 See Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, p. 86. 



CHAP. I.] STILL TO BE PROCURED. 



305 



* preparation and scientific skill of the modern in- 

* quirer.' It is generally believed, for instance, from 
indications in the classic writers, that the later 
Egyptians of Persian, Greek, and Eoman times had 
opportunities of passing down the entrance passage 
and into the one and now well-known subterranean 
chamber of the Great Pyramid ; in monumental 
proof whereof, M. Caviglia, who rediscovered and 
cleared out that chamber in 1817 a.d., is said to 
have found certain smoked inscriptions in Eoman 
letters on the chamber's roof. * The letters are good 

* uncials, and therefore cannot be of the time of the 

* Khaliphate,' writes Chevalier Bunsen on a subject 
where he is an authority of power. But yet those 
Persian, Greek and uncial-writing Eoman visitors 
did not succeed in finding the ascending passages 
and their carefully hidden, upper chambers ; as 
monumentally testified to again, by the earliest in- 
scriptions therey being the Arabic ones either of, or 
posterior to, Khaliph Al Mamoon and the year 850 
A.D. Neither again have any of the numerous 
visitors in modern times who have tramped up and 
down that one long entrance passage, believing it 
to have been constructed for leading to a sepulchral 
chamber only, or ' for the greater mysteries of the 

* Freemasons,' ever perceived even the existence of 
the key ; but the moment a man entered impressed 
with the idea of practical geometry having been 
an aim and object, and in so far the language of 
the builders for expressing their purposes in, — 

VOL. IIL U 



306 



MONUMENTAL DOCUMENTS [DIV. III. 



SO soon the peculiar joint-lines on tlie floor were 
discovered. 

Not only, too, did we find tliem thus speedily, 
and by our measures of line and angle inside the 
entrance passage, — but they impressed us vividly 
with the belief, that they were something very 
peculiar, and most important in the intentions of the 
builders, — even hefore we had found their relation 
to the butt-end of the granite portcullis in, or rather 
above, the passage's roof ; for to so marked and sig- 
nal an extent were they a geometrical anomaly in 
the otherwise close regularity which prevails in the 
joint lines thereabout.^ 

1 The construction of the entrance passage generally, and its con- 
nexion with the ascending passage particularly, have been strangely 
involved by Chevalier Bunsen, in his vol. ii. pp. 160 and 162 ; and to 
the extent of his at last declaring, that a certain very important and 
necessary examination is now impossible, which in truth is extremely 
easy ; his least unexceptionable sentence being as follows : — 

' The western i)assage, which was forced by the Khaliphs, has suffered 

* serious injury, just where the ascending and descending passages 

* meet in the ledge of the rock ; so that it is no longer possible to 

* ascertain whether the three great granite blocks placed at the entrance 

* of the ascending passage 14 feet 9 inches long, were intended to con- 

* ceal one passage, or the other, or both,' 
To which let us answer that, — 

First, The ascending and descending passages do not meet in a ledge 
of the rock ; but in the midst of masonry. 

Second, The western passage of Khaliph Al Mamoon being merely 
a rudely forced, broken way, smashing through everything that op- 
posed it, can hardly be considered as having ' suffered serious injury,' 
but rather inflicted it upon the entrance and ascending passages, when 
it met them nearing the point of junction. 

Third, Khaliph Al Mamoon's * broken way ' assumes an enlarge- 
ment near the point in question, so as to enable it to compass the 
ascent from the lower descending entrance passage to the upper ascend- 
ing passage ; and by breaking, as it does, through the western walls 
of either. But that enlargement, so far from making the task ' no 



CHAP. I.] STILL TO BE PROCURED. 307 



' Granted, however, this much,' say our ques- 
tioners, * that the diagonal joint-lines in the entrance 
' passage floor would inevitably have been discovered 

* sooner or later ; and would also have been per- 

* ceived (by whomsoever had the fortune to be the 

* original discoverers or subsequent confirmers, of 

* their existence), to constitute an intense anomaly 

* in the Pyramid masonry ; — still there is doubt, 

* whether those or any other persons would thereby 

* have been led to the further discovery of the par- 
' ticular secret of what lay behind, at the back of, 

* or above, the roof of the passage, opposite to the 

* longer possible to ascertain whether the three great granite blocks 

* placed at the entrance of the ascending passage, were intended to 

* conceal one passage, or the other, or both,' is precisely what, with 
the assistance of going into the passages also, enables any one now to 
study the natnre of the said granite portcullis, at its either end, north 
and south, and also along a portion of one side, the western one ; and 
see with the utmost certainty, — that all three blocks form merely one 
long cork or plug driven from above towards the lower end of the 
ascending passage ; but not through and beyond it into the entrance 
passage beneath, on account of a contraction in the bore of the channel 
near the bottom ; but still several inches above the roof of the entrance 
passage (as see vol. ii. p. 41, etc.) So that the blocks are now, and 
always have been, up within the limits of the ascending passage, and 
never could have protruded down and through, into the lower or de- 
scending entrance passage, so as to stop that. And 

Fourth, The office of the granite blocks was, therefore, with the 
ascending passage only ; and to stop it up, not conceal it ; for plugging 
a large square hole in white-limestone with red granite, is rather a 
way to call attention to the fact of a hole having been made there, 
than to conceal it. Concealing was required also, no doubt ; but that 
office was undertaken by the limestone block in the ceiling of the de- 
scending passage, which entirely hid from view, so long as it was in 
its place, both the hole formed by the upper passage and its heteroge- 
neous filling ; making thereby that particular part of the ceiling of the 
entrance passage indistinguishable from any other part thereof, for a 
long way either north or south of it ; and in eflfect, delaying the dis- 



308 



MONUMENTAL DOCUMENTS [DIV- III. 



* lines on the floor, — unless its nature had been pre- 

* viously disclosed/ 

We admit there is ground for the doubt, but not 
for absolute negation ; and while we are exceed- 
ingly thankful to have been assisted by the dis- 
closure, as above, having been made before our time, 
— we would also call attention to one practical 
result of that disclosure when it was made ; and 
suggest, with the consent probably of every one, 
that if the ascending passage, Grand Gallery, and 
chambers of the standards of 50 and 25, had not 
been discovered then, or up to the present time, — 
the true aims, objects, and ends of the Great Pyra- 
mid could have been guessed only very imperfectly 
indeed : so imperfectly, — that even now, before pro- 
ceeding any further in our proposed course of his- 
torical discussion, the question may be asked with 
much propriety, whether we are yet in possession 
of everything material required to be known ; or 

covery of all the ancient built chambers beyond, to far within the 
centuries of the Christian era. 

In happy contradistinction to the entangling mistakes of Chevalier 
Bunsen in this matter, is the luminously clear account of Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, p, 167 of Murray's Egyptian Handbook : — 

• On going down the entrance passage, at about 80 feet from its 

* present mouth, you perceive the end of a granite block, which closes 

* the upper passage, and which was once carefully concealed by a tri- 

* angular piece of stone fitting into the roof of the lower passage, and 

* secured in that position by a cramp on either side. This stone has 

* been removed, and the end of the granite it once covered is now ex- 

* posed. But the granite closing the upper passage still remains in its 

* original place ; and in order to avoid and pass above it, you turn to 

* the right by a forced passage, and, after climbing a few rough steps 

* you come to its upper extremity, and ascend to the Great Gallery,' 
etc. 



ft 



CHAP. 1.] 



STILL TO BE PROCURED. 



309 



whether there may perhaps be still, some hitherto 
undiscovered chamber of importance in the Great 
Pyramid ? 

That numerous persons have fancied there is, the 
abundant excavations at the well-mouth, north top 
of Grand Gallery, Queen's chamber. King's chamber, 
Davison's chamber, and Howard Vyse's huge hole 
in the south side of the Pyramid, sufficiently attest. 
Still more too, does the latter's extensive digging in 
the rock on the north front of the Pyramid ; for 
this proceeding was mainly actuated by the men- 
tion in Herodotus, and other classic authors, of the 
tomb of the King of the Great Pyramid being down 
some deep shaft, and in a chamber upon an island 
surrounded by Nile water. 

So consistent too are the accounts of the old 
writers herein, that after concluding all his vain 
attempts to reach such a chamber. Colonel Howard 
Vyse still describes himself as under the impression 
that it will be found some day in the low, as well 
as aqueous, position foretold.^ We ourselves also 
have been much puzzled by the ancient legend, that 
nearly a third of the time employed in building the 
whole Pyramid, was spent preliminarily on subter- 
raneous excavations ; for the lower parts of the well 
and entrance passage, together with the one central 
unfinished subterranean chamber (the only parts now 
known which can be included in such a description), 
need not have occupied by any means so long. 

^ See p. 101, vol. ii., Vyse's Pyramidf^ of Gizch. 



310 



MONDMENTAL DOCUMENTS [DIV. III. 



An uninterpreted Sign. 

In connexion then with such views, it is inter- 
esting to note, — that if there be any virtue in oiir 
supposed key in the entrance passage floor, pointing 
to the upper chambers of the Pyramid, — the same 
passage has another key of a closely similar order, 
alluding apparently to something else not yet dis- 
covered, or even suspected. We allude here to the 
two joint-lines crossing the walls of the entrance 
passage diagonally near its upper end, and quite as 
striking an anomaly in their way, as are the two in 
the floor lower down under the granite portcullis. 
The difficulty however of interpretation in this new 
case, is, in there being two such symbols ; or, one pair 
of lines in either wall. Had the symbol existed on one 
side only, any one would have said, from experience 
of the portcullis, ' Search on the opposite side of the 
passage but here the opposite side reflects the 
same signal. What shall be concluded then ? The 
case is open to every one, and fully described in 
pages 37-39 vol. ii., and in Plates ii. and iii. of vol. ii. 

Our own idea, merely an idea, but derived induc- 
tively from known Pyramid facts in other cases, is, 
— that the direction to search in, lies at right angles 
to the line joining the two symbols, that is, either 
straight above or straight below. 

Now straight above, thanks to modern dilapida- 
tions, we can examine the structure (as see the 
the Plates in section), and shall then find there the 



CHAP. I.] 



STILL TO BE PROCURED. 



311 



Cyclopean blocks, placed pent-roof-wise, which mag- 
nificently decorate the present entrance into the 
Pyramid. They are unique, too, in the Great Pyra- 
mid, for there is not anything similar over the 
entrance passage of the second, third, or any other 
known Jeezeh Pyramid ; and though the present 
double set of blocks placed in a single vertical plane, 
are not precisely over, but rather to the south of, 
the two anomalous joints of the passage walls below 
them, — yet there are traces, in abutments left in the 
masonry, that there were formerly two or three 
other pairs of similar angularly disposed stones 
outside, or north, of the present ones ; and to such a 
thickness, that the mean position of this great mass 
of architectural device was really, when complete, 
in a vertical above the passage marks below. 

But then what object did these large inclined 
stones serve ? 

Some writers have suggested, ' to relieve the roof 
' of the entrance passage from the enormous weight 
* it has to bear of all the upper parts of the Pyra- 
' mid.' But Colonel Howard Vyse very properly 
rebukes these authors, academicians and good 
mathematical mechanicians though they may have 
been, for not perceiving that the position, close 
under the sloping side of the Pyramid, secures to 
these pent-roof-forming stones, their having very 
little weight to bear. Moreover, if connected with 
the entrance passage at all, it is only at its outer 
end, where the pressure is least ; for while the pas- 



312 



MONUMENTAL DOCUMENTS [DIV. 111. 



sage dips southwards at an angle of 26° 27^ — the 
basal line of the inclined roof-stones runs hori- 
zontally southward, and would therefore rapidly 
leave the neighbourhood of the entrance passage'; 
even if it, the basal line, were to be continued 
further than where we now behold it ; but that is 
not the case, for the Colonel assures his readers that 
there is ordinary course-masonry, immediately at 
the back of the present gable-end blocks we see. 

Mechanically, then, these mutually sloping-to- 
each-other blocks appear to be useless ; and would 
have been so architecturally also in the perfect days 
of the Pyramid, if, as most probable, or rather quite 
certain, they were then hidden under the outside 
coat of the casing-stones of the whole structure. 
What, then, could they have been inserted for ? 

We can only suggest, inductively again from 
what we have observed for ourselves, that they were 
intended 'to add additional force during the Pyra- 
' mid's latter days of decay, to the indication that 

* opposite to them— or downwards through the floor 
' of the entrance passage, and between the two 

* diagonal points of its walls — is a shaft leading to 
' a most important and probably water-furnished 
' chamber of the builders of the Pyramid ; not in- 

* deed supplied by a canal from the Nile, as some 
' have thought, but by the same general infiltration 

* through the rock, which fills the sepulchral well in 
' King Shafre's tomb/ And we are rather confirmed 
in the notion of such a chamber existing in the 



•Vol. Ill 




CHAF. I.] 



STILL TO BE PROCURED. 



313 



locality, both by Plate x., which shows three im- 
portant astronomical intersections in the indicated 
direction, and also by remembering the many 
fragments of diorite mixed up with the ancient 
rubbish on the northern or neighbouring edge of the 
hill, and unconnectable with anything yet seen by 
any modern man within the Great Pyramid. 

If there really exists such a chamber, the history 
of the monument will be written far more completely 
after its discovery, than before ; but meanwhile, as 
we know of no one likely to undertake the search, 
and have exhausted all our own small stock of 
means, — it is our duty now to make what literary 
use we can of the materials already collected ; and 
of which the portion now newly added, amounts to 
a larger mass of Pyramid detail, than was ever 
before discussed in a serious manner. 



* 



CHAPTER 11. 

NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 

In the first edition of Sir Gardner Wilkinson's 
important publication on the Ancient Egyptians, 
but which particular edition is only now to be read 
for illustrating the advance since made both by the 
author and his science, — in that edition, we say, of 
1836 A.D., there is a well-reasoned-out theoretical, 
or purely literary, conclusion that the builder, or 
the king over the builders, of the Great Pyramid, 
was Suphis ; otherwise and variously called — accord- 
ing to intiections used by different interpreters and 
nations — Chufis, Shofo, Khufu, Saophis, and Cheops ; 
or the second royal personage in Manetho's fourth 
dynasty of Egyptian kings. 

Now at the time of Sir Gardner's publication, 
Colonel Howard Vyse had not yet begun any of his 
celebrated excavations, nor does he seem to have been 
acquainted with the published opinion when he did 
so begin. Amongst the most delightful and satis- 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 



315 



factory instances, therefore, of theory confirmed by 
fact, must it be classed, that when, — within a year 
after Sir Gardner Wilkinson s book had appeared 
elsewhere, — Colonel Howard Vyse broke his way 
through solid masonry into the ' chambers of con- 
* struction' of the Great Pyramid, and thereby saw 
things never intended by the builders to be seen 
until the final ruin of the long-lasting monument, — 
he perceived rude paintings or red crayon markings 
on some of the blocks of stones ; and having had 
them copied by various hands, and transmitted to 
the learned Mr. Samuel Birch of the British Museum, 
— that experienced Egyptologist pronounced them 
to be ancient quarry-marks ; and found amongst 
them the oval of King Suphis, or Shofo, or Khufu ; 

viz., 

Also, these two royal ovals, ^ 
j^^^^^^, of which the first is certainly pro- 
nounced by authority to read Sen-suphis, Nu-suphis, 
Nu-Shofo, or Knemu-Khufu ; and the last is, I 
beUeve, accepted as the same name written short, or 
Knemu or Nu only : equally therefore alluding 
to the same man ; viz., a brother of Shofo, also 
a king, and a co-regent with liim in the fourth 
d)rDasty. 

These three ovals are the only ones that have been 
found in any part of the Great Pyramid ; and that 
they really exist in the chambers of construction 



316 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 



there, as described by Colonel Howard Vyse, is 
testified to by the first page of the third folio volume 
of large plates by Dr. Lepsius ; where that scholarly 
and in-the-field-experienced philosopher has had the' 
original red markings on the stone re-copied by his 
own artists, and has given the oval of Shofo upon 
an extra large scale, followed by those of Nu and 
Nu-Shofo on a smaller size. 

A name erroneously advocated. 

The testimony, then, of the Great Pyramid itself, 
is simply for Shofo and Nu or Nu-Shofo ; and had, 
we thought, been allowed by every one, until 
Chevalier Bunsen, in his second volume of Egypt's 
Place in Universal History, p. 161, made Shafre, 
Shafra, Sephres, Chephrenes or Chabryes, — in hiero- 



glyphics thus, Q Q^, — the principal King of 



the Great Pyramid : introducing his oval, and his 
alone, into the text, p. 161 ; 'for Shafra,' says he, 

* must either have completed the upper part, or at 

* least have cased and arranged the upper chambers, 

* of the Great Pyramid.' 

Now here is very positive language, and from a 
man of pre-eminent fame as a literary philosopher ; 
we inquire, therefore, from him himself, whence his 
reason for adding so notably to the Pyramid's testi- 
mony about its regal authors ; and find it in the 
next line to be, — * This is the only way of explain- 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 317 

' ing his (Shafre's) title " the Great of the Pyramid,'' 

* and the statement of Diodorus about Chabryes, as 

* well as the ignorance of the historians whom Pliny 
' consulted, and of which he complains, as to who 

* really built it (the Great Pyramid). Shafra's title 

* again, would be most appropriate, if he completed 

* it. The king who actually completed this Pyra- 

* mid might with perfect right be called the Great 

* of the Pyramid.' 

With all deference for the author of this state- 
ment, w^e cannot look on the whole of it as proof ; 
certainly not of that simple and straightforward kind 
which the Pyramid s metrological theory has hitherto 
been receiving from a close and searching examina- 
tion of the monument itself In another part of the 
eminent Teutonic scholar's deeply-read work (vol. i. 
p. 163), we are indeed informed that * history does 

* not admit of the cogent proof of mathematics, 

* precisely because her province is an infinitely 
' higher one, that of mental and moral conviction/ 
But even on these latter grounds, so far as we 
understand them, it may reasonably be suggested 
that, because * Pliny,' as above mentioned, com- 
plained of the historians he consulted not knowing 
who built the Great Pyramid, he, Pliny, does not 
thereby pronounce an opinion in favour of a new 
and particular name recently produced by Chevalier 
Bunsen ; and as to what Diodorus, whom Bunsen else- 
where calls *the bewildered and bewildering,' says 



318 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [dIV. III. 



about Chabryes, — the statement is inserted on page 
125 of Bunsen's own book, as due to Herodotus ; and 
a few pages further on the name is identified with 
Shafra, and Shafra again with Knemu-Khufu ; or, 

in the Egyptian tongue, ^— ^ Q 0^ , which has 

never been found inside the Great Pyramid, is made 

the same with which has been 

found there, and is perfectly different in all its 
symbols but one. 

Hence we cannot really discover any force in the 
classical, and less in the monumental, reasons hitherto 

cited for making Shafre, i.e., ^ Q Q^ , the chief 

builder or completer of the Great Pyramid ; and 
the sole remainder of Chevalier Bunsen's proof must 
rest on his interpreting correctly that peculiar title 
of Shafre's, which he renders ' the Great of the 
* Pyramid for though, in a following paragraph, 
speaking of the Queen's and King's chambers in the 
Great Pyramid, the Chevalier states with the most 
complete positivism, 'Shafra converted the former 
' into the apartment, and made the upper one his 
' sepulchral chamber, as appears from his having 
' had his sarcophagus introduced into it,' — yet all 
this is mere assertion, without one particle of addi- 
tional evidence tending to single out Shafra more 
than any one else in all Egyptian history as having 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 319 



performed the works, or owned the sarcophagus 
alluded to. 

This latter assertion, therefore, as well as the for- 
mer, equally depends upon the name of Shafra, or 



Shafre, Q Q^ , not unfrequently found in 

neighbouring tombs on the Pyramid hill, — though 
never in the Great Pyramid itself, — having some- 
times a complementary device after it of a bird and 
a pyramid (see our Plate xii.) ; and upon the true, 
certain, and correct translation of that device being, 
as Bunsen gives it, * the Great of the Pyramid! 
But both Sir Gardner Wilkinson and another hiero- 
glyphist of mark, translate the same device as, ' of 
* the little Pyramid the bird being said by them to 
be really a sparrow or swallow, and not a pigeon, as 
it had been taken for in the * great ' interpretation. 
Both these latter authorities, too, place Shafre in the 
fifth dynasty ; making him represent the Sephres of 
Manetho ; and our own observations of the entrance 
passage of the recently discovered granite and arra- 
gonite building near the Sphinx, — either the tomb or 
temple of King Shafre from his statue duly signed 

being found there (see vol. i. chap, xii.), 

— connects that monarch in a practical manner, and 
equally whether he was of the fourth, fifth, or any 
other dynasty, — with the second, and not the Great, 
Pyramid. 



320 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

Hence, monumentally, or according to any exist- 
ing or known direct evidence of the monuments — 
Pyramids and others — Shofo and Nu-Shofo were 
the only kings who had to do with the building of 
the Great Pyramid ; and they both belonged to the 
fourth dynasty according to the testimony of every 
modern Egyptological author, as well as of the 
ancient Manetho/ Let us now therefore apply our 
own monumental and astronomical date from vol. iii. 
Division ii. to that dynasty, and see how it then 
comports with received chronologies of Egypt. In 
the following table, accordingly, the first twenty, out 
of Manetho's thirty, dynasties of kings subsequent 
to Menes, have their dates entered against them 
according to the several authorities mentioned at 
the head of each column : — 



^ One modern writer, indeed, has to be excepted, viz., Hekekyan 
Bey, in his ' Treatise on the Chronology of Siriadic Monuments, de- 
' monstrating that the Egyptian Dynasties of Manetho are records of 

* Astro-geological Nile Observations which have been continued to the 

* Present Time' (London and Cairo, 1863, printed privatelj^) : for this 
subtle and ingenious theorist, with a good knowledge of mathematics, 
and of extensive as well as varied and quaint reading, inserts seventeen 
kings' names into each of the two first dynasties downward from 
Menes ; and makes the second such dynasty include the names of 
Manetho's fourth ; while he completes the whole Egyptian history 
down to the time of the Persians in twenty-two dynasties, in place of 
Manetho's thirty. But then, again, the very title-page indicates some 
new theory with regard to Manetho not a little revolutionary in its 
character, — as yet unsubscribed to, so far as we can learn, by a second 
individual, — and not traceable through any series of alleged monu- 
ments, in so far as our examination of them has extended. 



CHAP. IT.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 321 



Manetho's Egyptian Dynasties, 
Dates and Duration of the first Twenty, according to 
various Authorities. 







Dr. Lepsius' 
' Letters 
from 

Berlin, 1852. 




Chevalier 


E. W. Lane 


"W.Osburn, 


Number 
of 


The most 


Dr. Lepsius' 


Bunsen, 


Sir Gardner 


' Mon. His- 


fl-dvcincecl 


' Kijnigs- 
buch,' 


* Egypt's 
Place,' 


Wilkinson 


tory of 


hierolo- 


R. S. Poole, 


Egypt,' 


gists. 


Berlin, 1858. 


vol. iv. pp. 


* Encyc. 
Brit.' 


vol. i. p. 405; 








'iJO-OZO, 


vol. ii. p. 632. 




B. C. 


BC. 


B.C. 


B C. 


B.C. 


B.C. 


1 \ 
1 


5735 


4800 


3892 


3623 


2700 


2429 


5472 




3639 


3434 


2480 


2329 




5472 




3639 


3433 


2480 


2429 




5170 




3338 


3210 


2080 


2329 


^ i 
1 


5170 




3338 


3433 


2670 


2329 


4956 




3124 


3210 


2440 


2229 




4956 


4000 


3124 


3209 


2440 


2228 


4| 


4472 




2840 


3055 


2200 


2108 




4472 




2840 


3054 


2440 


2228 


5| 


4254 


... 


2592 


2948 


1860 


2108 


6{ 




... 


2744 


3054 


2200 


2107 




... 


2546 


2948 


2080 


1959 






... 


2592 


2947 


1800 


... 


7{ 






2522 


2926 


1800 


... 


8{ 




... 


2522 


2925 


1800 


. . . 






2380 


2782 


1650 


. . . 






... 


2674 


3054 


2200 


2107 


9| 


... 




2565 


2948 


1750 


1959 


io| 




. • . 


2565 


... 


... 


1959 




» . • 


2380 


... 








... 




2423 


2925 


2200 


21*07 




... 


2380 


2782 


2080 


1959 


12 1 


3435 




2380 


2781 


2080 


... 






2167 


2635 


1920 


1959 


13 { 


... 




2136 


2634 


1920 








1684 


2228 


1525 


1800 


14| 




. . . 


2167 


2287 


2080 








1684 


1777 




1674 


15{ 






2101 


2547 


2080 
















16{ 






1842 












1591 


1777 


1800 


1900 


17{ 






1684 


1776 










1591 


1626 






18 { 






1591 


1625 


1520 


1674 






1443 


1409 


1325 




19| 


1314 


1322 


1443 


1409 


1324 








1269 


1300 


1233 


1314 


20 1 






1269 


1299 


1232 


1314 






1091 


1115 


1135 





VOL. III. 



X 



322 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DTV. III. 

Eemembering then, that our astronomical date 
for the building of the Pyramid was 2170 B.C., we 
find, on referring to the above table, that there is 
only one of the authorities, within the alleged 
period of whose fourth dynasty, that date is in- 
cluded. Our result is indeed just outside that of 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Mr. Lane, largely differ- 
ent from Chevalier Bunsen, more so still from Dr. 
Lepsius, and entirely irreconcilable with M. Renan 
and Mariette Bey. But we cannot on that account 
give up our astronomico-architectural determina- 
tion of the Pyramid s date, seeing that it rests on 
so large a mass of observations at the Pyramid 
itself ; and is far more direct and cogent in charac- 
ter than the series of indistinct literary probabilities 
derived from a subsequent age, out of which the 
early chronicles of Egypt have been attempted to 
be elaborated, by the world-famous writers in ques- 
tion ; and on which, also, they have hitherto arrived 
at so little agreement among themselves. 

Let us ascertain, however, inquiringly, what those 
authors' foundations are. Early Egyptian monarchs, 
as every one knows, are always arranged in dynas- 
ties ; what are these dynasties \ 

They first appear by name in the work of Manetho, 
the Egyptian priest of Sebennytus, in the age of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, 280 B.C. ; or nearly a hundred 
years after the last reputed dynasty had expired 
under Nectanebo ii.,and four thousand years after the 
first is reported to have begun under Menes. The 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 323 



* dynasties' may have formed a mode of arranging, 
or talking about their past kings always in vogue 
among the Egyptian priests ; or they may have 
been so arranged first by Manetho himself, as part 
of a memoria-technicay to enable his new Grecian 
prince, Ptolemy, to acquire thereby more easily a 
bird's-eye view, rather than a deep knowledge, of 
the history of the ancient land of Egypt. Certain 
it is that subsequent critics have been much puzzled 
to define a dynasty in Egyptian history, so little is 
there often to distinguish between the last king of 
a former, and the first king of a following, dynasty ; 
or to show why a dynastic separation should have 
been made between them. 

Certain is it also that dynasties are never alluded 
to in hieroglyphics of regal names. Hence, when 
hierologists proclaim that they have found such and 
such a dynasty on ' the monuments,' they mean, 
that they have read the names of the kings in the 
engraved ovals there, and found some of them some- 
thing more or less similar to certain of the Grecized 
names in one of Manetho's dynasties. But there 
was, on the monument, nothing about the dynasty, 
either in name or number. And, as two of the 
modern interpreters seldom read a hieroglyphic 
precisely the same, — and a large amount of latitude 
is allowed between what they do read, and what is 
written in the scraps of Greek treatises (through 
which alone whatever fragments of Manetho s 
original work still exist, have come down to us), — 



■ 



324 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

we need not wonder at different authorities often 
varying, as into which dynasty of literary invention 
to put such and such an oval, cartouche, escutcheon, 
or hieroglyphic royal signature found on the monu- 
ments ; and yet complacently declaring, both that 
that dynasty is found on the monuments, and that 
the monuments confirm Manetho's dynasties or lists. 

Again, even when agreeing as to the number of 
the Manethoan dynasty to which a particular monu- 
mental oval shall be assigned, the modern hiero- 
logist authorities are by no means always at one, as 
to what name to call the said dynasty by ; whether 
to attach it to Tanis, Memphis, This, or some other 
city ; and to say, whether its sovereign and his 
officers were Lower Egyptians, Amalekites, Philis- 
tian-Shepherds, Thebans, or perhaps even Negroes ; 
and whether one djTiasty was contemporaneous 
with, subsequent, or anterior, to some other. Oc- 
casionally, too, the same author makes a change in 
his previous arrangements, on account of some 
newly discovered fact; and then the amount of 
such change is a fair measure of the certainty of the 
science professed ; as when Bunsen, vol. iii. p. 10, 
shifts the construction of the Lake of Moeris, at one 
stroke of his pen, from the first king of the sixth 
dynasty to the fourth king of the twelfth dynasty. 

While as an example of the different conclusions 
of acknowledged Egyptologists on one and the same 
inscribed or sculptured remain, the following extract 
may be quoted : — 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 325 

* Perring, the Pyramid measurer, has, in a recent 
' publication, attempted to establish the strange 

* notion, which I found also existed in Cairo, that 
' the monuments of El Amarna were the work of 

* the Hyksos (fourteenth dynasty) ; others wished 

* to refer them to a period anterior to that of Menes 

* {first dynasty), by reason of their certainly great 
' but not inexplicable, peculiarities ; I had already 
' explained them in Europe as contemporaneous 

* kings of the eighteenth dynasty' — (Dr. Lepsius' 
Letters from Egijpt, p. 111.) 

These are merely specimens of a very small order 
of discoveries, ascertained while testing — from a 
mechanical point of view — the degree of reliance to 
be placed on the assertions of some one or another 
very first-rate Egyptologist, when he asserts that he 
has found such and such an historical fact on the 
monuments ; and that it must therefore be admitted 
by all the world. But the methods of Egyptologists 
have been most extensively examined by Sir George 
Corne wall Lewis,^ from a grammarian point of view ; 
and have unhappily led him to consider — that, ' the 

* operations of Bunsen and other modem critics upon 

* the ancient history of Egypt, rather resemble the 

* manipulation of the balance-sheet of an insolvent 

* company by a dexterous accountant (who, by 

* transfers of capital to income, by the suppression 
' or transposition of items, and by the alteration of 

* bad into good debts, can convert a deficiency into 

^ An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancitnts. 1862. 



326 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

* a surplus), than the conjectures of a speculative 
' historian, who undertakes to transmute legend 
' into history. 

' Egyptology,' continues Sir George, ' has an 
' historical method of its own. It recognises none 
' of the ordinary rules of evidence ; the extent of its 

* demands on our credulity is almost unbounded. 

* Even the writers on ancient Italian ethnology are 

* moderate and tame in their hypotheses, compared 
' with the Egyptologists. Under their potent logic, 

* all identity disappears; everything is subject to 

* become anything but itself. Successive dynasties 
' become contemporary dynasties ; one king becomes 

* another king, or several other kings, or a fraction 

* of another king ; one name becomes another name ; 
' one number becomes another number ; one place 

* becomes another place.' 

Among examples to illustrate his assertions, the 
Right Honourable Baronet cites the opinions of 
both Baron Bunsen and Dr. Lepsius, regarding that 
potent name in Egyptian antiquity, Sesostris ; and 
finds at last these two leading Egyptologists, 
' though differing in other respects, agree in think- 

* ing that Sesostris is not Sesostris.' * But here 
' their agreement stops. One assigns Sesostris to 
' what is called the Old, the other to what is called 

* the New Empire, separating his respective dates 

* by an interval of 3793 years. What should we 

* think, if a new school of writers on the history of 

* France, entitling themselves Francologists, were to 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 327 

* arise, in which one of the leading critics were to 

* deny that Louis xiv. lived in the seventeenth 

* century, and were to identify him with Hercules, 

* or Eomulus, or Cyrus, or Alexander the Great, or 
' Caesar, or Charlemagne ; while another leading 
' critic of the same school, agreeing in the rejection 

* of the received hypothesis as to his being the suc- 

* cessor of Louis xiii., were to identify him with 

* Napoleon i., or Louis Napoleon V 

Even the method of interpreting hieroglyphics 
according to the principles of Young and Champol- 
lion, is attacked root and branch from the same 
grammarian point of view by the late learned mem- 
ber of the Palmerstonian Government ; and he 
insists that it is to be described only as * the uncer- 

* tainty of uncertain conjectures built upon other 

* uncertain conjectures/ But here we can by no 
means fully agree with the distinguished classic ; 
and can only imagine him to have arrived at such 
extreme opinions, by attending solely to the points 
of divergence amongst Egyptologists and hierolo- 
gists. These are sufficiently wide, and frequent too, 
to take away from all their announcements the 
positive trust that was for long accorded to them ; 
and by referring to Baron Bunsen himself, vol. i. 
p. 479, we may instantly see the amount of license 
with which he would indulge himself, when inter- 
preting old Egypt ; for the following series of 
English words is given as being, each and every 



328 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

one of them, equally the true rendering of the 
Egyptian sound sr, viz. : — 

a camelopard. 
a sheep, 
a spike. 

a species of duck, 
fire. 

to distribute, 
an arrow, 
a chief, a noble, 
to drink, 
a flabellum. 
cheese ? 

But though there be some points extremely un- 
settled even still among the Egyptologists, that 
must not blind us to the very great number of 
points on which they are either perfectly, or almost, 
agreed ; and do produce nearly identical, and those 
sensible, phrases out of the same hieroglyphic in- 
scription. 

Similarly too, in the vexed subject of the dynas- - 
ties, they form at least a something tangible on the 
surface of the dark waters of old historic literature ; 
they do assist the memory to a considerable extent ; 
there is not anything else to refer to for first ideas 
in these distant times ; and, that some portion of 
them has tolerable certainty, we subjoin herewith, 
Jirst, the designations of the nineteen earlier dynas- 
ties ; and second^ the names of their kings, as given 
by the leading authors of the most opposite views 
in various schools of hierology. 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 329 



Ph Ph Oh PhJS 

a a a 
^^^^^ 



-a 

a 



ll 

: <o <3i 

' fx 

o o 

■^^ 

fl a 
fl d 



c3 n a 

e3 

^ rQ ^ ^ 

(U o) a> -^H 

.£1 rTj ^ O 

H H H M 



.a.a a af. 
rd -a ^ ^ ^ 



CO CQ 
00 M M O "O 

;a^;a^^ 

§d § ^ ^ 

O) CH ID 0) O 



^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
^ ^ ^ o u 
H H H Xl <1 



*S n CQ CO 

•9 S 9 S 

-fj cj cS 

"qj ^ 

^ ^ ^ 

H H H 



II 



"« 3 a s a 

15 ^ <U OJ 0) 

H H ^ S S 



o o 

Ph P4 

o o 

CO OJ 



a ^ ^ ^ ^ 

2 Pi P-l o o 

p.a a 2 i3 



O O O . o 
Ph Ph Ph 0) OT 
1/3 go to -4J M 

.2 .2 .2 o 
PfiPXI W 



o 'o 'o 'o 

w Ph Ph Ph 



fl C3 f3 

c3 c3 c3 c5 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

a) aj 4) (1) Qj 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

H H H H Eh 



c3 

^ ^ ^ pp ^ 

a> cj 4) cj 
J ^ ^ ^ ^ 
H H H H H 



ad A 

'Sd'So » =g .2 
^ (J) ^ 

e3 C3 Ph Ph 

« « a a Ph 

Q Q a> o 



'tiC 03 in O O 

o) a> p, Ph 

-e if o o 

6 ^ ^ ^ ^ 

C3 Ph Ph O O 

d a a 2 g 

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Ph Ph Ph a> p. 

03 in to -M DQ 

000-30 

p ft S X! p 



pd . . 

CO 2 2 

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d rt 03 

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r-- r-" i=H 



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0) QJ 3J P, p, 

13 "tf -S o o 

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Ph Ph Ph O 

a a a 2 

1) a) o aj 



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tea 



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CO CO OQ 1^1 

g i i z 

^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ Jr. 

Ph Ph Ph 0) '5 
CO CO OQ Ph 

o o o -5 <1» 

PPPX^ 



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•a-g. 

^ rd • 

w c» ;^ 

tH . .- . 

2 m 
^^00 
^ ^ 

OOPP 



c o 



330 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 



Kings' Names in Manetho's first Nineteen Dynasties. 



Dynwty, 


Manetho 
Africanua. 


Biinsen, 
Vol. ii. 


Bunsen, 
Vol. iv. 


Lepsiua' 
• Konigsbuch.' 


Gardner 
Wilkiusou. 


WiUiam 
Osbum. 


1^ 

L 


Menes. 
Athotis. 

Kenkenes. 

Uenephes. 

Usapliaidos. 

Miebidos. 

Semempses. 

Bieneches. 


Meni. 
Atet. 

( Rasmente- ) 
( tihem. j 


Menea. 
Athothis 1. 

Athotis 2. 

Diabies. 
Pemphos. 


Menes. 
Athothis. 

Kenkenes. 

Unephes. 

Usaphais. 

Miebis. 

Semempses. 

Bieneches. 


Menes. 

( Athothis & ) 

( others, f 


Menes. 
Semempses. 




Boethos. 

Kaiechos. 

Binothris. 

Tlas. 

Sethenes. 

Chaires. 

Nephercheres. 

Sesochris. 

Cheueres. 


Kaiechos. 




Boethes. 
Kaiechos. 
Binothris. 
Tlas. 

Sethenes. 

Chaires. 

Nepherchenes. 

Sesochris. 

Cheneres. 




Cechous. 
Raophis. 


3^ 


Necherophes. 

Tosorthos. 

Tyreis. 

Mesochris. 

Soyphis. 

Tosertasis. 

Aches. 

Sephuris. 
Kerpheres. 


Ratetkar. 

Khufu. 
An. 

Seserenra. 

Sahura. 

Senefru. 

Raenseser. 

Rasesermakar 
Aakaru. 
Asses Karf. 
Sent. 


Momkheiri. 

Stoikhos Ares. 

Gosormies. 

Mares. 

Anoyphis. 

Sirios. 

( Khnubos ) 
( Gneuros. | 
Rayosis. 
Biyres. 


Necherophes. 

Tosorthres. 

Tyris. 

Mesochris. 

Soyphis. 

Tosertasis. 

Aches. 

Sephuris. 
Kerpheres. 


( Shofo and ) 
( others. ) 


Aches. 
Sephuris. 


4< 


Soris. 
Suphis 1. 

Suphis 2. 

Mencheres. 

Ratoises. 

Bicheris. 

Sebercheres. 

Thampthis. 


Khufu. 
Num Khufu. 

Kar. 

Menkara. 

Raneferkara. 

Rashaf. 


Saophis 1. 
Saophis 2. 

Menkheres 1. 

Menkheres 2. 
Pammes. 


Soris. 
Suphis. 

Sophris (?). 

Mencheres. 

Ratoises. 

Bicheris, 

Sebercheres. 

Thampthis. 


Shofo. 
Nushofo. 
( Menkere ) 
( and others ) 


Soris. 
Suphis. 

Nu-suphis. 

Nephercheres 
Sesochris. 


5< 


Usercheres. 

Sephres. 

Nephercheres. 

Sisires. 

Cheres. 

Rathures. 

Mencheres. 

Tancheres. 

Onnus. 


Usskarf. 

Senefru. 

Raneferkar 1. 

Raneferkar 2. 

Ratetkar 2. 

Raneferkar 3. 

Harmeren. 

Sneferkar. 

Kaenra. 

Raneferkar 4. 

— neferkar. 

Neferkar. 

Sneferkar. 

Merenra. 

Harmenkar. 

Tetu. 

Unas. 




Usercheres. 

Sephres. 

Nephercheres. 

Sisires. 

Cheres. 

Rathures. 

Mencheres. 

Tancheres. 

Onnos. 


Usercheres. 
Shafre. 


Usercheres. 
Tatcheres. 
Sephres. 
Mencheres. 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 331 



King's Names — continued. 



th, 

i 


Maiietho 
ill 

Africimus. 


Buiisen, 
Vol. ii. 


Bunsen, 
Vol. iv. 


Lepsius' 
' KOnigsbuch.' 


Gardner 
Wilkinson. 


William 
Oitbuni. 


f 

6^ 


Othoes. 
Phios. 

Methusuphis. 

Phiops. 

Menthesuphis 
Nitokris. 


Pepi. 

Mentuhept. 
Teti. 

Nitakar. 


Apappns. 
Ekheskos. 
Nitokris. 


Othoes. 
Phiops 1. 
Menthuophis 1 

Phiops 2. 

Menthuophis 2 
Nitokris. 


Tata. 

Papa. 

Merenre. 

( Nitokris ) 

"1 and others j 


Cheres. 
Sentis. 
Onnos. 




70 Kings ) 
for 70 days?) 




Amyrtaus. 








8 
11 


(27 Kings ) 
< for 146 \ 
( years ? ) 

{ 18 kings ) 
\ for 43 \ 
( years ? ) 


Mentuhept. 

Hantef. 
Hantefaa. 

Hantef. 


Thuosimares. 

Sethinilos. 
Semphukrates 

f Khuther ) 
\ Tauros. ] 




Ementefs. 

Mantoftep 2. 
Senofrkere. 

Mandothp. 


Imephthis. 

Senucheres. 
Menthesuphis. 

Nubecheres. 




Ammenemes. 


Hantef. 
Rasneferkar. 
Ranubter. 
Seseren Ra. 


Meires. 
Tomaephtha. 
Soikunis. 
Peteathyrcs. 




Enentef. 
Ammenemes. 


Usercheres 2. 
Nesteres. 
Achthoes. 
Amenemes. 


r 
1 


Ammenemes. 

Gesongosis. 

Ammenemes. 

Sesostris. 

Lacheres. 

Ameres. 

Amenemes. 

Skemiophris. 


Amenemhal. 
Sesertesen 1. 
Amenemha 2. 
Sesertesen 2. 
Sesertesen 3. 
Amenemha 3. 
Amenemha 4. 
Sebeknefru. 


Ammenemes. 
Stammenemes 
Sistosis. 
Mares. 


Ammenemes 1. 
Sesortasis 1. 
Amenenemes 2 
Sesortasis 2. 
Sesortasis 3. 
Ammenemes 3 
Ammenemes 4. 
Sebeknoi^hris. 


Osirtasen. 
Amunmhe 2. 
Osirtasen 2. 
Osirtasen 3, 
Amunmhe 3. 
Amunmhe 4. 


Sesortosis 1. 
Amenemes 2. 
Sesortosis 2. 
Sesortosis 3. 
Amenemes 3. 
Amenemes 4. 
Skeniofris. 


\ 

13 J 


( 60 Kings ) 
\ for 453 \ 
( year.s ? ) 


Shetenra. 

Rasenkhet. 

Sebekhept 1. 

( Sebekhept ) 
\ 2, and \ 
\ others. ) 


Sipthah. 

Phuoro. 
( Amuthar- \ 
\ toeus and \ 
( 60 Kings ? j 


60 Kings (?). 


( Sabaco ) 
•< and other > 

^ HjtXilUpiallo J 


f Menthesu- 
( phis 2. 

Sechemetes. 
Sabacon 1. 

f Sabacon 2 
( and others. 


1 

i 

1 

I 


{ 76 Kincrs ^ 
\ for 4S4 V 
( years ? } 


Rakhutcti. 

( Rakherp- \ 
\ kar and f 
j others ; l 
l doubtful ) 


(76 Kings? ) 
l No names. | 


.tVmuntiraaos. 

Amenemes, 
Tiaaken. 




( 6 Kings in 
I chamber 
(of Thawek. 

1 


15< 

1. 


( 6 Kings for | 
( 484 years ? ) 


1 


Salatis. 

Buon. 

Apakhnas. 

Apophis. 

Jannas. 

Asst'S. 


Salatis. 

Banan. 

Apachnan. 

Apophis. 

Anan. 

Aseth. 







332 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 



King's Names — continued. 



Dynasty. 


Manetho 
iu 

Africanus. 


Buusen, 
Vol. ii. 


Bunsen, 
Vol. iv. 


Lepsius' 
'KSnigsbuch.' 


Gardner 
Wilkinson. 


' WiUiam 
Osbum. 


f 

161 

[ 


( 32 Kings \ 
1 for 518 f 
j years ? no t" 
V names, j 




( 32 Kings 
J for 511 f_ 
j years ? no I 
\ names. / 


Ra-Apepi. 




Saites. 

Aphophis. 
Melaneres. 
Jannes. 
Asses. 




( 43 Kings 
) for 151 f 

^ years ? no T 
V names. J 


Tanaken. 

Nakhara. 

Aahhept. 

Raspenneb. 

Khames. 


( 17 Kings ) 
J for 131 V 
( years ? ) 

[ Mentuo- ") 
< phis and > 
( otliers. ) 


( Amosis \ 
\ and Ne- >• 
( phris. ) 

Amenophis 1. 

Tuthmosis 1. 
Tuthmo.sis 2. 
Tuthmosis 3. 






18^ 


Tuthmosis. 

Chebron. 

Amenophis. 

Amesses. 

Mephres. 

( Mephra- 

t muthosis. j 

Thmosis. 

Amenophis. 

Horus. 

Akencheres 1. 

Rathotis. 

Akencheres 2. 

Akencheres 3. 

Armais. 

Ramesses. 

Armesses. 

Mianiu. 

. Amenophis. 


Aahmes 1. 
Amenhept 1. 
Aahmes. 
Tetmes 1. 
Tetmes 2. 

Hatasu. 

Tetmes 3. 
Amenhept 2. 

Tetmes 4. 

Amenhept 3. 

Horus. 

Amenhept 4. 

Aakhenaten. 

Ai. 

Titi. 

Amentuankh. 


Amosis. 
Amenophis 1. 
Tuthmosis 1. 
Tuthmosis 2. 
Tuthmosis 3. 

Amenophis 2, 

Tuthmosis 4. 
Amenophis 3. 

Horus. 


Tuthnosis 3. 
Amenophis 2. 
Tuthmosis 4. 
Amenophis 3. 
Xuenra. 

Ai. 

Tutan Xamun. 
Horos. 


Amosis. 
Amunoph 1. 
Thothmes 1. 
Amun-nouhet. 
Thothmes 2. 

Thothmes 3. 

Amunoph 2. 
Thothmes 4. 

Amunoph 3. 

Horus. 
Rathotis. 


Amosis. 

Chebron. 

Mesphres. 

Achencheres. 

Amenses. 

Thothmosis. 

Acherres. 
Armais. 
( Ameno- 
< phis-beke- 
( naten. 

Encheris. 
Ai. 

Chebres. 
Tai. 

( Ameno- 
\ phis-Mem- 
( non. 
Horus. 


19^ 


' Sethos. 
Rampses. 

Amenepthes. 
Ramesses. 

Ammenemes. 
Thuoris. 


Rameses 1. 
Seti 1. 

Rameses 2. 
Menephtah. 

Sephtah. 

Amenemhes. 
Seti 2. 


Ramesses 1. 
Sethos 1. 

Ramesses 2. 
Menopthah. 

Sethos 2. 


Ramesses 1. 
Sethos 1. 

Ram. Miamun. 
Menephthes. 

Sethos 2. 

Men. Sipthas. 
Sethnechthes. 


Remeses 1. 
Sethi 1. 

Remeses 2. 

f Pthah- \ 
\ men. j 
? Pthah- ) 
\ men-seep- \ 
{ thah. ) 


Ramessu. 
Sethos. 
f Sesostris- 
( Ramses, 
i Siptha. 
( Thuoris. 

Amenepthis. 
Sethos 2. 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 333 



An attentive examination of the preceding tables 
will probably convince any one, that of all the 
earlier dynasties, their recording authorities are more 
unanimous about the fourth than any other, declaring 
it to be Memphite ; and of the kings in that dynasty, 
the same voices are more confirmatory of the once 
real existence of Shofo and Nu-Shofo, as variously 

inflected, or of (J^©) and ^^^^ 

than of any others. 

Now these are the two kings' names which the 
Great Pyramid itself shows in the quarry-marks of 
the chambers of construction. Of that there can be 
no doubt ; and the only remaining possibility that 
we see, to prevent the Pyramid's own symbolized 
date of 2170 B.C. being given to those kings and 
their dynasty, depends on the following considera- 
tion : — 

In several of the buildings around the Great 
Pyramid, stones have been found with hieroglyphics 
on their lower sides, or in such a useless position, 
that travellers have unanimously declared they must 
have been taken out of an older building, and used 
over again as mere raw material in the new. Is it 
possible then that these now marked stones in the 
Great Pyramid, and of which the markings are often 
upside down, were similarly taken out of an older 
building ; and that their present employment may 
therefore be of a date long subsequent to the inscrip- 
tions and the lives of kings Shofo and Nu-Shofo ? 



334 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

After rather strenuous efforts to find something 
in this idea, we have been obliged to abandon it, 
for the following reasons : — 

First, The signatures are not hieroglyphics, only 
quarry-marks ; they give, indeed, approximately the 
figures of the hieroglyphics, or are in the hiero- 
glyphic language pure and unadulterated ; and are 
not in the enchorial, demotic, or other forms of writ- 
ing subsequently found in use amongst the Egyp- 
tian people for ordinary purposes. But quarry-marks 
are radically difierent things from hieroglyphics, in 
that economical sense which we have shown else- 
where to have ruled throughout the Great Pyramid 
building. Hieroglyphics, for instance, as their name 
imports, must be cut, carved, or engraved into the 
stone ; always a long, laborious, and expensive pro- 
cess, but so attractive in appearance when executed, 
as to have therefore ever been a favourite method 
of decorating, as well as * rendering vocal,' Egyp- 
tian public buildings. Hence travellers have had 
common sense on their side, when they have deemed 
that no one would take the trouble to carve hiero- 
glyphics on the surface of a large, well prepared 
stone, and then turn that surface inwards and bury 
it in the composition of a rubble wall, side by side 
with ordinary rough stones. 

But quarry-marks, on the other hand, are merely 
the rudest outline imitation of hieroglyphic figures ; 
linear daubs put on the stone with a piece of chalk, 
or a coarse paint-brush, and with a freedom and 



CHAP. IT.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 335 

carelessness which show they could hardly have 
occupied the artist-workman more than seven 
seconds each, in the execution of any regal name. 
Such is certainly the full extent of time which the 
rude, almost ridiculous representation of King Shofo's 
two walking birds (chicks or quails), the horned viper 
and solar sieve, in the oval found by Howard Yyse 
in the Great Pyramid's chamber of construction, 
need have employed. Hence, if such works are 
turned inwards when building a wall, no offence 
against economy is committed, especially if the 
marks had already been of some other service. Now 
the service performed there, is plain enough, when 
both Howard Vyse and Perring inform us, that 
these red markings are found only on the Mokat- 
tam limestone, whose blocks had to be cut and 
squared on the opposite side of the river, and, in- 
deed, of Egypt. Baron Bunsen, no doubt, in his vol. 
Li. p. 164, tells us that they, the four low flat-ceiled 
chambers, 'are all from 2 feet to 4 feet 10 inches 

* high, and cased ivith granite^ when quarry-marks 
might have been looked for in vain. But this is 
only another of the great word-philosopher's blun- 
ders when treating of mechanical facts, and of which 
he gives an additional instance in the very next line 
by writing — ' above them lies Campbells tomh* 

* Campbell's chamber^ it is, if you like, i.e., one of 
the five chambers of construction built inside the 
Great Pyramid, and merely to be a hollow (unen- 
terable by man), for relieving the ceiling of the 



336 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

King's chamber from too much weight, — but ' Camp- 

* bell's tomV is the name applied, by the same ex- 
plorer who named the chamber, to that magnificent 
and easily enterable tomb near the Sphinx ; a real 
tomb with sculptured sarcophagi of the age of the 
twenty-sixth dynasty, and totally unconnected with 
the Great Pyramid in any and every way. 

The Campbell's chamber too, would have been 
well worth more exact attention from the celebrated 
philologist ; for there it is, that in the highest of all 
the five chambers of construction, and far above any 
other known chamber in the P3n:amid, the oval of 
Shofo is found. And his too, is the only legible 
oval in that room ; so that if any name were re- 
quired to indicate who was * the completer of the 

* Pyramid,' surely that proud title, together with its 
supposed consequent in fame, ^ the great of the Pjo-a- 

* mid ' — must be the due of Shofo, and of no one else, 
according to the testimony of the stones of the 
Pyramid itself ; and there is no need to bring in 
any other king, when his, Shofo's, name is actually 
written up in the sole and highest and most signi 
ficant place. 

In our Plate xiv. vol. ii., we have endeavoured to 
insert the quarry-marks on the walls of the chambers 
of construction, as described by Howard Vyse ; and 
they will be found, — by attending to the symbolism 
of granite and limestone in section, — to appear on 
limestone-lined walls only. 

Hence we may perceive that the ovals and red 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 337 

figurings in the chambers of construction of the 
Great Pyramid, are merely passing daubs of quarry- 
marks connected with certain special blocks of lime- 
stone brought from a distance ; and are markings 
most probably put on at the quarries, while their pur- 
pose was served when the stones had been safely con- 
veyed to the builders of the Pyramid. Wherefore, 
though stones with the quarry-marks of Shofo and 
Nu-Shofo — as the reigning monarchs of Egypt — 
might have been subsequently taken out of an old 
building of their day, and inserted upside down or in 
any other way into a new edifice of a later date, — their 
is no pressing economical reason why the particular 
stones of the chambers of construction should not 
have been similarly misplaced, as to the mere read- 
ing of their quarry-marks, at their Jirst as well as last 
occasion of being builded into a wall in the time of 
Kings Shofo and Nu-Shofo. 

Second, we may remark, that while it is easy 
to imagine the builders of any little tomb in the 
neighbourhood, pulling a few stones out of the Great 
Pyramid for their petty purposes, — it is much more 
difficult to fancy the builders of the Great Pyramid 
supplying themselves with stones for their gigantic 
purpose out of the comparatively Lilliputian tombs, 
temples, or any work erected by man, either far from, 
or near to, them ; for all such edifices would afford 
but a drop to the required bucket. There is no 
visible symptom too now, of the Great Pyramid being 
a patch- work building, made up of heterogeneous 

VOL. III. , Y 



338 NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. [DIV. III. 

materials in size, quality, and intended uses, aims, or 
ends ; but everything, on the contrary, shows one 
grand uniform idea to have extended through the 
whole structure, and that its materials were pro- 
cured by application to nature, or nature's earth- 
stored supplies, direct and immediate. 

And thirdy we are informed that all authors, of 
every nation and every varied form of clu-onological 
belief, have invariably considered hitherto, that 
the quarry-mark ovals in the chambers of construc- 
tion were originally drawn for the Great Pyramid 
works ; and thereby prove convincingly under what 
kings these works were carried on. 

Clashing Result. 

Hence the whole monumental conclusion, formed 
by combining the quarry-marks of the Great Pyra- 
mid with whatever is to be trusted, or is tolerably 
agreed upon, among Egyptologists, and both of them 
with our astronomical date of the building, — can be 
no other, than that two of the kings of the fourth 
dynasty of Egyptian history, Shofo and Nu-Shofo 
by name, lived through a period including the epoch 
of 2170 B.C. 

We do not wish to conceal in any way, but rather 
to call attention to the circumstance, that this date 
compels us to dijSfer totally, as regards date, from all 
the famous hierologists, save one, of modern times ; 
and makes our study of the Great Pyramid, accord- 
ing to the careful measure of its lines and angles, 



CHAP. II.] NAMES AND DATES OF THE BUILDERS. 339 

lead to an entirely different result from that attained 
by those eminent men. (See Table on p. 321.) To 
their astonishing learning in many points we bow- 
extremely low ; but yet can no more think of deny- 
ing, or fearing to acknowledge, the existence of those 
lines and angles which we have measured in the 
Great Pyramid, and on which we found, or to up- 
hold their contemporaneousness with the Pyramid's 
building, and to insist on the importance of their 
scientific interpretation, — than any one else could 
deny the existence of the Great Pyramid in Egypt, 
or of Egypt in the world. 

Let us pause, however, for one moment in the 
course of our impartial mechanical investigation, 
in order to ascertain into whose company our first 
step into the history of the Great Pyramid has 
brought us. 



CHAPTER III. 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 

Mr. Osburn, — the one historian into the very 
middle of whose date and duration for the fourth 
dynasty of Egypt, the epoch 2170 B.C. falls, — was 
only brought to our attention very recently, and 
then by an accident ; but after having experienced 
something of the earnestness of his manner, and 
thoroughness of his style of investigation, — we pro- 
cured one after another of his works, tracing thereby 
the growth of his knowledge of Eg3rpt, her monu- 
ments, and both ancient and modern language, con- 
tinually increasing through a long period of years, 
until it may be considered to culminate in his 
Monumental History of Egypt, published in 1854. 

His grand and abiding purpose appears to have 
been, to ascertain if the unlocking of the written 
materials of Egypt by Champollion's method of in- 
terpreting hieroglyphics, would disclose any traces 
of the sojourning of the Children of Israel in the 
Nile-land, or anything bearing on the Bible records 
of early events transacted therein or connected 
therewith. 

* Is it not marvellous that they can now read the 



CHAP. 111.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



341 



* old Egyptian readily, and understand its grammar 1 

* These Egyptian discoveries are likely to be one of 

* the greatest wonders of our age/ — had written the 
late Dr. Arnold ; and William Osburn pressed for- 
ward in his younger life, with a youthful enthusiasm 
which did not tire during thirty years of devotion 
to the task, in order to acquire this power both of 
reading and of grammar, that it might be employed 
on the one chief object of his life. To prepare him- 
self worthily, therefore, for his subject, he appears 
to have visited Egypt, made himself well acquainted 
with its physical features and climatic experiences, 
studied its monuments in situ, and copied hierogly- 
phics with his own hand, — over and above the never- 
ceasing task of making himself familiar with all the 
idiomatic particulars of the Coptic language, the 
extensions of hieroglyphic interpretation-methods, 
the works of modern hierologists, and the remains 
of all authors of antiquity who have treated on 
Egypt. 

Hence while he is often going over the same 
ground as Gardner Wilkinson, Kosellini, or Lepsius, 
there is a difference in his manner ; with him no 
dallying by the road-side, entranced by vivid de- 
tails of private life in ancient times, or the skill of 
ancient workmen, or the often intricate details of idol 
and animal worship ; that is, for their own sakes, 
— for he does not neglect such topics altogether, 
but keeps them in due subservience to his own 
grander object of pursuit, and estimates their true 



342 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DTV. Ill 



value by the light of a more advanced civilisation 
and a purer religion. To trust no one of interven- 
ing times, seems to be a notable principle with him ; 
and after sifting to the utmost all that has come 
down to us from Alexandrine Greeks, his principal 
labour begins with the unravelling the tissue of 
fictitious history composed by the ancient Egyptian 
priests, and recorded by their despotic monarchs on 
the exteriors of their temples, in a land of eternal 
slavery, where none dare openly contradict what 
was appointed to be inscribed. For this remarkable 
purpose Mr. Osburn makes abundant use of the 
hieroglj^hics found on private tombs, sealed up in 
their own day, and only recently disclosed by exca- 
vations ; but thereby in their turn unfolding for the 
first time the opposite side, to the official side, of 
Egyptian history ; and delightful is it to observe his 
astonishing facility in dealing with the hieroglyphic 
characters of every age, and either in large or small 
amount. 

But he, Mr. Osburn, is not perfect ; for we have 
already, in vol. iii. p. 104, exposed his lamentable 
error as to the material of the ancient casing of the 
Great Pyramid ; and could now add thereto his 
further errors, of placing Heliopolis opposite to, or 
east, instead of north-east, of the Sphinx ; and allud- 
ing to the still remaining portion of the casing of 
the second Pyramid near the summit as being 
of plaster, and the lower part as having been of 
* granite of a vermilion colour, pieces of which are 



i 



CHAP. TIT.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



343 



' lying about in abundance/ These are real and 
melancholy facts ; and when we sought very recently 
to enter into correspondence with him, it was mainly 
to inquire how he had contrived to fall here and 
there into such astounding mistakes respecting 
simple tilings, — for they constituted the exceptional 
feature to the general rule of his otherwise admir- 
able work and its precise character. 

To our extreme regret, however, one of his pub- 
lishers, and then another, though having a kindly 
remembrance of the man, and instituting special 
inquiries after him, were unable to procure any 
tidings ; and by a secretary and member of a 
scientific and literary society to which he had once 
belonged, we were only further told, — that he had 
been much asked after of late, both in London and 
at Leeds, where he had once resided, but he had not 
been seen at either place now for many years ; not, 
in fact, since an unfortunate break-up in his pecu- 
niary affairs, — a sudden and total loss of all his pri- 
vate fortune, they feared, by the failure of a bank 
in which he had deposited whatever he possessed, 
and to the chief director of which, very shortly 
before the crash came, he had dedicated one of his 
learned volumes in sincerity of friendship and con- 
fiding trust. Since then, — and whether all the 
particulars were exactly so or not, was somewhat 
uncertain,— our chief informant repeated, ' Mr. 

* Osburn had not been seen, and every one now 

* believed he was dead.' 



344 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DIV. III. 



This, then, would seem to have been the melan- 
choly end of a man of peculiar talent, high resolve, 
noble purpose, and magnificent ideas of devotion in 
a good cause, — and his works alone now speak for 
him in the world. What is thought of him gene- 
rally we know not ; and the only expressed opinion 
we have come across anywhere, is a passage in 
Chevalier Bunsen, vol. iii. of Egypt's Place in 
Universal History. The name, indeed, is differently 
spelt, but there can be no doubt it is intended 
for the author of the Monumental History of 
Egypt; the date of which is also sufficiently indi- 
cated by the relative time-allusion thereto, seeing 
that Bunsen's preface to his English edition was 
written in November 1858. The passage runs 
as follows : — 

* Unfortunately, too, we are obhged to say of Mr. 

* William Osborne's work on Egypt, which appeared 

* two or three years ago, that, from a critical point 

* of view, it has no value whatever.' 

Now, Chevalier Bunsen having previously laid 
down, in his vol. i. p. 163, that ' Criticism is the 

* testimony of a scholar who tests the evidences of 

* the past,' — we must confess that this definition ap- 
pears to us most admirably descriptive of the general 
contents of Mr. Osburn s historical volumes. And if 
there is any large difference between his criticism 
and Chevalier Bunsen's, it is first, that William 
Osburn translates the hieroglyphics originally for 
himself, instead of depending, like Bunsen, in the 



CHAP. 111.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 345 

majority of cases, on two friends always at his 
elbow ; and, second, that Osburn's critical testing 
of the evidences of the past, has led him to a dif- 
ferent result from that arrived at by Bunsen. Here 
we suspect is the chief grievance of the complaint ; 
and if Chevalier Bunsen had, since his time, been 
proved independently to be right, by the grand test 
of whether his method of procedure led to truth or 
error, — there might be no resisting his dicta. But 
on one side, the same methods of philosophizing 
having since been taken up by the more brilliant 
M. Renan, have led him to chronologies so much 
greater than Bunsen's, that these latter have all 
their once sujjposed strength completely taken out 
of them ; while, on the other hand, our recent me- 
chanical and scientific investigations on the Great 
Pyramid, within their own circle, emphatically de- 
clare Bunsen wrong and Osburn right. 

Oshurn, and Ancient Writers, 

One charge is still indeed pressed in some quar- 
ters, viz., that W. Osburn's method was merely an 

* idle attempt to collect evidence and this is 
thought very seriously of, because Bunsen has writ- 
ten (vol. i. p. 163), 'to faith it is immaterial whe- 

* ther science discover truth in a spirit of scepticism 
' or of behef, — and truth has really been found by 

* both courses, but never by dishonesty or sloth' 
Now, that idleness of such a kind is not to be 
charged against Mr. Osburn, the list of his principal 



346 HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DIV. III. 

published works below sufficiently attests.^ While, 
that it is not proper to term the attempt ' idle/ in 
the sense of any proper principle of research having 
been interfered with, when he determined to study 
Egyptology with reference to one particular class of 
research only, — ^may be considered by the public to 
appear from the title of a great association which 
has recently arisen in this country, — is at this pre- 
sent moment forming auxiliary committees in every 
town and city through the length and breadth of 
the land, — and claims to have been founded ex- 
pressedly and approvedly 'for the accurate and 
' systematic investigation of the archaeology, topo- 

* graphy, geology, and physical geography, etc., of 

* the Holy Land, /or Biblical Illustration.^ 

Leaving then any further defence of Mr. Osburn's 
style of research to this new society, — one impor- 
tant and most difficult branch of whose work he 
laboured at long and successfully through years of 
solitary, and unsympathized, toil, — we only demand 
leave to include him amongst our great philologists- 
of-reference ; and can assure our readers of being 
enabled thereby to lay down a broader and more 

1 (1.) An Account of an Egyptian Mummy, Presented 

to the Museum at Leeds. 8vo, . . . 1828 
(2.) Ancient Egypt : Her Testimony to the Truth of the 

Bible. 8vo, 1846 

(3.) Antiquities of Egypt. 8vo, 1847 

(4.) Israel in Egypt. 12mo, 1853 

(5.) Monumental History of Egypt. 2 vols. 8vo, . . 1854 
(6.) Genesis and Exodus Illustrated from Existing Monu- 
ments. 12mo, ...... 1856 

(7.) Israel in Egypt. 2d Edition, 1856 



CHAP. III.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



347 



secure track over the morass of doubt, and dark pits 
of oblivion, which beset man's present knowledge of 
the affairs of the world, as transacted four thousand 
years ago. 

Thus when Baron Bunsen, with his vast erudition 
and transcendent critical powers, has gone over the 
ancient field, in vain searching for any counter 
evidence, — and when he asks,^ ' can it then be ac- 

* cidental that everything which has been quoted 

* from the theological works of Manetho by classical 
' or ecclesiastical writers up to the time of Theodo- 

* sius, indicates a man of sound reason and sobriety, 

* and of extraordinary learning in the antiquities of 

* his nation ? . . . and would the same man, by 

* altering the lists of the kings, which we have now 

* authentic proof he had before him, have stamped 

* himself as a deceiver and an empiric V — then it is 
that Mr. Osburn steps in with a word of caution in 
due season. For how does Manetho's sound and 
sober history of Egypt really begin ? With the 
following statement, according to Bunsen himself : — 

Year?s. 

(1.) Dominion of the Gods, in two (li\'isions, lasting for . 13,900 
(2.) Dominion of Heroes, in two divisions, . . . 1,255 
(3.) Heroes and Kings of the primeval race, transition from 

divine to human history, . . . . . 5,813 
(4.) Purely human history — provincial princes ; 

Years. 

a. Kings without particular notices (of Thebes ?), 1817 
h. Thirty Memi>hites (Lower Egyi)t), . . 1790 

c. Ten Thinites, 350 

3,957 

Sum-total, . . . = 24,925 
^ Egifpf^s Place in Unhiersal History, vol. i. p. 66. 



348 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



[DIV. 111. 



And this long series of rulers and kings is ante- 
rior to the usually-referred-to thirty dynasties of 
subsequent kings, beginning with Menes, all of them 
equally constituting what Manetho teaches as real 
history ; and if his name is usually connected with 
the latter reigns only, it is because his original work 
has perished ; and so far, fortunately for his charac- 
ter, the notices now existing of what he did write, 
are only the more probable parts of his narration, as 
culled by the criticism of Africanus, Eusebius, Syn- 
cellus, and other early Christian writers of the North 
African school. But even with the well-known 
thirty dynasties, Mr. Osburn further points out that 
Manetho describes, arranges, and numbers them so 
as to extend ostensibly over 5462 years, but says 
in a more private manner at the end, and in a mode 
provocative of many doubts, that they really lasted 
only 3555 years : and we may add, that even this 
quantity seems about one-third longer than the 
empire of Egypt actually lasted. While Sir George 
Cornewall Lewis does not scruple to say, after re- 
ferring other lists of primitive kings in reputed 
ancient chronologists, to the productive powers ot 
late fiction : — ' The list of Manetho, must, in like 

* manner, be regarded as the result of his own in- 

* vention ; aided, doubtless, by some traditionary 

* names and stories received from his predecessors.' 

The only subsequent author to Manetho in the 
antique world, having any independent claim to 
chronological authority, is Eratosthenes ; the Cyre- 



(;HAP. III.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



349 



nian Greek, supposed to have been librarian in 
Alexandria in the days of Ptolemy Euergetes 
(247 B.C.) ; a shrewd man, but picking up his infor- 
mation at second hand among Greeks only; and now 
entirely lost, as to his writings, except for some few 
quotations from him that have come down in other 
authors. Yet upon Eratosthenes does Chevalier 
Bunsen rely implicitly, as an unexceptionable source 
and unquestionable canon of early Egyptian history, 
— even with as firm a faith as, on the opposite side, 
Lepsius adopts the shorter, and M. Eenan the longer, 
summation of Manetho ; while even William Osburn, 
who is usually full of praise for whatever he thinks 
worthy in Bunsen, is obliged to speak of one parti- 
cular attempt of his to establish a forced meaning 
of a particular passage in Eratosthenes, ' as a favonr- 

* ite theory of his, Bunsen's, which he seems dis- 

* posed to support at a considerable expense of 

* historical probability, and perhaps also occasion- 

* ally of accurate rendering of the text of his Greek 

* authorities as well.' 

Greek and Roman Travellers. 
From these doubtful views, therefore, among the 
chronologists professed, we turn to Egyptian travel- 
lers, foremost amongst whom stands the venerable 
Herodotus. He, though a pure Greek, was earlier 
than the native Egyptian Manetho, having visited 
the ancient land about 445 B.C., when Egypt, though 
already passed over by the destroying hand of 



350 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DIV. III. 



Cambyses, was enjoying rest and independence once 
more for a brief interval. But though Herodotus is 
worthily immortalized for his writings in history, 
and though every one speaks lovingly and with 
praise of the simple, confiding, inquiring, childlike, 
manner of the blue-eyed Herodotus, — he wrote of 
Egypt, not a history, only an account of what he 
had seen and heard there ; stories founded on 
history perhaps, but with their chronology utterly 
wrong, doubled up and twisted in and out. Where- 
fore it is, that even his great admirer Chevalier 
Bunsen ' lays it down as established,' — 

' That the chronology of Herodotus, in the proper 

* sense of the word, (only) begins with Psamme- 

* tichus ; that for the previous period he possessed 

* no expedient by which the discrepancy between 

* the Egyptian computation and his own series of 

* dynasties could be reconciled ; that these two sys- 

* tems differ by about ten thousand years, and that 

* neither consequently can be considered as either 

* certain or possible.' As a traveller, then, only can 
Herodotus be received in his Egyptian writings ; 
and as a Greek traveller, knowing no language other 
than his own native tongue ; dependent, therefore, 
on interpreters in all his communications with the 
people ; seeing everything, moreover, through the 
medium of Greek idolatry, and believing that Greek 
gods and Greek men had been the founders and 
originators of everything else upon earth. These 
imperfections, joined to the tactics of Egyptian 



(JHAP. 111.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



351 



priests and the trickery of the dragomans of the time, 
—Mr. Osburn in his critical examination of passages 
sometimes breaks out with virtuous indignation on 

* the imposition which had been practised upon the 

* father of history by his unprincipled guides and 

* informants in Egypt/ — were greatly in the way of 
the eminent Halicarnassian arriving at the mind of 
the Coptic land : and have now, to a great extent, 
deprived his works of that full and perfect credence 
which they implicitly commanded amongst his own 
countrymen for several centuries after his death. 

Of Diodorus Siculus, who followed in about 58 B.C., 
Strabo in 18 A.D., and Pliny in 70 a.d., — or closer 
to our own times than to those of the Great Pyra- 
mid, — they contain so little in addition to what is 
related in Herodotus, — that, though they are all to 
be read and pondered over in connexion with other 
sources of information, and have been abundantly 
presented before the British reader again and again 
by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Corey, Eawlinson, and 
others, — still the reader may gladly accept of Bun- 
sen's proposition to ' leave at last all this chaff, and 

* turn to the monuments for her monuments are 
undoubtedly Egypt's peculiar glory, and the verit- 
able, and only extant pages of her most ancient 
experienced history. 



Characteristics of Egyptian Monuments. 
* No nation of the earth,' writes Chevalier Bun 
sen, with expressive eloquence, ' has shown so much 



352 



HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DIV. III. 



* zeal and ingenuity, so much method and regularity, 
' in recording the details of private life as the 

* Egyptians. No country in the world offered 

* greater natural facilities for indulging such a pro- 

* pensity than Egypt, with its limestone and granite, 

* its dry climate, and the protection afforded by its 

* desert against the overpowering force of nature in 

* southern zones. Such a country was adapted not 

* only for securing its monuments against dilapida- 

* tion, both above and below ground, for thousands 

* of years, but even for preserving them as perfect 

* as the day they were erected. In the north rain 

* and frost corrode, in the south the luxuriant vege- 

* tation cracks or obliterates the monuments of 
' time. China has no architecture to bid defiance 
' to thousands of years, — Babylon had but bricks, — 
' in India the rocks can barely resist the wanton 

* power of nature. Egypt is the monumental land 
' of the earth, as the Egyptians are the monumental 
' people of history. Their contemporary records, 

* therefore, are at once the earliest and most certain 
' source of all Egyptian research.' 

Similarly, too, and even more instructively, does 
tlie great Lepsius write -} — 

* An intense desire after posthumous fame and a 
^ place in history seem to have been universal in 

* ancient Egypt. This exhibits itself in the in- 

* credible multitude of monuments of all descrip- 

* tions which have been found in the valley of the 

* Lepsius' Einlettung, freely translated by W. Osburn. 



CHAP. III.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 



353 



* Nile. All the principal cities of Egypt were 

* adorned with temples and palaces. Towns of 

* lesser note, and even villages, were always dis- 

* tinguished by one temple at least, — often with more 

* than one. These temples were filled with the 

* statues of gods and kings, generally colossal, and 

* hewn from costly stones. Their walls also, within 

* and without, were covered with coloured reliefs. 

* To adorn and maintain these public buildings was 

* at once the duty and pride of the kings of Egypt. 

* But even these were rivalled by the more opulent 
' classes of the people in their care for the dead, 

* and in the hewing and decoration of sepulchral 

* chambers. In these things the Egyptians very far 
' surpassed the Greeks and Romans, as well as all 
' other known nations of antiquity. 

* Still further to enhance to after times the value 

* of these ever-during monuments of ancient Egypt, 

* it was universal with the inhabitants to cover 

* their works of art of every description with hiero- 

* glyphics, the purport of which related strictly to 

* the monuments on which they were described. 

* No nation that ever lived on the earth has made 

* so much use of its written system, or applied it to 

* a purpose so strictly historical, as ancient Egypt. 

* There was not a wall, a platform, a pillar, an 
' architrave, a frieze, or even a door-post in an 

* Egyptian temple which was not carved within, 

* without, and on every available surface, with pic- 

* tures in rehef. There is not one of these reliefs 

VOL. in. z 



354 HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. [DIV. III. 



* that is not history, some of them actually repre- 

* senting the conquests of foreign nations ; others, 
' the offerings and devotional exercises of the 
' monarch by whom the temple or portion of the 
' temple on which the relief stood, had been con- 

* structed. Widely different from the temples of 
' Greece and Eome, on which inscriptions were 
' evidently regarded as unwelcome additions, form- 

* ing no part of the original architectural design, 

* but, on the other hand, interfering with and mar- 

* ring it, — the hieroglyphic writings were absolutely 

* essential and indispensable to the decoration of a 
' perfect Egyptian temple. 

' This writing, moreover, was by no means con- 
' fined to constructions of a public nature and of 
' great magnitude, such as temples or tombs, but was 

* also inscribed on objects of art of every other con- 

* ceivable description. Nothing, even down to the 

* palette of a scribe, the style with which a lady 

* painted her eyelashes with powdered antimony, or 
' even a walking stick, was deemed too insignificant 

* to be inscribed with the name of the owner, and a 
' votive dedication of the object itself to his patron 
' divinity. Inscriptions with the names of the 

* artists or owners, so rare on the remains of Greece 

* and Eome, are the universal rule in Egyptian art. 

* There was no colossus too great and no amulet too 
' small to be inscribed with the name of its owner, 

* and some account of the occasion on which it was 

* executed.' 



> 

CHAP. III.] HISTORICAL AUTHORITIES. 355 

Here, then, is some idea of the vast storehouse of 
materials for the early history of the world, con- 
tained in the monuments of Egypt. There is 
nothing at all approaching it in any other land 
whatever, either in quantity, precision, or preserva- 
tion ; it is a phenomenon in the history of the 
human race, and formed a task so exceedingly im- 
portant in itself for the world to have executed 
for its future use and behoof, — while Egypt was 
so precisely the country in which it would be in 
every way best executed, — that there seems, to our 
humble and distant contemplation, less than usual 
of the vanity of human works attachable to those 
toil-worn records of the old Egyptians. 

Nay, there would even appear to be also a some- 
thing about those marvellous remains, symptomatic 
of their having been a task appointed by Divine 
Providence for the Egyptian people to perform in 
theii^ day ; and they did perform it well. A 
suggestive idea, perhaps, but one which we shall not 
attempt to follow further ; as all that we have really 
to attend to at present is this, viz., — that these 
most remarkable and speaking monuments, having 
come down to the times in which we live, duty 
calls upon us to examine their weighty testimony — 
and with all, and whatever, amount of power we may 
be able to bring to the task — in the difficult, though 
happily limited question, which is more immediately 
set before us. 



5 



CHAPTER IV. 

EARLIEST PROVED POINT OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 

From all the characteristics, then, of Egyptian 
monuments, as described by the most eminent 
hierologists, we may gather the useful warning, that 
when a date is fixed * by the monuments' in Egyp- 
tian history, it must be fixed indeed. Hence have 
arisen very strong remarks addressed to those main- 
taining opposite views, and couched in such terms 
as these : — 

* We may venture to assert, without being charged 

* with temerity by competent authorities, that, in 

* consequence of Egyptian researches, the arbitrary 

* barriers which Jewish superstition and Christian 

* sloth have erected upon God's free field of human 

* history are for ever broken down ;^ and again, — 
' There exist Egyptian monuments, the date of which 

* can be accurately fixed, of a higher antiquity than 
' those of any other nation known in history, viz., 
' above five thousand years. This fact must be ex- 
' plained : to deny it would be proof of little skill, 

* and still less candour, on the part of any critic, who 
' has once undertaken to prosecute the inquiry.'^ 

^ Biinsen's Egypt, vol. iv. p. 20. ^ Ibid. vol. i. p. 28. 



CHAP. IV.] EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



357 



These builded monuments of old Egypt do thus 
in very truth come before us in every way, indirectly 
as well as directly ; gaunt witnesses which will be 
heard ; they are the facts which must be satisfied, 
and to which everything else that can be referred to 
for very remote illustrations, is entirely subsidiary. 
No matter what course of criticism is adopted, as 
many writers insist, or what road of inquiry is 
taken, so long as those positive points, those veri- 
table blocks of granite, are taken up at last, — for 
omitted they cannot be. History, — say these instruc- 
tors of the people, — in its scientific form, has to deal, 
not with the question of probability, but of evidence ; 
not with eloquently-drawn inferences, but with posi- 
tive data, if at all. And again, — * The task which 

* European science has now to perform, is to bring 

* that (Biblical) tradition within the pale of history, 

* i.e., to deal with it conscientiously and honestly, 

* and to analyse it for the purpose of discovering 

* what is the truth which is to be gleaned from it. 

* Of course we must here take our stand on the 

* Egyptian monuments and records, including the 

* language, and cannot make Biblical research the 

* starting-point. It should be still more evident 

* that the whole inquiry stands upon the ground of 

* philosophical history. And yet, with the growing 

* and preposterous claims advanced by the clergy to 

* fabricate even historic truth, and with their strenu- 

* ous exertions to destroy historical science wherever 

* it is possible, in order to bring us back to the dark 



358 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



* ages, it has now again become the more imperative 

* to state this in plain terms. It is almost more 

* necessary, indeed, to lay great stress upon it in 

* Protestant than in Catholic countries. For dog- 

* matizing Bibliolatry, the superstitious use which 

* Protestants make of their Bible as a cloak for in- 

* dolence and want of reflection, must produce the 

* effect which scholasticism and hierarchical tyranny 

* have produced in the south of Europe, — a total 
' abandonment of all scientific study of the sacred 

* records. Ignorance marches step by step with 

* perversity, and scepticism with superstition/^ 

* The nineteenth century has in the last thirty 

* years witnessed, together with immortal discoveries, 

* the most senseless and shameless attempts to re- 

* establish in the world ancient and modern fraud, 

* falsehood, and nonsense, and pass it off as ortho- 

* doxy. Posterity will find in the noble love of 
' truth and the fearless faith of German research an 

* atonement and consolation for political follies and 
' despotic violence.'^ 

Agreeing, then, fully with the above author on 
the importance and even necessity, in Egyptian 
history, of ' taking our stand on the Egyptian 

* monuments,' — we are attracted to his page 57, 
vol. iv., giving the * limits of the duration of Egyp- 
' tian epochs prior to Menes, according to Egyptian 
' monuments, records, and traditions and then 
meet with the most confident statement, of a 

1 Bunsen's Egypt, vol. iv. p. »78. 2 /j^^;, v^i^ p 397^ 



CHAP. IV.] OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



359 



civilized government having existed in Egypt for 
six thousand years before the time of Menes, the 
leading king of Manetho's first, out of his thirty, 
generally allowed, dynasties. 

Upon this assumption or demonstration, wherein 
the ' monume^nts' are brought to the head of the facts 
concerned, Chevaher Bunsen proceeds, at p. 488, 
vol. iv., to particularize true and real Egyptian 
history as follows : — 

Date B.C. 

• The period of the Nomes, and the formation of Osirism, or 

* the psychical element of religion, and basis of the union j 

• provisional solar worship ; beginning of Egyptian nation- 



* ality 10,000 

* Beginning of the formation of castes ; priests and warriors ; 

* close of the republican period in the Nomes, . . . 9,086 

* Bytis, the Theban priest of Ammon, the first sacerdotal 

' king 9,085 

* Beginning of elective kings, ...... 7,230. 

* Beginning of hereditary kings in Lower Egypt, . . . 5,413 

* End of them, 3,624 



' Contemporaneous Thinite Princes before Menes, during the 

• last 350 years of the pre-Menite period, according to 

* Manetho, collaterally with the Memphites, therefore 
' from 3974 to 3624. 

* Menes king of all Egypt ; Crisis-Union, and the conscious- 

' ness of Egypt being a kingdom, ..... 3,623 

* Pyramids built in the first dynasty, ..... 3,460 

* Animal-worship introduced, improvement and establish- 

' ment of writing, beginnings of literature ; second and 

' third dynasty (contemporaneous beginnings of the Ritual), 3,400 

* Building of the largest Pyramid (the second of Herodotus), 3,280 

The above remarkable chronology closes with a 
blunder of description, for the * Great Pyramid,' 
which is the largest of all the Pyramids of Egypt, 
is the first, not the second, Pyramid of Herodotus ; 
his second Pyramid being that which he says * was 



360 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



* built by Cephren, the brother and successor of 

* Cheops, and which Pyramid he, Herodotus, mea- 
' sured and found to be much less in size than that 

* of Cheops -y in fact it is the Pyramid usually known 
now as ' the second Pyramid of Jeezeh,' or sometimes 
more particularly as the ' second largest Pyramid of 
' Jeezeh,' but which expression eventually comes ,to 
the same thing. In fact the case was simple 
enough, until Chevalier Bunsen introduced assump- 
tions of his own about the builders, then proceeded 
to refer to those assumptions as demonstrated facts, 
or to found on them as such ; and finally to bewilder 
himself ; whence we can only explain amongst other 
errors his statement^ that * the elder' (of the royal 
brothers Cheops) * built the second largest Pyramid, 

* and that vast appendage to it, the stone dyke; 
for no built stone dyke exists far or near about the 
second largest Pyramid, though there is such a 
thing eminently in the going down eastwards from 
the third largest Pyramid ; but that was long sub- 
sequent to the brothers Cheops and their dynasty ; 
and so very much smaller than the second largest 
Pyramid, as never at any time to compete with it 
either in name or fame. 

Our purpose, however, now, is not to be critically 
severe with the last item in the above long list of 
chronicled events in Egyptian history, but to ascer- 
tain how all the preceding items have been obtained 
and settled. That they are considered by Chevalier 

' Bunsen's Egypt, vol. ii. p. 175. 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



361 



Bunsen as perfectly secure, and beyond the region 
of doubt, appears from the manner in which he 
refers to them again and again ; as thus : — 

* The result of the researches in this present Book 

* has been, that the traditions prior to Menes which 

* allude to human kings are real throughout, and 
' exclude entirely heroic fiction and all ideal re- 
y 'presentations. We have seen that there was a 

* series of organic development ; in the first place 

* we found sacerdotal kings, then elective kings out 

* of the military families, and lastly kings of an 

* Upper and kings of a Lower country. Our tables 
' of the ages of the world show the connexion be- 

* tween these epochs and the general epochs of the 
' most ancient national history ; and the parallel 

* facts we have stated justified us, I think, in call- 

* ing the Egyptians the chronometers of universal 

* history, and in asserting that Menes and his empire 

* are nothing more than the culminating point of 

* a long preceding constitutional development of 

* Egyptian life.' 

The case therefore grows in importance as it is 
proceeded with, and its essence consists in this, — that 
a history of an organized, constitutional, and there- 
fore highly civilized Egypt is asserted to have pre- 
vailed for a period of 6700 years prior to the build- 
ing of the Great Pyramid ; and at the head of the 
documents, on which this momentous agglomeration 
of human experiences in this world of troubles, 
trials, and vexations of spirit is asserted, detailed, 



362 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT [DIV. III. 



and chronicled, stands the item which all must treat 
respectfully, ' the monuments of Egypt' 

With striking propriety is precedence given to 

* the monuments' among other remains of early 
Egyptian history, because the monuments have 
lasted better than anything else ; there are earlier 
stone monuments, for instance, than papyri, or books, 
or papers of any kind or degree ; and the stone 
monuments are all vocal with inscribed hierogly- 
phics ; they speak clearly of what was transacting 
in their time ; and are ' the contemporary records^ 
which Bunsen alludes to (vol. i. p. 31) *as the 

* earliest and most certain source of all Egyptian 
' research.' 

Employed just in this manner, and in this only, 
it is that Egyptian monuments have the marvellous 
power that has been attributed to them of clearly 
establishing the events and stories of life in the 
earlier days of the world. Thus, also, Dr. Lepsius 
lays down his view of the law under which Egyp- 
tian monuments are to be exclusively, or at least 
are understood to be exclusively employed in histo- 
rical researches, when quoted therein by modern 
Egyptologists and hierologists : — 

' We set out then from hence, that the beginning 

* of the true history and chronology of no ancient 

* nation can, to meet the requirements of their day, 

* extend much further backwards than the date of 
' the oldest contemporary source of knowledge ; and 

* we have found this opinion confirmed to the dis- 



CHAP. IV.] OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



363 



* credit of the early histories of the inhabitants of 

* Europe and Asia. Therein lies the great advan- 

* tage possessed by the early history of Egypt over 

* all other histories, inasmuch as we can draw our 

* knowledge of it from contemporary sources of so 

* early a date ; and they, not literary histories merely, 

* but also coeval monuments, the most correct and 

* indubitable of all teachers of history. Therefore 

* it is that the history of Egypt at so very early an 

* era may be constructed.' 

Baron Bunseris Authorities demanded. 

Now, then, after being thus informed and pre- 
pared, let us ask. Where are the Egyptian con- 
temporary monuments on which Chevalier Bunsen 
has constructed these 6700 years of Egyptian his- 
tory, prior to the epoch, or say to within one 
hundred or two hundred years, of the epoch, of the 
Great Pyramid ? 

We may ask this question again and again ; and 
echo will answer, AVhere ? For there is not a single 
contemporary monument of the kind known to 
exist throughout the whole Egyptian land. The 
millenniums of years have been piled up one over 
the other by the great word-philosopher of our age 
without a single monument to refer to. Chevalier 
Bunsen, moreover, knew that there was not one 
such monument for appeal or for guidance, because 
he has written in his first volume, page 69, of 



M 



364 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



* these monuments of the fourth dynasty' (includ- 
ing, therefore, the epoch of the Great P3rramid), 

* the oldest in the world ; and though he attributes 
in his second volume some of the Abooseer Vyv^- 
mids to the third dynasty, Dr. Lepsius claims them 
for the fourth ; and the diflference of years between 
the two dynasties can in no case be very notabla 
Extend it even to two hundred years, and ask again 
— where are all the earlier contemporary monuments 
on which Chevalier Bunsen constructed the Egyptian 
history of the 6500 years previous to the dynasty 
which erected the Great Pyramid, or the Abooseer 
Pyramids ? 

Again comes the answer, — such monuments do not 
exist ; not a single one, large or small, fixed or 
portable, belonging to all that enormous interval of 
time, has ever been seen by modern hierologist or 
excavator. Dr. Lepsius, the most experienced both 
of all men now alive and of all who have lived 
during the last three thousand years touching the 
more ancient monuments gf Egypt, wrote from 
his excavations at Jeezeh in 1843 : — 'Nor have I 

* yet found a single cartouche that can be safely 
' assigned to a period previous to the fourth 

* dynasty. The builders of the Great Pyramid 

* seem to assert their right to form the commence- 
' ment of monumental history, even if it be clear 
' that they were not the first builders and monu- 

* mental writers/ And again he says, * The Pyra- 

* mid of Cheops, to which the first link of our whole 



CHAP. IV.] 



OP EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



365 



* monumental history is fastened immoveably, not 

* only for Egyptian, but for universal history.'^ 

Two thousand years only from the Great Pyra- 
mid downward, in the stream of time, have covered 
the land of Egypt from one end to the other with its 
marvellous piles of chronological monuments, — but 
of Baron Bunsen's 6500 asserted previous years of 
highly civilized Egyptian monarchy, not a single 
monument exists, not even in the resounding pages 
of the great Prussian diplomate. 

The monuments of the third dynasty are the first 
there directly appealed to as existing ; and though 
in vol. ii. p. 617, the hieroglyphic ovals are printed 
of kings in the first and second dynasties, — thesa 
are not pretended to be derived from contemporary 
monuments, but are deduced from votive or tradi- 
tional references on subsequent buildings ; in the 
same way, in fact, as the similar heraldic escutcheons 
of two of the idol gods of Egypt, Thoth and 
Hemithei, — which head Chevalier Bunsen's list of 
real kings, — have been obtained. In a similar man- 
ner, we conclude, have been derived most of the 
escutcheons of twelve reputed kings of the third 
dynasty ; for the only three which are referred to as 
legibly written anywhere in the contemporary man- 



ner, are [<> ] | /wvi!)/ variously rendered by difi*er- 



* Page 21 of Dr. Lepsius' Letters fronn Egypt in 1842 and 1845, 
edited by Kenneth R H. Mackenzie. London, 1852. 

' Quarry -marks of a ruined Pyramid of Regah and tlie middle 
Pyramid of Abooseer. 




366 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



ent authorities as Seser, User, Ousre, Ousrenre, 
Ea-en-seser, Kaosis, Userra, and Userchre, and placed 
by Dr. Lepsius in Plate xxxix., vol. iii. of his folio 

plates, in the fifth dynasty : j ^^^tit ^,^ vari- 
ously rendered Re-shore, Shoure, Shura, Sahu-ra^ 
Soris, Sirios, and placed by Lepsius in Plate xxxix. 
of his volume iii., also in the fifth dynasty; and 

lastly, ^ pronounced Snfru, Sene- 

fru, Chnubos-gnevros, and Sephuris, and placed by 
Lepsius again and again in the fourth dynasty. 

Hence all the earliest monuments known even to 
Chevalier Bunsen, cluster close about the fourth 
dynasty, or the builders of the Great P3rramid ; and 
according to the Great Pyramid itself, mechanically 
and astronomically interpreted, they belong more or 
less to the year 2170 B.C. ; which date, and not the 
year 10,000 B.C., is therefore the earliest date that 
can be fixed by * the monuments,' — used as they 
only can be safely, properly, or legitimately, for con- 
temporary events. Or, in other words, these severe 
and unexceptionable witnesses, the monuments of 
Egypt, have shattered in pieces the learned philolo- 
gist's baseless construction of 6500 years of previous 
supposed Egyptian history, and over which he had 
been holding for so many years the name of * the 
' monuments' as an aegis of protection. 

1 Northern Pyramid of Abooseer, and a tablet in Wadee Maghara. 
^ Tombs near the Great Pyramid, and also tablets iu Wadee 
Maghara. 



CHAP. IV.] OF EGYPTIAN HISTOEY. 



367 



Consequences of there being no Authorities, 

Having once been cited on the field, these monu- 
ments are indeed active, as well as passive, opponents 
to those who use them wrongfully ; for not only do 
they not bear testimony to an Egyptian monarchy 
lasting through that immense period of time claimed 
by Chevalier Bunsen, but their absence shows that 
such a thing could not have been ; for had it 
existed, material traces innumerable of such a world- 
long period of civilisation would have been left 
behind, and in Egypt nothing of that sort decays. 
' It is not there,' says Bunsen himself, ' as it would 

* be in Europe or India, where in the former cold 

* and snow, or in the latter heat and rain destroy ; 

* for Egypt is the monumental land of the earth, 
' adapted not only for saving its monuments from 

* great dilapidation, hut for preserving them as 
'perfect as the day they were erected/ 

Thus, too, the learned and most competent Dr. 
Lepsius holds forth, — 'Even that apparently most 
' perishable of all building materials, brick of black 
' Nile mud dried in the sun, has retained for 
' thousands of years its architectural junctures, and 

* the cement with which it is united. Around the 

* celebrated temple of Eamses the Great, at Thebes, 

* the " Memnonium,'' stands a suite of great vaulted 

* halls, altogether built with this material, and partly 

* coated with stucco. These were built at the same 
' time with the temple itself at the commencement 



368 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



' of the thirteenth century B.C. This fact not only 

* appears from the architecture, but also still more 

* demonstrably from the bricks themselves, which, 

* as being made for the king's service, are stamped 

* with his name. At that time, and earlier, it was 
' a very common practice to coat the tombs exca- 

* vated in the rocks with Nile mud, and to lay upon 

* that the white ground of stucco for the paintings. 
' This was especially the case when the rock was 
' brittle, and required a vaulted roof. The same 

* custom prevailed even up to the most ancient 

* times of the Pyramids of Memphis. But not only 

* the materials, but also the colours which were laid 

* upon them, retain to this day all their freshness, 

* without any perceptible change, in closed vaults, 

* and in certain cases, even when exposed to the 
' open air.' 

Even, therefore, had Egyptian monuments been 
executed in mud alone, something of the innumer- 
able buildings in that material during 6500 years 
of the life of a great nation would have come down 
to us in that peculiar land. But the Egyptian 
country excels likewise in its abundance of hard 
materials of the best quality, either for building or 
carving into in situ; such as its admirable lime- 
stones, sandstones, porphyry, basalt, and granite ; 
and the Egyptians, of all people who have ever lived 
on the earth, were the most skilful in working the 
hardest materials : delighting apparently ever more 
and more, to employ them either rudely in archi- 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



369 



tccture, or to sculpture tlicm finely, the harder they 
were. Hence both the hollow sarcophagi and solid 
statues which they worked out of granite, basalt, 
and diorite, — are alike, even still, a marvel to all 
practical men as to how they were executed ; and 
the taste for working in these hard materials was at 
least as strong, if not stronger, in the earlier than 
the later dynasties. 

These materials were also employed in a manner 
still further to promote their lasting qualities ; for 
as Dr. Lepsius continues to remark, — * Next to the 

* abundance and beauty of these works of art, is the 

* extreme care for their permanence which was ex- 

* hibited by the Egyptians, and which was evidently 

* in accordance with their religious belief. It is 

* scarcely needful to refer, in proof of this, to the 
' two great Pyramids of Jeezeh, which are, in fact, 

* artificial mountains, constructed with huge blocks 
' hewn from the rock on which they stand, and in 
' which sepulchral chambers were afterwards ex- 

* cavated with the chisel, as though they had been 

* natural crags. It is as if the builders of them had 

* designed to erect two pillars to support the vast 
' superstructure of the history of mankind. This is, 

* in a word, the peculiarity of all that remains of 
' the works of the ancient Egyptians. Whether 

* they built halls for pomps and festivities, or dug 

* out sepulchral chambers ; whether they constructed 

* for life or for death, it was always with the inten- 

* tion that their works should last for ever.' 

VOL. III. 2 A 



370 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



Hence the proper conclusion will surely appear 
in the eyes of common sense, — that, if such last- 
ing monuments formed the permanent and abiding 
character of the Egyptian nation, and we find no 
monuments of it whatever, anterior to the epoch 
of the reputed, and by moderns so-called, fourth 
dynasty, — the nation itself did not exist anterior to 
that epoch, and certainly not through the 6500 years 
of Baron Bunsen's assumed pre-Pyramid history. 

Origin of the Egyptians. 

There remains indeed the difficulty of accounting 
as to how the Egyptian monuments make so grand 
an appearance as they do, the moment they come 
upon the scene at all; for the sculptures of the 
fourth dynasty are not only in as true and fine art 
as any, but even better than most, of those which 
followed them ; and it is contrary to all experience 
that a people could spring in a moment from abso- 
lute nothingness to such admirable perfection. 

The difficulty is indeed a serious one, but not 
relieved in the slightest degree by going back to 
Chevalier Bunsen's vision of an early Egypt with 
both an Upper and a Lower crown, and a city of 
Thebes founded long before Menes or any of the 
Pyramids ; for the tedious and enduring ages of 
imperfect beginnings and defective executions should 
then be findable. And here, at this point and view 
of the case, the truth of which he also would seem 
fully to allow, even the acute M. Renan is reduced 



CHAP. IV.] OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



371 



to something like wonder, confusion, and despair; 
' for when one thinks/ writes he, in discussing the 
Great Pyramid, Sphinx, and similar well-known 
monuments, 'when one thinks of this civilisation, 
'at least 6500^ (really 4035) years old from the 
' present day, that it has had no known infancy ; 
' that this art, of which there remain innumerable 

* monuments, had no archaic epoch ; that the Egypt 
' of Cheops and of Chephren is superior in a sense 

* to all that followed, — one is seized with giddi- 

* ness ; on est pris de vertige! 

This confession is frank, and does M. Eenan nota- 
ble honour ; for the facts before him do seem, as he 
further on confesses, to imply, that all the ordinary 
understood laws of the beginning and growth of a 
nation * have been totally reversed in the case of 
' Egypt.' One ray of light in the way of a possible 
line of explanation, does indeed occur to him, but 
he does not seem to follow it up ; and he does not 
appear aware that it had occurred some years before 
to another author, viz., William Osburn ; and hfid 
been abundantly probed, tested, and investigated by 
him, even to the extent of showing that the people 
who afterwards formed the Egyptian nation arrived 
at the banks of the Nile, near the crown of the 

1 This 6500 years ago, or 46.35 B.C., is M. Kenan's date for the 
fourth dynasty ; and does not therefore point to anything, relative to 
Egyptian history, earlier than our statement of 4035 years ago, or 
2170 B.C. would do. He is therefore alluding really, under his larger 
figure, to the same absolute time, monuments, and personages, that we 
do under the smaller numbers given by the Great Pyramid itself. 



372 



EARLIEST PROVED POINT 



[DIV. III. 



Delta, as colonists from another land, only a very 
short time previous to the epoch of the fourth 
dynasty. 

As colonists from another land, and under very 
remarkable circumstances : what these were, W. 
Osburn goes into deeply, in a critical examination 
of the foundations in nature of the hieroglyphic 
forms ; deducing thence something in the first set- 
tlers of Eg5rpt ' as to a company of persons once in 

* a state of high civilisation, but that through some 

* strange anomaly in the history of man, they had 

* been deprived of great part of the language, and 

* the entire written system, which had formerly been 

* the means and vehicle of their civilisation/ Com- , 
bining which inference with the indications he 
obtains otherwise, that *the Fathers of ancient 

' Egypt first journeyed thither across the Isthmus 

* of Suez, and that they brought with them the 

* worship of the setting sun,' — * how is it possible/ 
he adds, ' to resist the conclusion that they came 

* thither from the plains of Babel, at the first dis- 

* persion of mankind, and that the civilisation 

* of Egypt was derived from the banks of the 
' Euphrates?' 

And after still further investigations, he speaks 
more confidently of *the cares, the fears, the de- 

* signs of the leaders under whose standards the 
' Mizraites first marched westward, before the mys- 

* terious impulse that drove them forth from the 

* fertile plains of the Euphrates. They fled before 



CHAP. IV.] OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 



873 



* it, nor dared to tarry on the grassy banks of 
' Jordan, nor in the shady valleys of Judah, nor 

* by the waters of Siloah, that flow softly. The 

* voice of a greater than man sounded in their ears. 

* The terror of an invincible power awed their 

* spirits, and they dared not disobey. They braved 

* the perils and privations of a journey over an un- 

* known desert, before the same fearful impulse ; 
' nor ever were they allowed to rest, until they had 

* reached the uttermost borders of the land which 
' He who pursued after them had destined them to 

* populate.' 

Kespecting this theory, we can only say at pre- 
sent, that in so far as it offers a beginning for Egyp- 
tian history, it accords with * the Tnonuments of 

* Egypt, those unaltering, unaltered, and unavoid- 
able indices and accompaniments of every such 
investigation. But if these same monuments do 
not also, as evidently they cannot in themselves, 
enable us to trace back to events much earlier than 
their ow7i times,— all-exciting as it would be to the 
soul of man, were he really able to look into the 
events of these truly primeval periods of the human 
race, — we shall do well to endeavour, simply and 
soberly, to ascertain by the light of their guidance 
through later times, what was the further course of 
this remarkable nation after its apparently forced, 
and certainly very sudden, monumental beginning 
on the banks of the Nile. 



CHAPTER V. 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 

The earliest identifiable contemporary monu- 
ments of Egypt, or the beginnings of its monumental 
history, so far as known to European researches up 
to the present year, are, according to the unanimous 
opinion of all hierologists, — the rock-tablets of 
Wadee Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai ; and the 
Pyramids^ with their surrounding tombs, at Jeezeh, 
Sakkara, and the Memphis neighbourhood. And 
this conclusion equally obtains, whether these re- 
mains be considered to belong to the fourth dynasty 
only, or partly to the third, and partly to the fifth. 

Equally is it also the fact, that these earliest 
examples of the monuments are confined to the 
places mentioned; and that Middle and Upper 
Egypt, and still less Nubia and Ethiopia, have 
nothing whatever to compare with them in anti- 
quity. So that the general testimony of the monu- 
ments in Egypt itself, is precisely as Lepsius and 
Osburn have demonstrated ; viz., that that species 
of testimony to the civilisation of Egypt began, and 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



375 



began suddenly, near the upper comer of the Delta, 
and ascended, as it grew with ages, the valley of 
the Nile ; illustrating thereby its Asiatic, not 
African, origin. 

The Sinaitic remains of these earlier dynasties 
are not many, but are remarkably well sculptured ; 
are claimed by all hierologists to be authentic 
and contemporary ; belong chiefly to the kings 

Nu-Shofo, 

Sephuris, and \jl jAi O) Soris ; 

show — by their designs — that animal-worship, or 
animal and semi-animal gods, were already esta- 
blished and reverenced ; and that there was armed 
opposition to the Egyptians from the natives of 
that peninsula, emphatically represented as thrice 
hilly ; and which we now are aware contains noble 
pinnacles of mountains upwards of seven thousand 
feet high, — natural watch-towers overtopping and 
overlooking everything else in Egypt, Libya, and 
Arabia for leagues and leagues around them. 

The Jeezeh and Sakkara remains, on the contrary, 
besides being vastly more plentiful, are eminently 
peaceftd in their traits. In the case of the Pyra- 
mids, indeed, — those closed and artificial mountains 
of stone say nothing whatever, either by picture or 
inscription, for one cause or the other ; while in form 
and fact they merely supply the otherwise flat-topped 
landscape with acute hill-points, and without ofier- 



a 



376 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. IIL 



ing anything approaching to strongholds for war, or 
gathering-halls for peace. 

But when we enter the tombs, there pictured 
scenes are witnessed on every side, of agriculture, 
cattle-feeding, industrious country life, and with 
hardly anything else. These characteristics, more- 
over, are continued, often through the lives of two, 
three, and even more generations of the same 
family ; indicating that, there, or then at least, and 
however it was procured, the Egyptian people had 
rest and quiet and freedom from war's alarms. 

For those who have not had the privilege of visit- 
ing these earliest pictorial monuments of Mizraim, 
and for many of those who have too, — their chief 
trust for what is there contained must be placed, 
and will be most worthily placed, in Dr. Lepsius' 
large work of twelve folio volumes; — the largest 
collection of Egyptian plates, out of the many large 
collections brought out by different European coun- 
tries, that has ever yet been produced ; and the 
first that has been chronologically arranged. This 
is a unique feature, and one which, to have its re- 
quirements properly executed, perhaps needed a 
Eichard Lepsius to pave the way ; but having once 
been executed, and by him, some extension of grasp 
of the great Egyptian subject must occur to every 
one, on each successive occasion of looking over the 
series of carefully-executed engravings. 

Volume first, after several maps, begins a long 
series of topographical views extending through 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 377 

both this and the next volume, and arranged appa- 
rently with strict attention to the date of the earliest 
monuments discovered at each place ; the names of 
such places being then found to run in the follow- 
ing order : — 

Sinai, . Wadee Feran. 

Wadee Maghara. 
Sarbut el Kadem. 
Memphis, Aboo Koash. 
Jeezeh. 
Abooseer. 
Sakkara. 
Dashoor. 
Lisht, . Meidun, Elahun. 

The Faioum. 
Sais, . Heliopolis, Tanis. 
Benihassan. 
El Amarna. 
This and Abydos. 
Thebes, Luxor, Karnak. 
Esneh, Eilithya, Silsilis. 

Philse. 

Abusimbel. 

Soleb, Barkal. 

Meroe, Sofia, Naga, etc. 

Any good map will show the generally increasing 
southern distance of each of these localities succes- 
sively; but only the Plates themselves will give a 
good idea of how, after the last rays of their meri- 
dian splendour at Thebes, the monuments further 
south become continually poorer, smaller, and even 
more decayed though more modern, especially at the 
last-named station in Ethiopia. 

But the next volume, or volume iii., begins the 



378 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



[DIV. III. 



real burden of Dr. Lepsius' great task, viz., the 
inscriptions on, and views of, the monuments them- 
selves. And how do they begin in his chronologi- 
cally arranged work ? 

Plate I., entitled fourth dynasty, contains first, 
a large-sized reproduction of the quarry-mark of 

j ^i^^^©^ Shofo, from Howard Vyse's chambers 
of construction in the Great Pyramid ; second, 
smaller copies of the quarry-marks of ^f?) 
and \^4-^^^Sy Nu-Shofo from the 

same place ; and, third, some indistinct markings 
from a Dashoor Pyramid. Plate ii., also entitled 
fourth dynasty, gives three tablets from Wadee Mag- 

hara, to ^ Sephuris, 

Nu-Shofo, and |^^^^ Shofo ; Howard Vyse's 

coffin-lid out of the third Pyramid with the oval of 

i Cu ^ Mencheres, and a door-ornament from 

Sakkara, now in the Berlin Museum. Then follow 
five plates of pictures and inscriptions inside tombs 
at Abooseer, and thirty-two plates of similar sub- 
jects from tombs about the Jeezeh Pyramids, all 
entitled of the fourth dynasty. These being fol- 
lowed by forty-four plates entitled of dynasty fifth, 
of which one is due to Wadee Maghara, sixteen to 
Sakkara, and twenty -seven to Jeezeh. 

Volume fourth represents further subjects of 



1 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



379 



dynasties fourth and fifth, in twenty-three plates, 
from tombs at Jeezeh and Sakkara ; then dynasty 
sixth, in thirteen plates, at Sauiet el Meitin, Hama- 
mat, Chenoboskion, etc. ; and then follow in this 
and the next volume dynasties eleventh, twelfth, 
and thirteenth, from a greatly increased variety of 
places, and with many new subjects. 

Men of the Fourth Dynasty, 

Before studying, therefore, these later periods, let 
us cast a glance on the men of the fourth and fifth 
dynasties, or those who were contemporary with the 
building of the Great Pyramid. 

On entering every tomb, we have these men 
before us immediately ; reddish-brown men, with 
long, and either straight or slightly aquiline curved 
noses, large and long eyes, and rather full lips. 
Their foreheads are probably low, certainly not 
notably high, but the rest of the cranium is a 
phrenological mystery, so completely is it hid in a 
thick, fuzzy, close-cropped, black, wig. 

The wig was a great institution in ancient Egypt, 
and dyed jet black, so that even with the most aged 
men, — and whose age is shown both by their leaning 
on a stafi", and having their poor naked breasts, and 
whole torso seamed with deep, ungainly, transverse 
wrinkles, — the blackness of the wig remains unim- 
paired. Other clothing is not very abundant. The 
princes issue forth to overlook their labourers with 
an awful baton of authority and chastisement in their 



380 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 



hands, but attired only in a short kilt — usually of 
white cloth — skate-like sandals, a blue and white 
necklace, and the wig ; on a few occasions a leopard's 
skin is worn over the shoulder. The overseers next 
in authority under them, and the succeeding grades 
of scribes and field-labourers, have only a piece of 
cloth about the waist, and not always that; no 
sandals, seldom a necklace, but always a wig. 

The women's wigs are larger than the men's, and 
arranged so as to be typical of long straight-flowing 
tresses, though rigorously confined to a definite 
length. The complexion of their skin is a yellowish 
pale olive ; and the costume, — varied only in the 
case of princesses over servants by necklaces, brace- 
lets, and anklets of blue and white glass beads, — 
consists of one long, close-fitting and enclosing 
garment of thin elastic material, like a guernsey 
jacket ; but extending from the ankles, upwards, to 
close under the breasts, whence two broad straps 
pass over the shoulders to support it. This envelope 
is brilliant scarlet in colour, has never a fold or 
wrinkle in all its length or breadth, and yet appears 
abundantly to allow of the separation of the feet in 
walking or dancing. 

Throughout the whole of the pictured scenes, 
there is not a single instance of a peasant enjoying, 
or working for, himself under his own vine and his 
own fig-tree ; no independent thought, or look, or 
action, on the part of poor men is allowed, but they 
are all in official training to serve the Prince of the 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



381 



time being ; and administration is the order of the 
day. The difference of dress described between 
prince and peasant, is an involuntary method to the 
artist of distinguishing rank ; but his intended method 
is there also, viz., superior size or scale. Hence, 
the owner of the tomb is a colossus standing the 
whole height of the wall ; which, in front of him is 
divided into six, eight, or more compartments, by 
horizontal lines, on the edge of each of which his 
servants are engaged on their various services. 

Ploughing — and sowing too, in so far as concerns 
covering up the seed thrown broadcast by hand, — 
seem both accomplished by driving flocks of sheep 
and goats over the lately inundated land ; reaping 
is performed with a sickle ; thrashing by driving 
herds of donkeys about a floor ; and winnowing with 
spades. But the agricultural operations are very 
scanty, compared to the pastoral. The sheep, indeed, 
long-legged things, with horizontal and mutually 
diverging horns,^ and the goats with venerable 
beards and lyre-shaped retreating horns, are not 
very numerous, — ^but the oxen and greater cattle are 
in exceeding abundance, of magnificent quality, and 
of a portliness which shows them rather intended 

^ We say sheep advisedly, although M. Renan writes there are no 
sheep. His account is otherwise good, — but for these very early ages 
only of Egypt, be it understood, — and stands thus : ' Amongst the 
* • number of domestic animals possessed by the deceased were, oxen, 

* donkeys, dogs, apes, antelopes, gazelles, geese, demoiselles de 

* " Numidiej" ducks, tame storks, and pigeons ; but one never sees there 

* either horses, camels, giraflFes, elephants, sheep (?), cats (?), or fowls.* 
— P. 669, Revue des Deux Mondes, April, 1865. 



382 LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [dIV. IIL 

for the butcher than the farmer; their horns are 
long, tall, and branching, and they, the animals, 
move about with a pompous sedateness possible only 
to enormous fat beasts, but with a regularity and 
order forming an instructive contrast to the donkeys 
which, — with how many men soever to beat them 
into shape, have their heads diverging to all points 
of the compass; and some of the group always 
giving tongue with might and main. 

Not a little remarkable also is it to see the many 
wild animals, tamed apparently, or undergoing a 
tentative process to that end ; there are in this con- 
dition the small gazelle, and some larger antelopes 
of the size of a half-grown heifer ; here with long 
straight, and there with exceeding curved, horns. 
Sometimes whole rows of these beautiful and power- 
ful animals, with collars round their necks, are 
brought up for the great man to inspect ; or for his 
scribes, with one pen behind their ears and another 
in their ready hands, to enter into the roll-list of his 
property. 

The hyaena is likewise often seen, and very tame ; 
for though he is led along by a string attached to a 
collar round his neck, the boy holding the string with 
one hand, is supporting something like a basket of 
crockery on his head with the other ; and while the 
collar does not fit tightly round the hyaena's neck, 
that neck is so thick and the head so small, that the 
animal could easily free himself, if he chose. But 
he does not choose, and occasionally may be seen 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



383 



quite unshackled ; while a boy behind tries, by rub- 
bing the end of his tail between his palms, to urge 
the — in these days most ill-tempered — beast, to 
attack some object in front, in which direction too, 
he is evidently pricking forward his ears. 

And this hysena is always a large one, drawn 
with admirable skill and knowledge of wherein the 
strength and better qualities, or rather efficiency, of 
a hyaena lie. There is no uncertainty with the artist, 
no rubbing out of lines, no confusing the anatomi- 
cal form with hair ; but you see a hyaena walking 
forth as nature originally made him, clean-limbed 
and powerful, adapted either for speed or strength ; 
neither over young nor over old ; over fat or over 
thin ; but just as the Great Creator had intended 
him to be in the plenitude of his life and powers. 

Social relations. 

Similar close observation of nature, combined with 
artistic skill, is shown in the representation of the 
birds innumerable, inhabiting the thickets of reeds 
bordering the Nile (or that once bordered it, for they 
have lamentably decreased since then, and all parts of 
the Nile which we chanced to strike on, in our own 
short experience of it, exhibited only clay banks) . Th e 
consternation, too, amongst the said birds, when the 
prince approaches in his papyrus raft to smite them ; 
or when his servitors spread large clap-nets for 
them ; and the similar confusion amongst the fishes 
when they are likewise netted, — all this is rendered 



384 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



admirably true to life, and fiill of motion and pur- 
pose. 

Yet even in these sporting scenes, despotic power 
is painfully manifest. There is a prince or two here 
and there, and all the rest of the people are working 
under or for him ; well looked after, but ignobly 
treated ; no labour-saving instruments are allowed, 
not even a handle to a hammer-head ; the wretched 
slave must make up for want of that mechanical 
appliance which would cost his lord money, by an 
extra exertion of his own muscles. Excellent pat- 
terns they had to work up to ; their chairs for in- 
stance being models of mechanical lightness and 
strength ; the two hind-legs curved like the hind- 
legs of some animals, and the two front ones like 
the fore-legs, — fastened on to the seat by a mortised 
joint, with an extraordinary length of bearing to 
give firmness, — and yet so introduced into the artis- 
tic expression, as not to take away from the light- 
some look of the whole ; but hardly any tools are 
seen about, and the polishing is executed with little 
stones held in the hand, or with the fingers them- 
selves and polishing-powder. The human material 
appears to be held at the cheapest possible rate, and 
to be used up for everything. The taskmasters, 
too, are always present, and the people kept in ex- 
cellent order by the same method that Chinese boat- 
men are said to manage their ducks ; viz., the duck 
which comes home not slowly, or absolutely late, 
but relatively last, is killed ; or the man whose work 
makes least show at the close of the day, is laid 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



385 



down on the ground, and bastinadoed by his fellow- 
slaves acting under orders. 

On stated occasions come feasts, for there are some 
respites to all slaves; but in ancient Egypt they were 
not * Saturnalia,' for the notion of law and order must 
never be interfered with there. So when this prince 
has been satisfied with the exhibition of his property- 
rolls, he seats himself like a god before a dinner- 
table ; which is thereupon piled up with slices of 
bread, and on the bread roast geese, joints of meat, 
etc. etc., are accumulated, while rows of oxen are 
turned heels over head, and slaughtered before him 
in the most approved manner ; ultimately, no doubt 
for the mass of the people ; but the joints must first 
be carried to the prince, as if for his use only. 

Nothing, too, can be done in these establishments 
on a small scale ; when milk is required, a whole tier, 
or perhaps two or three tiers, in the mural painting, 
of cows are being milked at once by as many well- 
trained, experienced milking-men ; and rows upon 
rows of both men and women servants come laden 
with provisions to the mighty presence, and servilely 
attend its nod. No idleness was there in the land of 
Egypt during the fourth dynasty ; something was 
found for every one to do ; and not even a cripple 
was safe from daily toil of some kind or another ; 
such objects being seen at work in the pictures, and 
having frequently the heartless and hopeless inscrip- 
tion over them, * Slaves born in the house, (regis- 
* tered) in the books of the house for ever.' 

VOL. III. 2 B 



386 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



This was the more public life, and in private it 
was just as unlovely. The father was a ruling 
despot in his family ; the wife, indeed, may by grace 
come up behind, and put her hand from a distance 
on his shoulder, — ^but the children are diminutive 
creatures, reminding one of mice more than human 
beings, and are low down on the ground below the 
level of the parents' knees. What they think or feel 
seems to matter little indeed to the lord their father ; 
who is ever looking straight before him to the ad- 
ministration alone of the affairs of his many estates. 

Many estates, for sometimes ten or fifteen are 
expressly mentioned in the hieroglyphics ; each with 
a name and usually a notice describing by, or under, 
which king the included land had been reclaimed 
from the desert. This is an important element in 
the history of the times ; indicating strongly that 
Egypt was then a new country, with its kings, 
nobles, peasants, and all its inhabitants strenuously 
engaged in rendering the ground amenable to cul- 
ture and suitable to raising food for man. 

Reported Engineering of Nile Banks. 

We are thereby, too, brought into contact with the 
tradition related by Herodotus, that Menes, the first 
king of Manetho's first dynasty (the king therefore 
with whom almost every writer begins the acknow- 
ledged history of Egypt, — though there is not a scrap 
or a vestige of any contemporary monument, belong- 
ing either to him or any of his reported successors 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 387 

for many generations, still existing), — that this king 
Menes was the first to cross over from the eastern to 
the western bank of the Nile ; and there to found the 
city of Memphis, after executing certain important 
hydraulic works, whose nature has been much dis- 
puted. Menes met the Nile, near the subsequent 
site of Memphis, flowing along on the western side 
of the Egyptian valley close under the Libyan 
mountains, says Bunsen, with some assistance from 
Wilkinson ; wherefore he, Menes, executed certain 
considerable works at a place now called Kafr-e- 
Zyat, some miles above Memphis, — and thereby 
turned the river into a new channel cut along the 
centre of the valley, and then obtained the * beautiful 
' lowland of the former side-channel, which was so 
* well adapted for the site of a great metropolis! 

With all respect for Chevalier Bunsen, we cannot 
see the sense of the object thus described ; for there 
was no gain of increased extent to the cultivateable 
land of the Egyptian valley, but merely a change of 
the stream's place therein. And we doubt whether 
the locality of the river's late bed, ' beautiful low- 
land^ though it be called by a closet-philosopher, 
could have been well adapted for founding a city in, 
— unless the chief object were to expose the inhabi- 
tants to the imminent peril of drowning at every 
annual inundation ; especially as we see now that 
towns and villages in Egypt are by preference built 
on elevated ground. There was a theory too, first 
started by M. Andreossy and the French savants of 



388 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. IIL 



1799, to the effect that the Nile flowed anciently 
westward to the sea from, or behind, the Pyramid 
mountains to Bah-bela-ma (stream without water) 
and the Natron lakes ; these being notable depres- 
sions still observable in the Libyan desert ; and that 
Menes prevented this divergence of the water. Btit 
Chevalier Bunsen treats the statement as a specula- 
tion merely, and as referring to something geological, 
mythological, and absurd ; whereas his own version 
is ' a historical work of a historical king.' 

Again, however, we must differ, as indeed Mr. 
Osburn has also done before us, from the eminent 
philological critic. His asserted historical work has 
no contemporary monument to confirm, and has 
common sense against it. While, on the other side, 
there are the natural facts, that the long valley of 
the Natron lakes is, according to Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson, more than fifty feet below the level of the 
Nile-bank on their latitude parallel ;^ and though 
nearly thirty miles therefrom in a direct line, yet 
experiences an annual rise and fall of the water in 
these lakes, dependent apparently upon the infiltra- 
tion of the Nile inundation through the strata of 
the intervening hills, — a slow process, occupying 
three months of time, or causing the lakes to be that 
length of time behind the river. (See Plate xi.) 

^ * According to a rough observation, I calculate the bank of the 

* Nile at Teranek to be about fifty-eight feet above the valley of 

* Zakeek, or eighty-six feet above the surface of the Natron lakes.' — 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Murray's Handbook for Egypt, p. 226. London, 
1858. 



Ynl III. 




Lonqifu<^4>y East frorru Gre4>^uvirJiy. 



PI. II 



Lon^i/u^e/ £a^f from Gre4>^2Avichy. 
30' JJ" 32' 33° 3^' 



m?7 




Egypt, 
is:" Dynasty, 

or UOO^ ^ 1300 B. C. of 
Or. Pyram^, oJtiL oiJLe.r 

"wM/ sem^y rnod^ny nanus of 



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30" . 3r 32" 33' 3^ 

loTvcfitu^e/ ^cLstj fromj Oreenwichj. 



25 



24^ 



W H M= T&TiiTie.luW Edui* 



1 



it 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



389 



Some of the Nile water, then, even yet escapes 
towards the westward ; and vastly more would do 
so, and go to waste, if there were any direct opening 
through the river's western bank, as far as these un- 
doubtedly low tracts of the Libyan desert. If there 
ever was such an opening, the sooner the first colo- 
nists got it closed up the better, and preserved the 
precious water for irrigating the Delta. Such a 
work may have been executed, and would now be 
buried hill-deep under the drifted sand of the desert, 
but we cannot be certain of it. Neither is there any 
absolute necessity to suppose, that there ever was a 
plain mechanical hole in the western bank, to be 
simply filled up ; for quite enough cause would it be, 
for a westward extravasation of the water, that the 
river should flow for some distance, as described in 
the tradition, along * close under the Libyan moun- 
tains.' Because, seeing that they are composed of 
limestone with a large proportion of salt^ nothing is 
more probable than that the water would work its 
way through them in course of time to the deeper 
hollow beyond. In fact, that would be the case still, 
did not the river now pass along the middle of the 
valley, and ' puddle,' or render nearly waterproof, its 
own bed by its successive yearly deposits of plastic 
pot-clay, which is the real characteristic of the much- 
vaunted fertilizing mud of the Nile. (See vol. i. 
p. 46.) 

Now, then, we may appreciate the object of 
Menes, or any other early king-colonist, in removing 



390 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



the flow of the river from the very hygrometric 
border of the salt-engrained Libyan desert, into the 
middle of the retentive clay valley leading on 
towards the flat and sweet land of the Delta ; and 
there can be no doubt at all, that before his time, 
or that referred to by tradition, both the Delta was? 
less watered than it is now, and the Natron lakes 
and Bah-bela-ma much more so. In fact, they 
must have been extensive, and perhaps pestilential, 
swamps, — over whose waters the sun, as seen from 
the Memphian hills, daily went down to his rest ; 
and on the borders of which the white egrets stood 
pensively silent, giving rise amongst inventive minds 
to the notion of their being the souls of the dead, 
waiting in that submissive shape for the sacred boat 
to convey them to the same western and lower land 
to which the sun had just descended before them. 

Almost in any way we may thus see, that an 
enormous engineering work of immediate practical 
utility, and even pressing necessity, — occupied the 
first energies of the Egyptian colonists; and the 
tombs tell the praises of every subsequent king who 
by his dykes, ditches, and other appliances brought 
more and more of the present land of Egypt under 
the control of cultivation. But the moment that 
the ending of the first great occupation had freed 
the labour of the mass of the community, and while 
the subsequent small improvements were still going 
on, — the building of the Pyramids began ; those 
strange and still incomprehensible monuments. 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 



391 



Of the Pyramids and their Kings. 

Strange and incomprehensible, in spite of all the 
explanations yet given by hierologists ; for, allow 
them to have been built, agreeably to Lepsius, 
Bunsen, Osburn, and any other hierologist whatever, 
for kings' tombs, — and allow even to Chevalier Bun- 
sen in particular, that ' no rational being ought ever 
* to have entertained the slightest doubt upon that 
' head,' — still why were they, as tombs, constructed 
long before the day of burial, of that peculiar shape ; 
why so very large and solid ; and why so entirely 
undecorated, — when the idea of noble entombment 
carried on by the princes and people round about 
the precincts of any Pyramid at the very time of its 
building, went so entirely towards superabundance 
of ornament, and making 'a good house'? 

These questions have never been answered with 
a successful interpretation of practical details by 
any hierologist ; and we can only remind, towards 
their possible future clearing up, that the origin of 
the Pyramids is to be looked for in the very begin- 
ning of the Egyptian nation ; not only because the 
largest, best, and purest, or the Great Pyramid of 
Jeezeh, is almost, if not absolutely, the earliest of 
them all ; but because the idea died out both as to 
the pyramidal form and simplicity of internal archi- 
tecture of a king's tomb, before the Egyptian 
monarchy had run through one-third of its course. 



Even in the time of King Mencheres, 




392 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



(placed by Lepsius in dynasty fourth, after Nu-Shofo, 
but with more probability by Osburn in dynasty 
fifth), great size was no longer thought necessary to 
a Pyramid, the attraction of colour having then be- 
come the chief point outside ; while inside, the 
sarcophagus shone a perfect marvel of ornamental 
carving. After his, Mencheres', day again, pyramids 
were built smaller still, until at last abandoned alto- 
gether ; the apprehended necessity for the use, or ap- 
preciation of the virtue, of their peculiar form having 
gradually died away completely out of men's minds. 

Wherein then lay the need for building the Great 
Pyramid so tall, so broad, so heavy, so firm, even as 
a mountain ? We are entirely unaware of any 
attempt at a hierological solution of this question, 
save the suggestion of W. Osburn,— that * Shofo 
' and his subjects may have been haunted with the 
' recollections of another great tower, which had 

* exercised an important function on the destinies 
' of the whole human race ; that thence the idea 

* originated in the mind of Shofo, and thence came 

* the motives which awed his subjects into submis- 

* sion to his tyranny.' 

We do not intend now to consider any of the 
peculiar proportions, chiefly of originally hidden 
features, by which the Great Pyramid differed 
from other p3rramids, — but only those more external 
appearances which it had in common with them. 
Similarly too of King Shofo, we shall now discuss only 
what characteristics he possessed in common with 



.a 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 393 



other kings of his race ; and in this broad view have 
to consider a fact, which Mr. Osburn brings to light 
from the hieroglyphics ; viz., that some, not all, of 
the ancient kings were worshipped as gods after 
their death, — many and many a private man an- 
nouncing himself to be ' priest to King Shofo' in 
the Great, or ' to King Shafre' in the second, 
Pyramid ; the worship being conducted outside 
either Pyramid, but directed towards the late king 
as though he were tenanting the interior as God. 
Now, as Mr. Osburn has well remarked, * the first 

* settler in Egypt, notwithstanding his accomplish- 
' ments, — a proficient in architecture, masonry, and 

* sculpture, with the skill to plan, the courage to 

* undertake, and the perseverance to accomplish, the 

* mightiest works of engineering, — was yet a slave 
' to the fear of the supernatural. This impression, 

* call it religion or superstition (the name is unim- 

* portant), assuredly was upon his spirit, and he 

* grovelled in the dust beneath it. In his abject 

* slavish terror of the gods, he fenced in what he 

* conceived to be their privileges with stringent and 

* rigid laws.' In subsequent times these reserva- 
tions extended, indeed, to many puerilities ; but in 
the earlier days, as Strabo duly records, there were 
temples in Egypt erected to God, without pictures 
and without images in them, — in accordance appa- 
rently to an impression strong in primitive man, as 
to the sin of endeavouring to materially represent 
the unrepresentable Deity. And when one of these 



394 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



temples was uncovered recently, viz., King Shafre's, 
near the Sphinx, behold it built without ornament, 
having smooth square pillars, square beams, and flat 
walls, but no carving and no painting. 

Hence the undecorated interior of the ancient 
Pyramids we may regard as consequent on the 
deification of the king there entombed.^ All the 
earlier gods of Egypt too, maintains W. Osburn, 
were dead men ; Osiris was Mizraim, the chief of 
the clan who marched westward from Babel, carry- 
ing with them as a tradition the worship of the 
setting sun. Mizraim reached the banks of the 
Nile, founded the city afterwards called Heliopolis, 
and finally died, and was deified at Busiris in the 
Delta. His name signifies *two cities or strong- 

* holds and was adopted as a special designation 
for his descendants, as soon as either Menes, ovsome 
predecessor of Shofo, crossed the Nile and founded a 
new city on the western bank, in opposition to the 
older one on the eastern side of the river. This dis- 
tinction went on continually growing, — as one city 
pushed its improvements upwards into the longitu- 
dinal valley, and the other downwards across the 
broad Delta, — until it ripened into the historic oppo- 
sition of Upper and Lower Egypt, with their two 
distinct crowns, and hieroglyphic royal ovals always 
written in duplicate. 

^ ' The Great Pyramid with its precinct, was dedicated to the wor- 
' ship of Shofo after his burial. It is repeatedly named " the great 

♦ " temple of Shofo.'' ' — W. Osburn's Egypt, vol. i. p. 278. 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 395 

Every succeeding Memphite king to Shofo, 
seemed to press further and further up the Nile, 
and build a new city in the richer alluvial there to 
be found. Such city was then forthwith presented 
with a severed limb of the deceased Egyptian patri- 
arch Mizraim, dismembered for the purpose at 
Busiris ; and it also provided itself with a local god, 
whose continual presence was assured for the pro- 
tection of the citizens, through adoption of the 
gross symbolism of a living animal. The celebrated 
royal proclamation said by Manetho to have been 
issued in the second dynasty, assigning the hull 
Apis to Memphis, the bull Menevis to Heliopolis, 
and a goat to the city of Mendes, being only a small 
beginning of the dreadful religious leprosy which 
afterwards spread over the whole land. 

To Mencheres, however, is attributed by Mr. 
Osburn the foresight to perceive, soon after he had 
founded the city of Abydos, that this completely 
free trade in the raising up of gods, was leading to 
a rapid disintegration of interests amongst the now 
numerous cities of Egypt ; wherefore, he both 
elevated the priests into a peculiar institution, 
and set on foot efforts to make Mizraim or Osiris 
the god of all Egypt. Hence, as a beginning, he 
proceeded to gather up the severed limbs of the 
patriarch from every city to which they had been 
distributed. But from this arose, — for each city 
tried stoutly to keep its own relic of their common 
progenitor, — a long series of internecine wars, 



396 



LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 



which have caused the dynasties from the sixth, to 
the eleventh, to be without names in Manetho, and 
without monuments in Egypt. The Mencherian 
faction, however, conquered at length ; the priest- 
hood became powerful, dominated in the temples, 
wrote the only permitted history of the country, 
denounced their late opponents, and praised up 
Mencheres far above any other sovereign, either 
before or since his time. 

The details of all these points, and their explana- 
tion of the priestly inventions of the fable of Osiris 
and Typhon, Isis and Osiris, and their son Horus 
(who was Mencheres himself, after he, Mencheres, 
had manufactured Isis by splitting the figure of 
Osiris in two, and then declaring that the chief god 
of Egypt was married), these things, we say, should 
rather be studied in W. Osburn and other special 
writers. Here, we have only to deal with the 
general result ; or that, with whatever number of 
gods the early Egyptians supplied themselves, they 
were never at ease. Not indeed that they were 
grieved at, or troubled with, the thought of being 
sinners, — for they were on the contrary for ever 
declaring themselves to be perfectly 'pure,' and 
free from every kind of sin, the least as well as the 
greatest ; but they seemed to fancy themselves 
tyrannized over by a supreme Deity, and therefore 
turned round, and in their boasted purity of both 
heart and soul, tyrannized in turn over their fellow- 
men, — until Egypt * became then, what it has 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 397 

* always been since, the house of bondage to the 

* human race/ 

Conclusion of the Old Empire, 

Towards the end of the eleventh dynasty, with 
which Manetho terminates his first volume, and in 
the time of Kings Acthoes and Amenemes, Egypt 
was visited by the patriarch Abraham ; and, if we 
may trust Josephus, expressly to commune with the 
priests in a friendly spirit on their unhappy religious 
behefs. The Bible indeed gives no such particulars, 
but does not say anything against them, while it 
indicates that Abraham was in the country a long 
time, sufficiently long too for such a purpose. 
Nevertheless we presume that little faith is to be 
placed in Josephus's account, unless confirmed by 
the monuments. Something however of that sort 
appears really to be the case ; for the sacred patri- 
arch is likewise said in the same passage * to have 
' taught the Egyptians arithmetic, and to have com- 
' municated to them the science of astronomy as it 
' had then lately been built up in Chaldsea.' In 
accordance with which, Mr. Osburn finds ever after 
that date, what he never met in times before, viz., 
the year of the king s reign always introduced in 
hieroglyphics. He believes too, that that method 
was induced in great part from the exactness with 
which the Chaldsean astronomy, imported into 
Egypt by Abraham, showed the true length of the 
year as measured in days easily counted. 



398 LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

Hence, no doubt, the simplification of the Egyp- 
tian calendar ; for from King Shofo of the fourth 
dynasty, or even from King Menes, if ever there 
was such an individual, down to King Acthoes of 
the eleventh dynasty, the Egyptian reckoning of 
time is said to have been almost entirely lunar, and 
based on two traditions brought with them by the 
Mizraites, on first colonizing the Nile valley. The 
fiLTst tradition being to the effect that twelve lunar 
months proximately made a year ; and the second, 
that the moon immediately after Sirius had been seen 
to rise cosmically, ought to be held the first moon in 
the year ; whence sometimes thirteen lunar months 
in their calendar year. Each year further began 
with a full moon ; from which phase to the crescent 
of the old moon, ten days ; then from that to the 
crescent of the new moon, ten days ; and from that 
to full moon again, ten days nearly, making up three 
of the old Egyptian decadal weeks of ten days each. 

Thus have we followed the stream of Egyptian 
life, by its contemporaneous monumental traces, from 
its earliest known remains in the fourth dynasty 
down to the eleventh ; or from the year of 2170 B.C. 
(perhaps 2200 B.C.) to 1959 B.C., according to the 
dates of the Great Pyramid and W. Osburn ; and 
have thereby reached the world-known name of the 
patriarch Abraham, — but have touched, as yet, on 
no independently settled and generally received 
chronology, and nothing that can be called history. 
We are still indeed in a manner high above the strata 



CHAP, v.] LIFE UNDER THE OLD EMPIRE. 399 

of clouds which keep the solid material earth of true 
historical times from our view ; we are still in prim- 
eval ages, whereof the only human contemporary- 
chronicles are the Egyptian ; and those, imperfect, 
and very variously interpreted by different modern 
authorities. Wherefore, though we have with little 
doubt passed through the age of the chief Pyramid- 
builders, — it is incumbent on us to pursue the course 
of their successors still further down the stream of 
time, — until we have connected them with general 
documentary history ; or seen them arrived amongst 
events which all nations acknowledge, and upon 
times where no schools of chronologists have any 
sensible differences. 



CHAPTER VI. 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 

Although several modern authors of repute in- 
clude in their systems the twelfth Egyptian 
dynasty, as forming part of * the old Empire/ whose 
limits they have concluded upon rather arbitrarily, 
— ^we may do better, with William Osburn, in 
attending to the broad line of separation which 
Manetho himself established between the eleventh 
and twelfth dynasties, or the distinction between 
his first and second books. Especially, too, may we 
do so, when that line is confirmed in a substantive 
manner by the monuments. 

These authentic testimonies, without doubt, speak 
of an unusually prosperous period for the twelfth 
d3niasty, testifying to union, numbers, and wealth 
such as had never before been seen ; and the occur- 
rence of which is looked on by the author of the 
Monumental History of Egypt, as the legitimate 
and to-be-expected result of the conclusion of the 
long series of Mencherian wars, — terminated as they 
had at last been by the positive triumph of one 
party, and its complete domination over all who 
had once offended them. 



CHAP. VI.] UFR UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



401 



Neither was it a mere continuation or even 
augmentation of the scale of their former life which 
Egyptians now experienced ; for partly owing to 
increased wealth, and partly to the more complete 
establishment of the priesthood, — a certain amount 
of slow change in kind or quality did also take 
place amongst this people. And it told by degrees 
on their manners and customs, though as a nation 
they have been accounted by most writers the 
slowest of the slow — the Chinese of the earlier ages 
of the world ; or, as M. Renan is pleased in fiction 
to make them out, the close representatives of the 
dull and unimprovable English, — while his own 
countrymen are the very opposite, and mirror 
exactly the intellectual ancient Greeks, whose land 
was the glorious mother of everything noble, 
spirituelley and elevating to the soul of humanity. 

In accordance with the general geographical direc- 
tion of early Eg3^tian colonization, the monuments 
of the twelfth dynasty are found further, or more 
southward, up the valley, than those we have hitherto 
been considering. Some points in Lower Egypt were 
still retained possession of, and adorned with costly 
buildings, as the celebrated obelisk yet standing at 
Heliopolis sufficiently proves. But engineering 
works in the Faioum for irrigating that now most 
fertile province of all Egypt, — followed by the build- 
ing of the extensive halls of the Labyrinth, with an 
appended Pyramid of no mean size, — though com- 
posed of crude brick, and cased only with stone, 

VOL. III. 2 c 



402 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 

— chiefly occupied the attention of successive 
monarchs. Together with these material works, 
however, there was a new and more elaborate 
organization of the religion instituted, and an 
ordering of the burial rites of the whole country, 
on the Mencherian model ; or that of generlal sub- 
servience to Osiris as the chief god of Egypt, and 
to Abydos, his now supposed final and complete 
resting-place, as the holy city of burial for all the 
land. 

Of the inner life of Egypt during this period, we 
have abundant particulars in the unequalled range 
of tombs in the cliffs of Benihassan. There, in 
noble halls hewn out of the solid rock, with their 
roofs supported on fluted pillared columns, the very 
prototype of the long- subsequent Doric, are paint- 
ings innumerable of almost every art, trade, or 
amusement ever carried on by any and every branch 
of the people. * Egypt of the twelfth dynasty, 
* caught in the very fact,' writes M. Eenan. 

The actors therein are still, in their leading 
characteristics, the same people as, or the literal de- 
scendants of, the fourth dynasty. All the occupa- 
tions, manners, or customs represented of old in the 
tombs around the Great Pyramid, are repeated in 
those of Benihassan; there are the same toiling 
multitudes, the same official system of scribes, over- 
seers, and taskmasters, and the same feasting accord- 
ing to order. Something, indeed, of the gloomy 
sameness is gone ; manufactures now compete with 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 403 

agricultural operations, the plough drawn by oxen 
dispenses with many sheep treading the seed into 
the soft mud ; the cultivation of the vine and the 
process of wine-making, diversify the scenes ; flax 
may be traced through its several stages, — men 
reaping it in the fields, and women weaving its 
fibres indoors. But there sits the great man still in 
colossal grandeur and unbending severity, overlook- 
ing the busy hive, every one of whose human bees 
is working for his benefit. And he still enjoys 
his field-sports much as his ancestors did before him, 
but with a variation ; for now the ropes of the clap- 
nets are led by ingenious devices to his hands, as he 
sits far away on an easy-chair, so that he may have 
the honour, by giving a little pull to the trigger, of 
appearing to have caught all the birds himself. Or 
if his designs are against four-footed game, as the 
graceful antelopes of the desert, — no longer content 
with taking them alive and taming them, — he pursues 
them now cruelly, both tearing them with dogs and 
transfixing them with long arrows ; — whence some 
most touching pictures of a poor gazelle turning 
round in pain to lick the place where one of these 
darts is standing in its flesh, and even protruding 
through the opposite side of its body ; or another 
that has fallen lifeless on its tender offspring. 

Very great lords were still the many chiefs who 
ruled over the people, under the king ; one of them 
records his estates and privileges ; first the range of 
the eastern desert and its oasis, for his antelope- 



404 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

hunting; and of the 'hinder or nether pools' for 
liis bird-catching ; second, * the land of Eaophis/ or 
a tract near the mouth of the Faioum, and ' a sluice 

* in the eastern bank of the canaF to water it ; third, 
the land of the Hawk mountain, and another sluice 
from the canal of the Faioum ; fourth, the land of 
the * two streams,' or a narrow strip of ground be- 
tween the canal and the Nile, together with a license 
for enlarging the sluices both from the canal and 
the Nile, so as to irrigate the fields to that extent 

* prescribed in the sacred book for the growth of 

* the plant asut ; and the fifth, ' the land of the 

* hare,' with a permit to construct two sluices on the 
Nile. 

But this chief is described as holding honourable 
ofiices both in church and state; being, ^r^^, 'the 

* custos of the divine stable of the sacred bull ;' 
second, the constable of the palace of the King 
Amenemes ; and third, * steward of the land-tax for 

* the support of the schools of the sons of the kings 

* of Lower Egypt.' 

Another chief, who has been an extensive ad- 
ministrator, recites his own praises ; for in these 
tombs, inscribed as well as painted, ' the dead,' as 
M. Kenan well remarks, 'lifts up his voice and 
' relates his life.' ' All the lands under me,' says 
the prefect, * were ploughed and sown from north 
' to south ; nothing was ever stolen out of my work- 
' shops ; never was a child aifflicted, never a widow 
' ill-treated by me. I have given equally to the 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIKE. 405 

* widow and the married woman ; and I have not 

* preferred the great to the small in the judgments 

* which I have pronounced/ 

In these tombs of the twelfth dynasty, too, the 
military element begins to appear ; and in vaults 
beneath some of them, and not yet discovered, are 
deposited the mummies, so the hieroglyphics tell us, 
of many hundred soldiers who had fallen in the 
wars of King Sesortosis against the black Cushites 
in Nubia. Prisoners, moreover, are brought back 
from those campaigns, — and account for the negro 
slaves now occasionally seen in the great man's 
household ; while under previous dynasties, we had 
met with no closer acquaintance with southern lands 
than the unpacking of a box containing elephants' 
tusks. At the same time, however, other personages 
now appear on the scene, sometimes singly, some- 
times in gi'oups ; men of aquiline features, brighter 
colour than, and different dress from, the Egyptians ; 
immigrants from Arabia and Palestine. 

The most celebrated pictured group of them is 
that which, in spite of the time being too early, and 
the hieroglyphics telling a perfectly contrary story, 
has often been alluded to as 'probably representing 

* the arrival of Jacob with his family, and their 

* presentation to Pharaoh.' But now, after they 
have been called Greeks, Hebrews, Beni-Israel, and 
many other names, Mr. Osburn reads their title as 
— a group of thirty-seven Jebusites, purchased for 
slaves from one of the petty kings of the Jebusites, 



406 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

and presented by the chief Nuliophtis to King 
Sesortosis ii. in the sixth year of his reign, on ac- 
count of their skill in preparing stibium ; a black 
powder produced from antimony, and used profusely 
throughout ancient Egypt as a cosmetic. It ' was 
' applied between the eyelids, by means of a bodkin, 
' as in modern Egypt ; the eyebrows also were filled 

* with it, and broad lines were painted with it under 

* the eyes. The use of it in ancient Egypt seems 

* to have been absolutely universal, and by both 

* sexes ; so that the labours of these slaves would be 

* largely in requisition for the preparation of this 

* doubtless royal monopoly.' 

Invasion of the Hyhsos. 

And so they, the triumphant sect of Mencherian 
Egyptian religionists, went on dyeing their wigs 
and painting their eyebrows, extending their palaces, 
and oppressing their slaves, — until suddenly the fatal 
day arrived, and in a moment King Amenemes the 
Third, the Amun Timaeus of Greek historical legend, 
was driven forth from his halls of granite, and 
porticos of so-called white marble in his Labyrinth, 
the wonder of the world ; while his kingdom disap- 
peared like chaff, before the sudden irruption of the 
terrible Hyksos, the Eastern Shepherd Kings. So 
at least say the Greek accounts ; and they are not 
altogether without a foundation ; though it be 
lamentably deep and far to find, by reason of its 
resting on tales derived without critical analysis 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 407 

from the one-sided, partial history written by the 
finally dominant faction, and recorded in state 
temples. 

A terrible dislocation occurred, no doubt, about 
that time in the Egyptian annals ; for, from the 
thirteenth to the seventeenth dynasty inclusive, 
there are few if any kings' names recorded with 
certainty by the annalists ; there is scarcely a con- 
temporary monument to be found ; and this period 
of triumphant, as well as destructive, barbarism, is 
said to have lasted for two thousand years by some, 
and a thousand years by other, hierologist authors. 
The latter duration is assumed by Bunsen, who 
agrees with many German writers, in calling the 
period by the name of the 'Middle Kingdom \ and 
painting it as something entirely different from the 
Old Kingdom which preceded, and the New Kingdom 
which followed with the advent of the eighteenth 
dynasty. 

But here steps in William Osburn, with most im- 
portant aid from his minutely critical study of such 
fragments of hieroglyphics as some of the tombs of 
the period have lately yielded up ; and he shows, 
that the whole interval between the twelfth and 
eighteenth dynasties, did not exceed some two 
hundred years ; and that the thread of Egyptian 
public life was never broken, or the current of 
Egyptian liistory brought to a stand during that 
time. True, the nation had to pass through some ex- 
traordinarily severe trials ; but they were the very 



408 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



results of the working of the Egyptian social and 
religious principle ; which went on developing in 
its appointed channels, until it finally produced 
such fruit as it was capable of affording, or natur- 
ally ought to bear, in the much-lauded glories and 
sinful culminations of the nineteenth dynasty. 

But was there no invasion then, do our readers 
ask, by the historical Shepherd Kings ? that nation 
of Hyksos coming, as we have hitherto been taught, 
from no one knew whence, conquering by the breath 
of their mouth, and vanishing again as mysteriously 
into nothingness ; while Egypt, after suffering the 
terrific incubus for a thousand years, re-awoke to go 
on with its life and mission in the world, exactly at 
the place where it had previously sunk — in a sleep 
far longer than that of the seven sleepers of ancient 
Ephesus — under the feet of destroying conquerors ? 

Some of these questions, on common-sense prin- 
ciples, answer themselves ; but to others, Mr. Osburn 
replies, in utter antagonism to some ancient and 
hitherto credited traditions, — * Hyksos,' as a mon- 
archy acting for and by themselves, there were 
none ; but Hyksos, as Shepherd tribes, rangers of the 
desert, bands of mountaineers from various regions, 
entering Egypt by the Isthmus of Suez as travellers, 
or settling as immigrants, and attaching themselves 
to, and sometimes considerably acting upon, the 
nearest government there for the time being, — of 
these Hyksos there were many. There always were, 
too, from the time that the renowned fertility and 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



409 



vast extent of cultivatcable land in Egypt, made 
immigration in that direction as favourite a project 
to the starving poor of surrounding countries, in 
and about the year 2000 B.C., — as are the United 
States of America in a.d. 1866, to all who find the 
Old World narrow and overstocked. 

The shepherd Philitis, — who, according to one 
tradition, fed his flocks near the Great Pyramid 
during the time of that marvellous structure being 
in progress of erection under King Shofo ; and, 
according to another tradition, was himself the 
builder, — is an example of one, or rather of a whole 
tribe, of the generic Hyksos ; though at a date long 
before the historically famous and yet not literally 
exact, ' invasions of the Shepherds,' and * Shepherd 
' dynasties.'^ These, however, whether real or ficti- 
tious, but as assigned to the later time, are all we 
have to deal with now ; and shall find, through 
William Osburn, that while the Mencherian twelfth 
dynasty was enjoying its late victories in fancied 
security in Upper Egypt, — the remnants of a de- 
feated dynasty had retreated to the swamps of the 
Delta. There they nursed their enmities on the 

* In deciding whether the historical Hyksos could have been con- 
nected with the building of the Great Pyramid, care must be taken, if 
the method of absolute dates be employed, not to mix up the state- 
ments of different systems. For their absolute chronologies have 
vastly larger errors, and variations from each other, — than have their 
relative chronologies. 

All the systems, for instance, place the fourth Pyramid-building 
dynasty, relatively before the fifteenth Hyksos. But Bunsen's absolute 
date for the latter is 2547 B.C., while Osburn's for the former is only 
2200 B.C., and that is nearly the true astronomical date also. 



410 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

thoughts of their plundered Busirides (or special 
places of sepulture ; where they had duly deposited, 
and whence the Mencherians had violently taken 
away, their inherited relics of the body of Mizraim 
Osiris, the common progenitor) ; and continually in- 
creased their numbers with immigrating Palestinian 
hordes ; until, feeling their strength, and watching 
the right moment, they advanced under their chief 
Saites, and took possession of the royal city of Mem- 

* phis. It was an act of vengeance,' writes Osburn, 

* in which aU Lower Egypt joined, against the re- 

* presentatives of those who had profaned their local 

* gods, and outraged their sense of religion. Such 

* we have found, and shaU find to be the characteristic 

* of all the wars of ancient Egypt \ viz., internal 
wars between rival pretensions, and opposite re- 
ligious beliefs, though intensely idolatrous always. 

Soon after this event. Queen Skeniophris, the suc- 
cessor of King Amenemes, was driven out of the 
Faioum and of all Middle Egypt, and her descend- 
ants only just continued to exist in distant southern 
regions beyond Thebes, for some generations, as the 
obscure thirteenth dynasty. 

The Joseph Period. 

In the meanwhile a strong government had evi- 
dently been formed in Lower Egypt, having Mem- 
phis for its capital ; where, third of the so called 
Hyksos line, ascended the throne Phiops, Aphophis, 
or Apappus, a venerable character, who is said to 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 411 

have been endued with the sovereignty in child- 
hood, and to have retained it for nearly one hun- 
dred years. In his reign, if some annalists tell truly, 
came Joseph as a slave into Egypt ; and then fol- 
lowed those scriptural seven years of plenty and 
seven of famine, whose effects, though general over 
a large part of the earth's surface, were specially 
pointed and intensified for Eg3rpt, by the formation, 
— at the beginning of the plentiful period, — of an 
opening in the north bank of the great Ethiopian 
lake ; a thing which tradition had often indistinctly 
hinted at, but only the researches of Lepsius and 
Gardner Wilkinson at the place, have recently set 
in a clear and understandable light. (See Plate xi.) 

That the southern barrier of this lake was at 
Silsilis, and that its water extended, at least during 
the inundation^ backwards through Nubia and ' the 
' plains of Ethiopia,' — seems to be abundantly proved 
by all these regions being coated, at a height far 
above the highest modern inundation-level, by an 
alluvial deposit which ends northwards at Silsilis.^ 
The hieroglyphic inscriptions also on the rocks at 
Senneh, and elsewhere in the south, attest a sudden 
and permanent lowering of the water-level in all 
these parts — by more than twenty-seven feet — to have 
taken place after the reign of the fourth king of the 
thirteenth dynasty, and before the beginning of the 
eighteenth, — or in what may be fairly taken as the 

^ See Sir Gardner Wilkiusou, in Murray's Hand-Booh to E(jypt^ 
p. 429. 



412 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



age of Apliophis. On these points all seem agreed ; 
though they do not all consent to the effect of the 
barrier at Silsilis, when unbroken, having been a 
'permanent Ethiopian lake. Even supposing it, 
however, to have been only an extension of the 
inundation-surface, — still an extension so vast as ' 
that must have been, and in position, above Egypt, 
must have had to a great degree a lake-efifect : i.e., in 
tending powerfully both to equalize throughout the 
year the overflow of the Nile in Egypt Proper ; and 
to relieve much of the excessive labour of the 
peasants, as obligatory on them ever since, at low 
Nile, in pumping up the water for irrigation pur- 
poses, by sheer manual labour. 

While, if we allow W. Osburn's fuller hypothesis 
of a more nearly permanent lake ; then, when such 
lake was emptying itself slowly through the fractured 
or wearing northern barrier, — the extra supply of 
water yielded thereby in the lower valleys, produced 
the years of plenty : and when all the accumulated 
stock of long-pent-up water was gone, and each new 
inundation from the equator, — weakened, too, by the 
rainless times of the general famine in most lands, — 
had to diffuse itself amongst the gaping mud-crevasses 
of the late lake-bottom of 100,000 square miles of 
surface, — then came those trying years of scarcity ; 
a calamity which in Egypt depends not so much, if 
at all, on rain or no rain there, but upon a scanty inun- 
dation, and the river being low down in its bed. With 
th-ese times of scarcity, too, were instituted, for the 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 413 

people of Egypt, Joseph's new regulations of land- 
tenure and sovereign monopoly, which almost revo- 
lutionized the condition of society. And came 
therein also, within the precincts of the well-govei*ned 
land, the whole family of Jacob, the embryo nation 
of Israel, to be nourished for a season, — and also 
to be put through a very useful course of appren- 
ticeship to the practical arts, most necessary to 
the full education of a tribe of shepherd and tent- 
dwelling people, — before being sent out to live its 
completer life, and perform its grandly appointed 
part in the open world. 

Egyptian evidences of these things, whether in 
monument or story, seem to be numerous and dis- 
tinct enough, for all authors are agreed on the reality 
of the main facts, and diflfer only in detail and ideas 
of causation. Thus, Mr. Osburn attributes the ex- 
traordinary wisdom of Joseph's measures as Prime 
Minister of Egypt, to Divine inspiration ; and is 
never tired of showing the perfect application of 
every unusual Hebrew word employed in the Scrip- 
tures, when describing the sojourn, to some reality 
in the life or language of Egypt as now deducible 
from hieroglyphic interpretation.^ But M. Eenan, 
on the other hand, after exposing the uniform dull 
level of Egyptian men, ' where never appeared a 
* great warrior, a great philosopher, a great poet, or 
' a great artist,' adds, ' Nay, not even a great mini- 

1 See W. Osburn's Monumentnl History of Egypt, and his Israel in 
Egypt. 



414 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. 111. 



' ster for Joseph, who did produce such enormous 
changes in the state, was not a native. 

Most conducive, however, to the tender planting 
out of Israel in the land of Goshen, the hieroglyphic 
' land of flowers,' on the eastern side of the Delta, — ^ 
and to the sacred family's ultimate spread over the 
whole of that rich triangular region, — must have 
been the unquestioned supremeness of the authority 
of the venerable King Aphophis ; towards the end 
of whose long reign it was, that the Hebrew immi- 
gration took place ; and even Jacob himself bowed 
to him in respect, when he made that touching 
answer recorded in the Bible, with regard to the 
length of his life and the years of his pilgrimage 
upon earth. 

Rise of the Theban Poiver. 

With Joseph's death, however, when that came, 
then ceased this remarkably placid state of quiet 
rule ; for, far away in Upper Egypt the relics of the 
Mencherian faith were again making head, and 
finding at length a suitable exponent in Amosis, the 
first king of the eighteenth dynasty, a large fana- 
tical army was collected, — which, making a sudden 
irruption northwards, repeated in reverse order the 
former invasion of the Shepherds, i.e., of the Shep- 
herd, or Hyksos-assisted Lower Egyptians, — taking 
their towns, and expelling them themselves from the 
borders of the 'pure land.' Vindictive and furious 
appears to have been this return-war from the upper 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMriRE. 415 

country, accompanied as it was by an opening of the 
graves and a desecrating of the sacred places of the 
conquered party. Mr. Osburn speaks from personal 
examination, to a whole range of fine tombs, all the 
faces of whose internal walls had been rudely but 
completely chipped away, apparently to prevent any 
trace remaining of Lower Egyptian rule, — called 
by the Mencherians, to make it appear utterly vile, 
* the Shepherd domination,' — remaining in the 
upper land. 

Then probably took place the violation of many 
of the Pyramids, for two or three Shepherd kings 
were said in their day to have been buried in Pyra- 
mids near Memphis ; and these Pyramids are now 
open and ruined to an intense degree. The par- 
ticular sovereign under whom this misfortune befell, 
was Asses, the grandson of Aphophis. His chil- 
dren thereupon retreated into the Delta, and rally- 
ing around the city of Succoth or Xois, reconstructed 
there the Memphian kingdom, and commenced a 
new dynasty ; but which appears to have been 
strangely misplaced in the list, or misnumbered 
during the confusion of subsequent times. To 
facilitate references, however, we insert here a tabu- 
lar view of W. Osburn s arrangement ; where the 
order of date of the monarchs is obtained by fol- 
lowing the order of the numbers, whether in one 
column, or from column to column. 



41G 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 



Chronology and Order of Succkssion of Kings and Dynasties under 
THE newer Empire, according to W. Osburn. 



Num- 
J>ers 
for 

Order 
of 

Kings. 


Xaraea of Kings 
in 

Lower Egypt. 


Num- 
bers 
for 
Order 

of 
Kings. 


Names of Kings 
in 

Middle Egypt. 


Num- 
bers 
for 

Order 
of 

Kings. 


Names of Kings 
in 

Upper Egyi)t. 


Date 

B.C. 


Events. 




Dynasty 10. 
















Heracleopolitans 
or Sebennytes. 
















No names 
known. 








Dynasty 12. 

Thebans. 


1965 


Abraham leaves 
Egypt. 


7 

10 


Dynasty 16. 

So-called Mem- 
phite Shepherd 
Kings. 

Saites or Salatis. 

Aphophis, son 
of Maeris. 


8 


Kings omitted 
from the lists. 

Majnis, son of 
Saites. 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

9 


Sesortosis 1. 
Amenemes 2. 
Sesortosis 2. 
Sesortosis 3. 
Amenemes 3. 
Amenemes. 

Skeniofris. 

Dynasty 13. 
Tliebans. 




Tombs of Benihas- 
san. 

Labyrinth built. 
Memphis taken by 

so-called Shepherd 

Kings. 
J oseph enters Egypt. 
Ethiopian lake 

drained. 


22 


Melaneres, son 
of Aphophis. 


23 


Viceroy of Me- 
laneres. 


11 

12) 

to y 

16) 


Menthesuphis 2. 


1750 


Jacob enters Egypt, 
and Israel's so- 
journ begins. 


29 
30 


Jannes. 
Asses. 


24) 
to V 
28 ) 


No name known 
for these num- 
bers. 


17 

18 

19) 

20 r 

21 


Sechemetes. 
Sabacon 1. 

Sabacon 2, father 
of Amosis. 

Dynasty 18. 
Thebans. 


1680 




37 


Dynasty 14. 
Xoites. 












38 
39 

40 

41 


Names 
unknown. 


42 
43 
44 
45 
47 
48 




31 

32 
33 
34 
35 
36 


Amosis. 

Chebron. 

Mesphres. 

Achencheres. 

Amenses. 

Thothmosis. 




Shepherd Kings ex- 
pelled from Mem- 
phis ; or Upjier 
Egypt invades and 
conquers Middle 
Egypt, and leaves 
the Delta intact. 




49 
50 
51 


Acherres. 
Amiais. 
Amenophis- 
bekenaten. 


49 
50 
61 


Acherres. 
Armais. 
Amenophis-be- 
kenaten. 








52 
55 
56 

57 


Encheris. 
Tai. 

Amenophis- 

Memnon. 
Horns. 


53 
54 


Ai. 

Chebres. 






62 


Siptha and 
Queen Thouoris. 


58 
59 
60 

61 

63 


Dynasty 19. 
TJuebans. 
Ramessu. 
Sethos 1.,. 
Sesostris Ramses. 

Amenepthis. 
Sethos 2. 


13(30 
1320 


Permanent and final 
reunion of Middle 
and Upper Egypt. 

The oppression of 
the Israelites. 

Rise of Moses. 

One Pharaoh over 
all Egypt. 

The Exodu.s. 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



417 



The new Xoite dominion in the Delta appears to 
have extended as far southward as the Pyramid 
hill of Jeezeh; and here its chiefs began to devote 
themselves to the worship of one of the deified 
kings belonging to the old empire ; viz., Shafre of 
the second Pyramid. Something of the same sort 
had been done previously by Sesortosis ii. and 
Sesortosis iii. of the twelfth dynasty, who had been 
very successful against the southern enemies of 
their day, says Mr. Osburn ; and he is testified to 
by their hieroglyphic names being compounded 
with that of Shafre ; wherefore these children of 
Asses, in a later time, with so much need of help 
against the southern foes of their day, also com- 
pounded Shafre into their names, as j ^^S Q^ , 
\^ Q^ , j Q t Q) > etc., and seemed even 

to entertain the idea of making Shafre a great god 
in Egypt, in opposition to the Amun worship of 
Amosis, in Southern or Upper Egypt. (See Plate xiii.) 
As a beginning, moreover, of their practical measures, 
' they proceeded with the elaboration of the Great 

* Sphinx out of its living rock, and with the rest of 

* the works of decoration which once adorned the 

* second Pyramid, and its stupendous precincts a 
locality long considered among Egyptologists as 
peculiarly connected with King Shafre, although at 
the time Mr. Osburn wrote, the statue duly signed, 
and the temple to which we have often alluded, 
had not been discovered. 

VOL. III. 2 D 



418 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



But even from this point the Asseans were finally 
driven back northward, and pent up in the Delta, 
with the growing numbers of the Israelites ; for the 
great Sphinx was eventually taken possession of 
and completed, or its dedicating tables of granite 



erected, by Thothmosis iv, or Armais, 




the fifth in descent from Amosis of the Theban 
eighteenth dynasty ; in which line the Sphinx-form 
became thereafter a favourite symbol of regal power. 
This d3masty indeed, and after them the nineteenth, 
victorious through all the longitudinal valley part 
of Egypt, now ruled in royal state at Thebes, and 
carried the Egyptian monumental fame to its highest 
point of culmination, and even something beyond 
down the road to decay. 

Authorities for the Eighteenthy and later , Dynasties, 

Seduced, it would seem, by the beauty of the 
monuments, it is with these two dynasties (eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth) that most persons' ideas of 
ancient Egypt and Egyptian history begin.^ When 
the oldest of the papyri are alluded to, they belong 
to these, or even later times ; equally so the mum- 
mies, for though the process of embalming and 

* Sir George Cornewall Lewis, indeed, with his deference to Greek 
writings and Greek experiences only, will not allow of any real exist- 
ence of Egypt until several dynasties later, or close upon the times of 
Greek visitations. 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



419 



mummification had been practised in Egypt long 
before, it would appear to have depended too much 
on spices, and too little on ' natron,' — or too much on 
the plant products of Arabia and Palestine, and too 
little on the mineral exudations of the soil in the 
Libyan desert, — and therefore not to have been 
fully efficacious to prevent resolution of the body 
into ' black dust/^ By far the greater part, there- 
fore, of the remains now findable, and especially the 
more showy works of art of the reputed ' ancient 

* Egypt,' all belong to this later period of Theban 
domination, which extends from 1600 to 1300 B.C. 

^ ' The earliest mummy known to exist is that in the Leeds Museum, 

* which is of the time of Ramses ix., 1100 B.C.,' says W. Osburn, p. 447 
vol. i. of his Monumental History of Egypt. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for April 1866, is a short article, signed 
S. W. B. * on the oldest relic in the world,' and implying that the 
mummy, i.e., the greater part, if not the whole, of King Mycherinua 
or Mencheres of the third Pyramid of Jeezeh, and therefore many 
centuries older than the Leeds specimen, is deposited and now to be 
seen in the British Museum. But the writer does not say anything 
about the opinions of competent men to the effect, that the bones and 
woollen cloth gathered up by Colonel Howard Vyse's assistants, and 
which make up the above so-called mummy, belonged to an unfortu- 
nate Arab who died in the Pyramid when it had been opened by his 
countrymen in the middle ages. The writer however does in honesty 
mention that an old Arabian author, — describing what his countrymen 
found in the sarcophagus of King Mencheres, when they ransacked it 
six hundred years before Colonel Howard Vyse entered the Pyramid, — 
says, ' that with the exception of some plates of gold, there were only the 
' decayed rotten remains of a man ;' a phrase which expresses extremely 
well the idea W. Osburn has formed from other cases, of the bad 
results of embalming under the earlier dynasties. The phrase also 
throws much light on the Colonel's own description of what he found 
in the interior of the third Pyramid, and even on the sarcophagus, viz., 

* a good deal of this deposition (black dust) was also found in the 
' large apartment ; and the dung of large birds, probably vultures, 
' appeared in many places, particularly on the sarcophagus, and seemed 
' to have been there for many years.' — Vyse's Operations at the 
Pyramids of Jeezeh^ vol. ii. p. 82. 



420 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIY. ITT. 

* Which was of great antiquity, at least as early 
' as the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty/ is an 
expression of Sir Gardner Wilkinson in reference to 
a particular architectural decoration on Egyptian 
monuments ; and it is just and true enough when ap- 
plied relatively to other Pharaohs whose names are fre- 
quently referred to in modern times, such as Shishak 
of the twenty-second dynasty, contemporary with 
Solomon ; Tirhaka of the twenty-fifth, contemporary 
with Hezekiah; and Hophra of the twenty-sixth, 
with Zedekiah. Far more just still, is the phrase, 
when employed in contradistinction to * antiquities,' 
connected with all the race of the Ptolemies and 
Caesars ; when new inhabitants, new times, new 
civilisations, and new ideas had introduced into 
Egyptian life a variety of features which, — though 
we may find them described in hieroglyphics cut 
grandly into the temples of Denderah, Ombos, 
Philae, and Esneh, — were perfectly strange to the 
Egypt of the first twenty dynasties. 

Kequesting our readers, therefore, only to bear the 
salutar}^ correction in their minds, for their own 
private information, if necessary, — that the eighteenth 
and nineteenth dynasties are of the new empire, 
and even the later part of the new empire, and very 
recent as compared with that older empire, in whose 
time the Great Pyramid was produced, — we would 
pray them by all means to plunge into any and all 
works wherein those dynasties' remains are de- 
scribed, — though under the mistaken implication of 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIKE. 



421 



their forming the very origin of all Egyptian his- 
tory. For what we, as students in this matter, 
require first, is, — to gather as much special and par- 
ticular experience of facts and personages as pos- 
sible ; and we may be able to rectify the chronology 
and eliminate the erroneous impressions under which 
they are, or may be presented, afterwards. 

Now most books hitherto published on Egypt are 
of this order. For until recently, the only large col- 
lections of artistic pictures belonged to these two 
dynasties or to subsequent ones ; and it was chiefly 
to see their showy sculptures existing in fact on 
temple-walls, and there representing the so-called 

* Ancient Egypt,' — that every winter for the last fifty 
years has witnessed a fleet of wealthy travellers' 
boats anchored off" Karnak, while their owners were 
exploring the wonders of Thebes and the Memno- 
nian Palace ; or while traffickers in antiques were 
grubbing about amongst the tombs, seeing what 
they could steal. 

* In Thebes we abode,' writes one of the best of 
German travellers, * for twelve over-rich astonishing 

* days, which were hardly sufficient to learn to find 

* our way among the palaces, temples, and tombs, 
' whose royal, giant magnificence fills this spacious 
' plain. In the jewel of all Egyptian buildings, — in 

* the palace of Eameses Sesostris (which this great- 

* est of the Pharaohs erected in a manner worthy of 

* himself and the God, " To Ainun-Ra, King of the 

* " Gods" the guardian of the royal city of Amnion), 



422 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



[DIV. III. 



* on a gently rising terrace, calculated to overlook 

* the wide plain on this side and on the other side 

* of the majestic river, we kept our beloved King's 

* birthday with salute and flags, with chorus-sing- 

* ing, and Avith hearty toasts proclaimed over a glass 

* of pure German Ehine wine/ ^ 

ChampoUion s grand work, in four volumes of 
long folio plates, deals largely with the eighteenth 
and nineteenth dynasties : for, beginning at Ipsam- 
bul in the extreme south of Nubia, with the great 
Eamses cavern-temple, it comes up successively 
northwards to Ombos, to Thebes, to Denderah, to 
Benihassan, and finally to Sakkara, — always pick- 
ing out the most dazzling scenes, and spirited groups 
of courtly or warlike figures, and which are usually 
of the new empire ; mixing all sorts of subjects just 
as they come on the monuments ; and finally con- 
cluding without any notice of the Pyramids, those 
silent and almost sublime witnesses of an earlier 
and more serious time. 

Kosellini s great work in three volumes of folio 
plates, will also yield data for the life of this period 
to a large extent, and his engravings are arranged 
in subjects ; vol. i., referring to history and 'public 
life; vol. ii., to the trades and employments of 
everyday private life ; and vol. iii., to temple scenes 
and matters connected with the religious belief of 
the time. 

Lepsius alone arranges his plates in chronological 

^ Lepsius' Letters from Efjijpf. 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



423 



order, and enables any one in his volumes v., vi., 
and vii., to study no less than ninety-seven large 
plates of all subjects belonging to the eighteenth 
dynasty, and eighty-four belonging to the nine- 
teenth. A magnificent contribution to knowledge ! 
Not indeed all original or contributed for the first 
time, for many of the plates represent the same 
monuments figured previously by Champollion and 
Rosellini ; but there is advantage in comparing 
the several styles and capabilities of the difierent 
modern artists ; and while the palm is perhaps due 
to the German edition for the most efficient render- 
ing of the mystical awe and fate-like solemnity of 
animal-headed gods, — the prize for human por- 
traiture is undoubtedly to be given to Rosellini, 
who contrives to indicate a degree of refinement in 
nature, depth of feeling, variety of expression, and 
wealth of human sentiment, in some of his heads of 
kings and queens, which leaves all his competitors 
far behind.^ 

Scenes in the Eighteenth Dynasty. 

But now let the trumpet sound, — the curtain rise, 
on the eighteenth dynasty, and who are these on the 
painted monuments before us ? Brick-makers ; and 
desperately are they toiling at their ungainly occu- 
pation. With backs bent horizontal, they dig up 

1 Consult also the great French work of 1800, and subsequently 
(iardner Wilkinson's Ancient Erpjpt, edition ot 1847, or later, and 
Burton's Excerptn Hieroglypldca, 



424 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 



the tough clay with short hooked implements, merely 
a small improvement of their natural hands. The 
process of moulding the clay, tapping out the pressed 
lump, piling the rectangular blocks, and carrying 
them away in collections of as many as one man can 
just stagger under, — are interesting enough in an 
industrial art and trade point of view. But there 
all the time sits the taskmaster with his stick ; a 
cinnamon-coloured, clean-shaved, black-wigged Egyp- 
tian he is ; and then we may perceive that the brick- 
makers are not his countrymen, but light brown 
men, with aquiline noses, grey eyes, and naturally 
growing short beards of reddish hair;^ a more 
northern race evidently than the Egyptians, possibly 
Israelites, and certainly Palestinians of some order 
from the now overrun regions of the Delta. 

Foreign slave-labour has evidently come into 
vogue, since we last made acquaintance with these 
men of the monuments. Some amount of ordinary 
field-agriculture is still memorialized ; but it seems 
now nearly overborne by garden cultivation, and 
these gardens are more or less ornamental plots 
round gi*and mansions and gorgeous temples, sur- 

^ 'From what I have observed amongst the numerous tribe of Jews, 

* first at Gibraltar, now here (Algiers), and further on throughout the 
' East — of the many thousands I have seen, a peculiar colour of the 

* hair is so striking as to seem characteristic of the nation. Amongst 

* us, Jews have almost invariably hair of the deepest black, but this is 

* a light auburn, of a tint I have never seen before. If the letter to 
' the Roman Emperor may be relied on, this was in all probability the 
' colour of our Saviour's hair.' — W. R. Wilde, Narrative of a Voyage^ 
1840. 



CHAP. VL] life under THE NEW EMPIRE. 425 

rounded with little brick hutches for retaining the 
slaves at night. In place, too, of scenes of open- 
air country- life, and sturdy chieftains inspecting 
their stock, — the majority of social pictures is now 
devoted to the gatherings of the rich in festive town- 
halls ; and these rich again are found to be only 
dependants in different kind or degree on the 
monarch for the time being. 

In him the king, the Pharaoh, now concentres all 
the wealth of the people, all the life of the nation. 

* In old Egypt scarcely an act of any Pharaoh is re- 

* corded in the tombs of his subjects ; nor does his 
' name appear at all, save in the names of their 

* estates, and sometimes in their own names. But 

* in the tombs of the new kingdom, in the times that 

* followed Joseph, all this is reversed ; for there is 
' scarcely a tomb of any importance, the principal 
' subject of which is not some act of service or devo- 

* tion performed by the excavator to the reigning 

* Pharaoh. 

' Nor is this difference confined to the secular 

* princes of Egypt only. We found the priest's office 

* in old Egypt to be a mere appendage to the secular 
' functions of the princes and nobles, performed, in- 

* variably in the cases where the performance is 
' depicted, by proxy, and by the hand of menials and 

* dependants. The contrast to this presented by the 
' monuments of the later epoch is marvellously per- 

* feet. The priest has risen greatly in authority and 

* importance in the State. This office becomes more 



426 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

* and more exclusive and hereditary, until at length 

* he ascends the throne of the Pharaohs, and rules 

* Egypt by a dynasty of priest-kings/ ^ 

How perfectly these changes are in accord with 
what the Bible describes as the results of the admini- 
stration of Joseph, viz., that all the land and all 
the cattle, and at last all the people themselves, were 
sold to, and became the possession of, the monarch ; 
except only the lands and goods of the priests, these 
he bought not. The result of the change is eloquently 
borne testimony to by M. Renan, in his description 
of the difference between the subjects of the paint- 
ings in the tombs of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and 
twelfth dynasties, as compared with those of the 
eighteenth ; — which last ' seem to have been invaded 
' by a whole pantheon, numerous, and accompanied 

* by fictions horrible, and at the same time the most 

* silly that the human brain has ever conceived.' 

The religion, therefore, did not advance in char- 
acter when so peculiarly protected, though it mul- 
tiplied its external indications. The walls of palace, 
and temple, and tombs are now indeed everywhere 
covered with figures of grotesque animal-gods ; they 
increase in number with the progress of the reign, 
or the pleasure of the king ; and are always more or 
less in waiting upon him as mere puppets to receive 
his royal pleasure ; though destroying angels to 
carry it out against his foes. To present him with 
one symbol of the key of life to smell at, was enough 

^ Twenty -first dynasty. 



CHAP. VT.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 427 

in former times ; but now these flattering gods ad- 
vance on either side, and anoint the monarch with 
long streams of innumerable repetitions of the sym- 
bols ; and every hieroglyphic sentence is pretty sure 
to begin, or end, with the oft-proved falsity, * King 
* so-and-so, living for ever ' ! 

Of course the said king does not improve in dis- 
position under all this adulation and indulgence, for 
cruelty amongst other vices becomes a dominant 
characteristic. A most tender exhibition apparently 
of family affection, is shown gracefully depicted 
on one of the monuments of Amenophis (eigh- 
teenth dynasty) : the queen-mother gently cherishes 
her stripling son ; and he with a magnificent head- 
dress — the ancient wig made now fit for a king — 
is seated on her knee, her favourite child, affec- 
tionately reciprocating her regard ; and the scene 
might appear very passable and even commendable — 
did we not remark that the boy s feet are all the 
time on the backs of two sets of captives, Pales- 
tinians and Negroes. These poor wretches lie there 
with their hands cruelly tied tight behind them, 
their bodies and limbs bent up triple, and internally 
spiked collars round their helpless necks ; to which 
collars strings are attached, so that the youthful 
prince, holding them in his hands, can, by jerking 
on them for amusement, instantly set half-a-dozen 
grown men into most exquisite bodily pain. 

But this was amusement also for the father-king 
of Thebes as well ; all these kings' ideas of a glorious 



428 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



triumph, either for war or peace, seeming to con- 
centrate in riding in a chariot with prancing horses, 
(horses, it will be observed, are now added to Egyp- 
tian live stock, but only employed in war, or for the 
king's purposes,) and dragging behind them two 
long lines of tortured, writhing captives. Some- 
times these are Negroes, sometimes Asiatics, but 
always with their hands and arms bound together 
in some almost impossible and always perfectly 
helpless position ; while the terrible spiked collars 
round their necks are connected with the ropes held 
by the king, — every sudden prance of whose horses 
must produce unnumbered quiverings in all those 
lacerated human nerves. The expression of various 
agonies in these captives, obliged to keep running 
along after the king in his chariot, and with no 
hand available to ease the heavy collars which are 
cutting into their necks, — is one of the highest 
efforts of the Egyptian artist. It is too evidently 
from the life, from scenes witnessed often ; and one 
hardly knows which to pity most, the more childish 
symptoms of yelling and pain amongst the Negroes, 
or the deeper feelings of the more manly and 
decorous-visaged bearded men of the North; but 
both alike suffer all that human nature can bear, 
and for the purpose merely of enabling an Egyptian 
king to feel prouder than ever, before his slavish 
and enslaved people. 

Arrived at his palace, then how overwhelming 
is the state which attends the monarch there ! All 



(^HAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 429 

the Egyptian nobles are grovelling about him in 
fancy costumes, as some kind of Lord Chamberlains, 
or fan-bearers, or gold and silver stick-carriers. 
Young damsels are beaten before him on their bare 
backs, by stout men armed with sticks ; and truth 
can seldom be heard in those royal halls, for the king 
must never see or hear anything that can displease 
him, and whatever he does is perfectly right. He 
is held to be eternally justified of everything he can 
do, and inscriptions are continually proclaiming his 
piety and purity and splendour and power ; while 
his enemies are by very consequence the impure 
and abominable ones of the earth, and seem to com- 
prise in idea all who inhabit the whole world, save 
the Egyptians themselves. 

Of their Religious Principles, 
With that race, self- justification, under any cir- 
cumstances, was from the first a leading principle 
of their religion. The forms of their worship and 
the number of their gods were continually altering 
from dynasty to dynasty, and were various at the 
same time in different parts of the country ; but the 
power and right of a man — i.e., an Egyptian man — 
to justify himself, not against his fellow-man, but 
against God, was an essential and central thread of 
their system wherever a single Egyptian existed. 
And a thread of it, too, which they not only never 
relaxed their hold of, but kept continually weav- 
ing other threads of bad religion and perverted 



430 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



morality into it, until it formed at length the 
veritable cart-rope for drawing the national sin. 

Another neighbouring nation had shown deep 
respect to the maxim of religious wisdom and 
truth, 'let not the sinner say that he hath not 
' sinned ; for God shall burn coals of fire on the 
* head of him, which saith before the Lord God and 
' his glory, I have not sinned.' But every Egyptian 
was taught by the ritual of the book of the dead, to 
prepare to stand up before Almighty God, and 



declare — 


i. 


1 have done no sin oi omission. 


9 


T Viovo ^^A■no nr» cm r»T +T*Qncm'A«!cmn 
X iitivc uuut; iiu oiu ui 111 ctiiiSHi coBiuii. 


Q 
O. 


I have neither done any sin, nor omitted any duty to any 




man. 


4. 


I have committed no uncleanness. 


5. 


I have not spoken lightly. 


6. 


I have not blasphemed with my mouth. 


7. 


I have not acted perversely. 


8. 


I have not accused any man falsely. 


9. 


I have not stolen anything belonging to Grod. 


10. 


I have not shortened the cubit. 


11. 


I have not shaken off authority. 


12. 


I have not been idle. 


13. 


I have not been a glutton. 


14. 


I have not been a drunkard. 


15. 


I have not forged any of the divine images. 


16. 


I have not withheld the seven linen garments due to the 




priests- 


17. 


I have not been avaricious. 


18. 


I have not falsified the weight of the balances. 


19. 


I have done no violence. 


20. 


I have not multiplied words in speaking. 


21. 


I have not changed the customs ; neither have I enacted 




foreign abominations. 


22. 


I have not uttered boasting words ; 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



431 



and so proceeds the self-justification, through no less 
than seventy-four different items. 

No true Christian can, of course, regard such a 
system but with fear and horror ; looking upon it, 
as he must do, as expressing the very antithesis of 
all which he regards as religion ; or of the first step 
toward religion at all, in the light in which it has 
been revealed to man by God, and those whom He 
has enlightened for that purpose. 

Hence, there need be no question raised, by the 
hierologists, — as to whether we are deeply learned 
enough in all the mysteries and vagaries of 
Egyptian idolatry, to fully comprehend every sup- 
plemental idea, which the chief latter-day sophists 
amongst them attached to each new animal divinity 
they invented ; ^ or the precise ofiice they assigned 

^ The gradual jirogress from bad to worse in their religion, the more 
the Egyptian people advanced in arts, wealth, power, and their own 
proverbial wisdom, — affords a striking histori-cal confirmation, of some 
of the leading arguments in a recent admirable pamphlet, entitled, 
Thoughts on the Doubts of the Day, by the Dowager Lady Shelley. 
(London, 1864. Harrison and Sons, 59 Pall Mall.) 

True religion, the writer there argues, wherever it appeared in 
primeval times, ' shone forth suddenly, and in all perfection and 
' purity, agreeably with the manner of a gift, or revelation from the 

* Most High ; ' while * the grossest errors came afterwards to obscure 

* it by degrees, side by side with the arts, inventions, and discoveries 
' of man.' 

And again : ' In some cases (as of the animals and monster gods in- 
' vented by early pagan peoples), these creations of the imagination 

* are so strange and horrible, that we are quite at a loss to account 
' for their origin in nations otherwise intelligent. We can only sup- 
' pose that when the builders of the Tower of Babel were dispersed by 

* God for the misuse of the divine gift of language, they fled to all 

* parts of the earth, carrying with them debased ideas of the God 
' whose power they had defied, which were reproduced later in the 



432 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [dIV. III. 

to one god with a jackal's head, — or another under 
the form of a baboon, — and another still as a 
monster hippopotamus, or horrible crocodile. These 
things, we say, need not be so very particularly in- 
quired into, as if just the last touch of colouring 
given to one of the more obscure of them, were 
capable of changing the place of all Egypt from the 
left, to the right, hand of the Great Judge on the 
last day, — because they are all of them in their 
entirety the very necessary consequences of a prin- 
ciple which is rotten at the core ; and form a course 
which, compared with revealed religion, was per- 
manently wrong from the first. 

Hence, the more religious the Egyptians grew, 
after their own fashion, the more they rebelled 
against the God of heaven. Similarly in their 
morals, — a highly moral people were they in mar- 
riage, having generally only one wife ; but that wife 
was too often, both with the princes and people, 
within the most revolting incestuous degrees of pro- 
pinquity ; so as to be horribly criminal in the eyes 
of all other nations. And an industrious people 
were they too, producing great public works ; but 
their plan of operating was through the power of 
slavery, and the cruel oppression of all the poor and 
weak, and defenceless ones, whom they ever came 

* revolting conceptions of the Hindoos, Chinese, and Egyptians, 

* amongst whom (if true religion had been an invention of man's 

* intellect), we might have looked for a most exalted idea of God ; for 

* it is well known that they enjoyed a much higher state of civilisation 
' than was ever attained by the family of Abraham.' 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



433 



into contact with. For a while, this Pagod figure 
grew and flourished mightily in the earth ; but in 
the hour of its apparent greatest strength, was it 
touched by more than mortal hand ; and calamitous 
was the ruin which then supervened, and has never 
ceased yet. 

Tlie hind of hero, developed in Egypt 

It was under the reign of Kamses ii., of the 
nineteenth dynasty, that the Egyptian power and 
might seemed to have reached the most stupendous 
proportions. He was reckoned to have been the 
greatest, wisest, and best of all the monarchs that 
ever sat on the Egyptian throne, and his reign lasted 
more than sixty-six years. By W. Osburn, and 
apparently by K. Lepsius also, his name is read 
Sesostris-Ramses, — though Chevalier Bunsen rather 
violently contends that there was no Eamses ever 
called Sesostris ; and that all the Greek and 
Egyptian legends connected with a half-fabuloua 
hero named Sesostris or Sesoosis, belong truly to 
Sesortosis ii., of the twelfth dynasty. 

It was this Sesortosis ii., insists Bunsen, who 
built a fleet of long ships on the Red Sea (though 
where the ship-timbers could come from in that arid 
region, it is difficult to say), embarked with more 
than half a million of soldiers, sailed through the 
Straits of Babelmandeb ; landed, and in turn con- 
quered Arabia, India, Bactria, Scythia, and Persia, 
making a grand tour of conquest through all the 

VOL. III. 2 E 



434 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



world of Central Asia ; and finally returned home 
through Thrace and Asia Minor, with wealth enor- 
mous, and captives innumerable. 

But here comes into play once more the varied 
critical acumen of W. Osburn, in showing that no 
such Sesostris as he of the legends ever existed. 
A bold conclusion, but in which he has since been 
well confirmed by M. Kenan, whose superior sharp- 
ness to M. Bunsen, enabled him to detect that the 
Sesostris described by Egyptian priests to classic 
visitors of Greece and Kome — was * an artificial per- 
' sonage, composed of pieces and morsels.'^ To 
Herodotus, the said priests of a conquered land, 
related that their former native king was far greater 
in his day than Cambyses, who then filled the mind 
and attention of the enthusiastic Halicarnassian. 
To Diodorus Siculus, in whose eyes, again, Alexander 
the Great was the hero of the world, — they made 
out that Sesostris had exceeded him in every parti- 
cular, and especially as an intellectual conqueror 
overrunning half the world for the sake of an ' idea.' 
And to Germanicus, with the historian Tacitus in his 
suite, they made their Sesostris appear as a more 
methodical and business-like soldier, than any notable 
commander of the approved Eoman stamp ; or one 
who looked on a campaign in the light of a mercan- 
tile transaction, whose propriety was to be measured 
by the muster-roll of tributary provinces it should 
produce, or justified by the weight of solid silver and 

* Revue den Deux Mondes, p. 665, April 1865. 



CHAP. VI.] LTFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 435 

gold sent in ; — evidently in every case suiting their 
tales to the notions of hero-worship amongst their 
listeners. 

But with regard to what any genuine Egyptian 
heroes either really did do, or would have ambitioned 
to bring about, in those earlier ages when their 
monarchy was as yet unconquered by foreigners, 
and uncontaminated by stranger nations, — there, 
W. Osburn appears to have caught the spirit of the 
Mizraite mind with astonishing success ; and to 
have reahzed long ago the nature and tendencies of 
their polity so precisely,— that M. Kenan's much 
later researches, while they have confirmed much, 
have been able to add httle, and alter less. W. 
Osburn's words, therefore, remain the most instructive 
that can be quoted, and run thus, — ' We have yet 

* further to state on this point, and with the same ex- 
' plicitness, that no such idea as the conquest of the 

* world had presented itself to the mind of Egypt in 
' the days of the monarch Sesostris-Kamses, whose 

* monumental history is now before us. Egypt 

* alone was the world of Egypt, and its entire sub- 

* jugation to the Theban sceptre was the loftiest 
' pitch to which the ambition of the Pharaohs had 

* ever soared at any epoch. Foreign conquest was 

* utterly abhorrent to their modes of thought. The 

* districts watered by the Nile constituted the only 
' country in the world worth possessing. The sons 

* of Mizraim were the only beings worthy to bow to 
' the sceptre of Pharaoh. The men of all other 



436 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



* nations were inferior and degraded races, and their 

* countries unclean and abominable. The highest 

* honour to which a foreigner could aspire in Egypt 
' was to be a slave ; and, to minister to her luxuries, 

* was his country's highest distinction. What charms, 

* we repeat, could foreign conquest have for a nation 

* holding sentiments like these, and with whom, even 

* to overpass the bounds of Egypt, implied ceremonial 

* pollution ?' 

Egypt, then, in the course of its long career of 
unimpassioned, exclusive, self-satisfied existence, 
gave birth to no conqueror of the world to rival and 
excel Alexander the Great, the most brilliant hero of 
the Arian races of mankind ; but succeeded in pro- 
ducing a great man of its own order, viz., Kamses ii., 



of dynasty nineteen, or 



This monarch 



moreover, may be at once connected with the 
foundation of truth at the bottom of the absurd 
tales told to the Greeks about the fabulous Sesostris, 
in this ; — that whereas the latter is said to have far 
exceeded all his predecessors in building, even to the 
extent of erecting a temple in every city throughout 
the land of Egypt, which was then reputed to con- 
tain thirty thousand cities, — Ramses ii., is found by 
examination of the existing monuments, — whether 
still standing in Egypt, or transported to European 
museums, — to have left more architectural remains 



CHAP. Vl.J LIFE UI^DElt THE NEW EMPIKE. 437 

impressed with his name, than have doue all the 
sovereigns of Egypt put together. And yet they 
number, from Moses down to Ptolemy, about 
one hundred and fifty known kings, and their 
reigns extend over nearly two thousand years. 

This most remarkable fact, in itself, at once es- 
tablishes one kind of relative superiority between 
Sesostris-Eamses and all other native Egyptian 
kings ; and a closer examination of all his principal 
works, such as the Propylons of the New Palace of 
Luxor, the Ramesseum of Western Thebes, and the 
great cave-temple of Ipsambul, will disclose some 
other notable particulars. These works, for in- 
stance, all abound in colossal representations of 
Sesostris-Eamses going out like a giant to battle ; 
his chariots drawn by fleet horses galloping forth 
before him over all the walls ; then the battle, in 
which his enemies are smitten in every conceivable 
manner ; and lastly the king himself the day after 
the battle, seizing a compendious group of some 
dozens of captives by the hair of their heads, after 
they have been tied to a stake, and braining them 
all with a sweeping blow of his mace ; while one 
of the animal-headed gods, possibly of his own 
or his father's creation, looks on approvingly, 
and offers him even a more destructive weapon. 
Wherefore, such slaughtering and truculent scenes, 
cause most persons to imagine from the ^ monu- 
* meats,' that Sesostris-Eamses, though only Eam- 
ses II., and not the traditional Sesostria of fable, 



438 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

must have been a most warlike and conquering 
king. 

But then comes the strange counter information 
from the hieroglyphics accompanying these enor- 
mous sculptures, — that they all represent one and 
the same action, fought in the fifth year of the 
reign of the king, near Pelusium in the Delta ; and 
not a very large or glorious affair either. Yet, as 
the monarch went on for forty years of his long 
reign, immortalizing the selfsame military exploit, 
— we may draw the conclusions, first, that he had 
no subsequent battles to boast of ; and, second, that 
he was very desirous of being thought a mighty 
man of valour; in aid of which view he could 
order any amount of praise to be conferred upon 
himself, in these public documents ; ' Moniteurs of 

* the time,' says M. Eenan, *and false by conse- 

* quence.' 

But how did Kamses acquire the immense com - 
mand of labour, which he undoubtedly possessed 
for the execution of his numerous monuments, 
without having recourse to prisoners of war ? may 
well be inquired ; and the answer is, ' By political 

* subtleties acting on the weakness of the Xoite 
' Pharaohs in the Delta, and their numerous but 
' peaceable Israelite subjects.' Cunning and cruelty 
seem to have characterized the man far more than 
bravery ; and though he be that identical Pharaoh 

* who knew not Joseph,' in the way of not remem- 
bering the compacts of friendliness made with 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 



439 



him and his descendants — yet he seems to have 
thoroughly understood and practised some of his 
principles of administration, in so far as con- 
cerned strengthening the throne and enriching the 
monarch. 

In the various portraits which have come down 
to our times of Sesostris-Ramses, whether in sculp- 
ture or painting, he is without doubt a magnificent- 
looking man, with even a bland expression of 
countenance, and the inimitable air of being a 
favoured scion of very high family and long royal 
descent ; but there is, withal, a semi-concealed 
appearance of cunning, and a power of compassing 
a cruelty, with all the time an urbane smile on his 
lips, — that leaves one quite at a loss to conclude 
what he might not attempt next. 

In one way or another he did in the course of 
his reign, at last contrive to bring about the 
dominion of aU Egypt, Upper, Middle, and Lower, 
to the Diospolitan sceptre ; a scheme in the heads of 
all his predecessors, but never fuUy carried out by 
them, on account of the dynasties in the Delta. 
The last of these, however, the Xoite, became in his 
time reduced to a single infant of a year old, whom 
he then, — in' his capacity of ally and guardian, — 
immediately married to his eldest daughter Thuoris, 
already far advanced in middle life ; and by that 
method, without a flaw in its legality, and without 
bloodshed, — but a union which in course of nature 
could be attended by no inconvenient dynastic 



440 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



consequences, — he gathered up all that had once 
belonged to the Xoite dominions into the appanage 
of his Theban throne. In such manner came the 
Israelites in the Delta under the control of Sesostris- 
Eamses, originally of the upper country ; and he 
lost no time in setting them to work day by day ifi 
digging irrigation-canals, and in buildings of various 
kinds throughout all the length and breadth of the 
united country ; in testimony of which, either the 
ruined mounds and buildings throughout Egypt 
may be examined, or the terse and effective 
description of the Bible remembered : — 

'And the children of Israel were fruitful, and 
' increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed 

* exceeding mighty ; and the land was filled with 
' them. Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, 
' which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his 
' people. Behold, the people of the children of 

* Israel are more and mightier than we : come on, 

* let us deal wisely with them ; lest they multiply, 

* and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out 

* any war, they join also unto our enemies, and 

* fight against us, and so get them up out of the 

* land. Therefore they did set over them task- 

* masters to affiict them with their burdens. And 
' they built for Pharaoh treasure-cities (magazines), 

* Pithom and Raamses. But the more they afilicted 

* them, the more they multiplied and grew. And 

* they were grieved because of the children of 

* Israel. And the Egyptians made the children 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 441 

* of Israel to serve with rigour. And they 

* made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in 

* mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service 

* in the field : all their service, wherein they made 

* them serve, was with rigour.' 

Queen Thuoris and her adopted son Moses, 

Then came, as every one knows from the Bible, 
severe measures of repression ; and at last the royal 
order that * Every son that is born, ye shall cast into 
the river.' In the meanwhile, however, there grew 
up in the gentle mind of Thuoris, some fellow-feeling 
of compassion for the strangers so cruelly oppressed 
by the king her father. She had been sent away 
from Thebes where he resided, by that unfeeling 
despot in his family, — but who smiled so serenely 
in public, — to be his vicegerent in the Delta, along 
with her helpless infant husband ; and there she 
occupied herself chiefly with attending to sundry 
religious services, to which she had been in a manner 
dedicated, even before the strange marriage, forced 
upon her without any possibiHty of refusing. Such 
a religious ceremonial employment it is supposed to 
have been, which took her down to the river's bank 
on the eventful morning of the exposure of the child 
Moses in the ark of bulrushes. Her true womanly 
feelings, as well as her own experiences of undeserved 
oppression, prompted her to pity the Hebrew child ; 
her position as queen -vicegerent enabled her to 
brave her then distant fathers infanticidal com- 



442 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

mands ; and her married state allowed her, without 
any appearance of impropriety, to become a seeming 
mother to the young castaway. 

For forty years, or, as Mr. Osburn says, from the 
monuments, forty -four, — was Moses thereafter cher- 
ished in the palace of Lower Egypt ; the bonds 
of his countrymen were much loosened ; and poor 
Queen Thuoris, at the end of that time become an 
aged woman, received much comfort and assistance 
in public affairs, and affectionate attentions in 
private life, from her Hebrew protege ; but at last 
came the trial. Her father at Thebes had died, and 
had been succeeded by his son Amenepthis ; and he, 
after reigning by himself two years only, had also 
died ; and now the succession to the whole of Egypt 
had fallen on Queen Thuoris in her old age. There 
was her husband Sipthah to be sure ; but he was an 
incompetent, the last expiring member of a royal 
race dying out from exhaustion of faculties ; he 
could never rule as an independent sovereign of a 
powerful people,— but would Moses, so long in fact 
her adopted son, and who had so dutifully performed 
her behests for so many years; and shown such 
superiority to all his fellows, — equally in learning as 
in war,^ — would he now become in the face of all 
the world her legally adopted son, and heir to the 
throne of the whole of Egypt ? 

To one like Moses, brought up all his life, save 
its first few days, in a palace, the opportunity must 

' See Josephus, Book li. C'haptur x. 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 443 

have beeD, in a worldly point of view, most attrac 
tive. But, as we learn from several passages in the 
sacred Scriptures, * by faith Moses, at this time, re- 

* fused to be called the son of Pharaoh s daughter 
abandoned all his splendid prospects of an earthly 
throne, and preferred going forth alone and in 
poverty to share the burdens, and sympathize with 
the grievances of his oppressed countrymen. Pre- 
sently, too, even to flee into the desert before their 
ill-feelings and want of appreciation ; as well as 
before the offended laws of Sipthah, residing then 
in Lower Egypt. 

A sad trial must this refusal of Moses have been 
to the aged Queen ; who thereupon retired to 
Thebes, and occupied herself during the remainder 
of her life, partly with the education of the infant 
son of the late Amenepthis, or Sethos it. ; and partly 
with the preparation of her own and her husband's 
tomb in the Biban-el-Moluk, or valley of the tombs 
of the kings at Thebes. 

Of the various monumental proofs that Queen 
Thuoris performed her part of Regent to the youth- 
ful Sethos II., faithfully and conscientiously, both in 
its public requirements and private duties, as long 
as she lived ; and also that her nephew, — in spite of 
the loving care spent upon him, and ' the special 

* books written for his sole use and behoof, con- 

* taining all the good actions of his predecessors,' — 
turned out nevertheless an exceedingly bad and even 
abandoned character, — we will not attempt to say 



444 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



much in this place; for wc should have to draw almost 
entirely from W. Osburn, and our readers would find 
greater advantage in referring direct to his fuller 
accounts, original conclusions, and eloquent pages. 

Suffice it then here, that we hurry on to the 
time, when both Thuoris and Sipthah being dead, 
the graceless profligate Sethos ii., ascended the 
throne. One of his first acts thereafter, seems to 
have been to hasten to the city of Ramses in the 
Delta, and on finding the Israelites no longer toiling 
as desperately for his royal advantage, as they used 
to do for his grandfather, Sesostris Ramses, — he 
instantly renewed their hardest burdens in that 
excess of unfeeling manner, which caused the com- 
plaints of the oppressed to rise up to Heaven ; and 
occasioned the recall of Moses out of Midian, to be 
the deliverer of his people. 

The final Crash, 

Most minutely does WiUiam Osburn criticise the 
first nine of the scriptural plagues of Egypt, — 
showing that they were each of them special in- 
tensifications of natural features of the country or 
climate ; almost as if it had been the Almighty's 
intention to show the Egyptians the inefficiency, 
one after the other, of each of their gods whom they 
had set up in charge over those elements. At the 
same time, this peculiarly prepared and able author 
shows clearly, that the order in which they are de- 
scribed, proves that the series of these dread plagues 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 445 

extended over nearly a year ; thereby allowing time 
enough for the mighty preparations to be made for 
the movement of so enormous a bulk of population, 
as the Israelites had become at this period ; viz., 
not far short of four millions. An impossible 
number, remarks W. Osbum, to remove in these 
present days ; but the exodus, we must remember, 
was the last, or he should perhaps have said, a con- 
tinuation, of the several great migrations of the 
human race, which had been directed and assisted 
by the finger of God. 

At length the historian comes to the tenth plague, 
the death of the first-born. *In the execution of 

* this most terrible judgment, God thrust forth His 

* own arm from behind the veil of nature and her 

* laws, and Himself struck the blow. Even on this 

* occasion, it was not until another message of wam- 

* ing had been given to Sethos, and rejected ; nor 
' until he had finally dismissed with obloquy, the 

* messenger whom God had thus mightily accredited, 

* that the blow was stricken.' This is what W. 
Osburn writes ; while the Bible similarly says, ' And 

* it came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all 

* the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first- 

* born of Pharaoh that sat on the throne, unto the 

* first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon; 

* and all the first-born of cattle.* But Chevalier Bun- 
sen writes, — * We have stated in the preceding book 
' that the exodus was only an episode, or rather one 
' link in a fearfully vast, well-devised, plan, carried 



446 LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 

' into execution with sagacity and resolution, of 

* avenging liberty. That the Palestinians who in- 

* vaded the country were, as the Egyptians say, 
' called in by Moses, must be considered as an in- 
' vention of national hatred ; but the invasion is 

* historical, and most important. It was a cover for 
' the exodus, and the great Sicilian Vespers by 
' which Asia took her revenge upon Africa. These 

* Palestinians were really, after more than two cen- 
' turies of oppression, the messengers of the Lord, 
' when, in the third year of Menepthah, son of 

* Eamses ii., rushing down from the north, they 
' slew all the first-born even in the king's palace/ 

We do not agree with the too rationalistic view 
of the great philologist as to the agency which 
wrought on that memorable night. But if he believes 
firmly in what he has written, then his further testi- 
mony is more important than ours, or even than 
William Osburn's (though that should also be 
studied), to the effect, — that Egypt never recovered 
the results of the exodus ; that the third volume of 
Manetho's history, or from dynasty twenty to 
dynasty thirty, — merely records a succession of de- 
gradations, until the Egyptians became utterly en- 
slaved to foreigners, — their religious abomination at 
all times ; were obliged in turn to expend all their 
inimitable architectural powers and artistic skill, 
with which they had erected the idols of old Egypt to 
ensnare the world, — to glorify their several * impure' 
conquerors ; until now, after having been for ages 



CHAP. VI.] LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. 447 

and ages the slaves of slaves, and the basest of the 
base, these artistic capacities are completely de- 
parted from them, — and they are left a useless and 
effete people, an astonishment and a hissing on the 
face of the earth, until it shall please the Lord to 
take pity on them again. 

But thus Chevalier Bunsen concludes his view 
of the exodus, * the historical exodus,' as he terms it. 

* The courage and judgment of the Egyptians failed 
' in face of the moral faith so energetically evinced 
' by the man of God. At length a body of troops 

* was despatched to attack the multitude as they 
' withdrew. These perished in the waves ; and the 

* weakness of Egypt became self-evident to their 

* Palestinian and Arabian neighbours, who fell upon 

* the disorganized country which was humbled as it 

* never had been before. At the end of thirteen 

* years the enemy was expelled, but the strength of 

* the nation was exhausted. After the brilliant 

* semblance of a restoration by the great conqueror 

* of the twentieth d}Tiasty, the power of the 

* Pharaohs was so shaken by the Assyrians that it 

* never recovered itself again for any length of time. 

* Nor did the work of the invaders produce any 
' good to their country or to the world. The move- 

* ment in behalf of human dignity and of liberty 
' was alone blest for those who understood it and for 

* the human race.'^ *At all events the invasion and 

* exodus became the death-blow of the new empire.' 

1 Bunsen's Egypt, vol. iv. p. 589. 



448 



LIFE UNDER THE NEW EMPIRE. [DIV. III. 



Plainly then here is no difference of note as to 
the resulting material fact, — that with the night of 
the exodus, when the visible career of Israel began, 
and when ' history was born,' the ancient glories of 
Eg5rpt commenced rapidly their fatal decline. Our 
absolute dates, moreover, in chronology, cross at this 
point of the exodus with those of other authorities, 
— from some of whom we had differed largely when 
discussing the earlier dynasties ; for both Bunsen, 
Lepsius, and Osburn are all within a handful of years 
agreed upon the time 1320 B.C. nearly ; and differ 
for the name of the king under whom * the man of 
* God' * led the departure,' only between the son or 
grandson of Eamses ii. 

Hence, having been enabled to trace, to the best 
of our humble ability, no small portion of the mental 
and manual characteristics of the Egyptians, even 
from those primitive times of Egypt's existence, 
when that country stood solitary and alone in the 
recorded annals of mankind, — down to the fullest 
expansion which those characteristics ever subse- 
quently experienced in better-known and more 
abundantly peopled periods of earth-history, — it 
is our duty now to return, with such help as 
may thus have been procured, to our long-in- 
terrupted investigation into the mystery connected 
with the origination of that earliest, and most 
important of all human monuments, the Great 
Pyramid. 



CHAPTER VII. 



ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, ON SCIENTIFIC 
GROUNDS. 

Towards the close of his Section v. Division iii. 
Book II. of his Egypt's Place in Universal History, 
Chevalier Bunsen, in reviewing the progress of 
Egypt from dynasties first to twelfth, — has some 
well-put philosophical remarks ; which, though ac- 
companied by a few rather doubtful assertions, — 
yet giving as they do, his very scholarly ideas on 
the difference between ordinary Pyramids and the 
Great Pyramid, — and again, between all Pyramids 
and Tombs acknowledged or ordinary, — may be 
expected to be here introduced. They are as 
follows : — 

* Respecting the particular purpose for which the 
' Pyramids were designed, we have satisfactorily 
' shown, in the foregoing inquiry, that they are ex- 
' clusively gigantic covers of rochy tombs, built with 
' great skill to bid defiance to the ravages of ages ; and 
* that, as a general rule, they neither contain a sepul- 
' chral chamber nor large apartment. The largest 
' Pyramid is the only exception, owing, indeed, to 
' particular circumstances which we think we have 

VOL. III. 2 F 



450 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

* to a certain degree explained. It is the only one 
' which contains two chambers, one of which served 

* for a tomb. Its construction, as well as the pains 
' bestowed on concealing and barricadoing all the 
' approaches to it, have been accounted for in refer- 
' ence to one single object — that of protecting the 
' hallowed corses of the kings, as far as human 

* power and human ingenuity could do so, from 
' destruction. But how are we to explain their 

* having such an object ? Were the hieroglyphics 

* complete, and could we thoroughly understand 
' them, they would not answer the question. The 
' idea which gave birth to these wondrous edifices, 
' one after the other, during a period of almost one 
' thousand years, in the deserts of Libya, is itself a 

* hieroglyphic, and a very mysterious one. Its inves- 
' tigation belongs to the fifth book.' 

In the fifth book, accordingly (p. 651, vol. iv.), 
the subject is taken up again; and it is argued — that 
such an extreme desire to preserve the body safe in 
a stone monument, was connected with the belief of 
the Egyptians in the immortality of the soul ; a 
belief which existed in their minds from the earliest 
times, but always accompanied 'by a comfortless 
' inability to embrace the idea in all its purity in 
fact, they made the immortality of the soul rest on 
the due preservation of the body after death. * This 
' was the tribute paid by the Asiatics, in earliest 
' times, for the occupation of Africa and the posses- 
' sion of the Nile.' ' We assuredly owe,' continues 



CHAP. VIT.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



451 



the eminent philologist, * the stupendous fabric of 

* the Pyramids to a superstitious fear of the destruc- 

* tion of the body, rather than to the mere vanity 
' and love of display on the part of the builders. 

* The judgment passed by the people on their kings 

* after death (as upon every other person who died) 

* was, at the epoch of the first dynasties, no empty 

* form. Now the royal builders of the largest 

* Pjrramids were, according to universal tradition, 
' haughty, cruel t3rrants, who had good reasons to be 

* apprehensive of the popular verdict, the ordeal they 
' would have to pass at the hands of the people and 
' priests. It was no easy matter for any one to find 
' his way into the Pyramids ; each of them had its 
' own secret barrier to prevent intrusion ; but, at 

* all events, a forcible entry into them was quite 

* impossible.' 

Now this attempted explanation, — which we have 
extracted pretty fully, because it seems to be the 
highest and ultimate effort of all that mere philology, 
unaided either by exact science, or the principles of 
revealed religion, can do, — seems to our moderate 
apprehension to explain nothing of the innumerable 
exact structural features which are peculiar to the 
Great Pyramid, as different from the second and all 
other Pyramids. Nor, again, is it explanatory of the 
many particulars and methods of building, distin- 
guishing all the Pyramids alike, — whether of kings 
reported tyrants, or lauded as philanthropists, — from 
the tombs proper of their own or subsequent times ; 



452 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



and in which tombs, the preservation, by conceal- 
ment or barricadoing, of the mummied corpses was 
just as much attended to as in any Pyramid. Or, in- 
deed, rather more so ; for, in some instances, as in the 
lined entrance-passages of Pyramids, they tended to 
lead, rather than blind, subsequent depredators to the 
place of hiding of the precious corpse, deep under, or 
within, the mass of the covering monument. Nor 
does Baron Bunsen's explanation throw the smallest 
light upon the reason why, or by whose agency, the 
peculiar form of Pyramids first stood on the sur- 
face of Egypt ; and wherefore the building of them 
ceased again after several centuries, without any 
alteration having occurred meanwhile in the national 
faith, — respecting the soul's life being dependent 
on the dead body's preservation. 

Even under the learned author's section of ' Arts,"* 
p. 654, the immense generic difference between the 
decorated tombs and undecorated Pyramids is posi- 
tively ignored ; as in the following passage, — * The 
' interior of the tombs, and in particular of the 

* Pyramids, exhibits the most striking example of 
' the grandeur of the style of the old empire, and of 

* its artistic perfection.'^ And when the very ex- 

^ In his Expedition to the Euphrates, vol. ii. p. 88, Colonel Cliesney 
intensifies all these errors, thus — ' The compartments of the Pyramids 

* and temples of Egypt exhibit, in colouring still vivid, the history and 

* occupations of the inhabitants of the valley of the Nile.' But in that 
volume, in place of giving any account of his actual expedition, the 
Royal Artillerist attempts the whole history of the world, from Noah 
to Napoleon Bonaparte, and a little later ; and cannot therefore be an 
original authority u])on everything introduced. 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



453 



tcnsively read author proceeds, with the view of 
making the too much neglected actual features of 
the Great Pyramid clearer after his manner, — not 
by ascertaining what they are by measures of line, 
number, and angle, — but by comparing them, in 
hazy and elastic allusions only, with something still 
less known, viz., ' the architectonical form of the 

* vastest edifice in the world, the Temple of Belus, 

* as the watch-tower of Babel we must really beg 
to decline following his grandly expressed, though 
mistifying philosophy any longer. 

If, indeed, we could compare the details of the 
Great Pyramid exactly and certainly with those of 
the Tower of Babel, — great would be the advantage 
to knowledge ; but whereto shall we look for certain 
and accurate particulars of the latter building ? Of 
the Great Pyramid we have, even in this our own 
book alone, plans and sections, with three hundred 
pages of numerical observations of lines and angles 
taken on some most exact surfaces ; and we have 
seen and touched and do testify of these things our- 
selves. But not one page of such features regarding 
the Tower of Babel, does the philological philosopher 
venture to bring forth to his readers ; or even to 
assert that he has in his private possession ; or to 
indicate where in the present state of the world, 
travellers may proceed and measure such documents 
for themselves. 

In the Rev. George Rawlinson's The Five Great 
Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, the foun- 



454 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

dation plans of all the oldest Chaldaean temples yet 
examined on the lower plains of the Euphrates (the 
supposed region of the site of Babel), are stated to 
be invariably oblong rectangles, — the sides being in 
the proportion of three to two nearly, — and not 
squares like the bases of the Great, and other 
Jeezeh Pyramids. Further and more remarkably 
still, it is the angles of all these Chaldaean buildings, 
never their sides, which are presented to the four 
cardinal points ;^ so that they are as diflferent from 
the Egyptian buildings of Pyramidal ages, in the 
important feature of azimuthal emplacement, as it 
is actually possible for them to be. In elevation, 
there was likewise a characteristic opposition ; for 
the culminating height of a Chaldaean temple was 
always towards one end, and never vertically over 
the centre of the base, as with every Pyramid in 
Egypt : and such culminating part was an open 
chamber in the former, and a solid mass of masonry 
in the latter description of building. The former 
was moreover left in successive stages, usually three 
in number, and the lower one — rough with protrud- 
ing buttresses ; while the latter, or the Egyptian 
Pyramids, had all their temporary building steps 
filled in and bevelled oJff finally, smooth and slop- 
ing outside from top to bottom, in one vast sheet 
by the agency of the casing-stones. 

^ ' The angles of the building exactly face the four cardinal points. 

* According to Mr. Loftus {Chaldcea and Susiana) this emplacement 
' is observable in all. edifices (temples?) of true Chaldeean origin.' — G. 
Rawlinaou, vol. i. p. 96. 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



455 



Hence if there should be some points about the 
Great Pyramid, which we cannot examine very 
precisely there, by reason of dilapidations, — we shall 
certainly not clear up those difficulties by going to 
such comj)letely alien forms of building as any, or 
all, of the Chaldoean temples that have come down 
to our times. Structures entirely peculiar are these 
in the matter of their materials also ; which were 
so wretched and perishable, as to offer now little 
more than shapeless mounds, though of an age ap- 
parently long subsequent to the Great Pyramid. 
But the Great Pyramid again must be long subse- 
quent to the Tower of Babel ; so that the last clearly 
recognisable remains of that building, if composed 
in its day of the ordinary Chaldsean materials, must 
have perished, or * altered,' very long ago indeed. 

Evidently, then, an immense amount of faith is 
demanded of his readers by Baron Bunsen, when he 
has no modern-tested facts, to go on, in building up 
either a theory or a tower. Wliile, on the contrary, 
he as despotically requires his followers to ride 
callously over well-ascertained and measured data ; 
and show themselves impervious to belief when an 
astronomical explanation is rendered of some, even 
of the most undoubted facts, or features actually 
existing, in the Great Pyramid ; and forming the 
ipsissima verba of its own contemporary account of 
itself. For all such explanations and even the 
things themselves, he stigmatizes, as 'groundless 
* fancies,' flagitiously indulged in; (p. 293). 



456 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

Research de novo. 

There is a most depressing feeling, when one first 
makes the discovery in life, that those whom we 
have long implicitly followed hitherto, and re- 
spected for their years, station, and higher attain- 
ments, their more extensive knowledge, and greater 
strength of mind, — have not the spirit of justice 
within them. There is no other choice then, but to 
set forth on one's path in the world — solitary it may 
be, and for certain with distressed mind and increase 
of labour with painful toil, — but willing to incur all, 
rather than be found voluntarily and knowingly 
opposed to any right moral principle. With some 
such sense of depression on our spirits do we com- 
mence this humble attempt, to investigate scientifi- 
cally the origination of the Great Pyramid ; cheered 
only with the assurance, that it cannot be wrong to 
attend to actual facts. 

Amongst these may Jirst be noted, that all the 
older Pyramids, as monuments, — call them funeral 
monuments if you will, — have amongst themselves 
a general community of figure and an absence of 
internal decoration ; making them, as a class, stand 
wide apart from the ordinary Egyptian tombs, — 
which possess far other external figures, with most 
showy and adorned interiors. 

Second, this peculiar class of monuments, the 
Pyramids, flourished only in the earlier, indeed in 
the very early, dynasties of Egyptian history ; and 
had disappeared completely, in favour of other 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



457 



forms, long before the nation of Egypt reached its 
culmination of empire, and peculiarity of institu- 
tions both public and private. Indicating, therefore, 
that the idea was not a natural one in the Egyptian 
mind, growing with its growth and strengthening 
with its strength ; but rather an exotic, — wliich, 
received from abroad at the very beginning of the 
national existence, did at every succeeding archi- 
tectural reproduction lose so much of force, or 
interest for the people, as at last to die out amongst 
them altogether. 

Hence, to ascertain what chiefly characterized 
Pyramids when they were best understood or most 
appreciated amongst Egyptians, we should not visit 
the latest, — expecting there to see necessarily an 
accumulation of all the excellences of its prede- 
cessors ; but should rather, — either search for the 
oldest; or, with more freedom from all foregone 
conclusions, seek out by mechanical inspection the 
most perfect and complete in its original design, 
and investigate its age afterwards. 

Now, simply as tested by modern scientific mea- 
sure, there cannot be a moment's doubt that as 
respects size, excellence of masonry throughout, and 
possession of internal chambers high up in that 
masonry, — replete too, with very remarkable propor- 
tions, and what may be called Pyramidal numbers, 
— the Great Pyramid stands before all the other 
known Pyramids. For notwithstanding that some 
authors claim for the second Pyramid, that, — 



458 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

though rather smaller and very badly built, — it 
had a bordering of coloured granite round its base ; 
and others for the third Pyramid, that, — though 
very much smaller again, — it was coloured gor- 
geously for more than fifty feet up its side ; — still 
these things are deviations from the pure Pyramid 
principle, and show endeavours to modify it by the 
introduction of just so much of ornamental tomb 
or temple architecture. We may fortunately too, 
trace up the gradual increase, with time, of this 
parasitical, but truly Egyptian growth of luxury 
extending itself over the ancient pure form, — by 
looking at Lepsius' views of the Pyramids of 
Meroe. For these are very modern resuscitations 
of the old Pyramid idea, after it had been left alone 
for two thousand years ; and are found, though quite 
trifling in size, yet furnished with channelled and 
fluted corner lines, appended porticos, and outside 
sculpture in the intervening Theban-temple manner. 

The Great Pyramid is thus, taken all in all, by 
far the largest, best, and truest Pyramid of all the 
Pyramids. How long then was required, let us 
therefore ask, for the idea of a Pyramid after its 
first invention, or introduction to Egyptian minds, 
to grow, improve, and fructify up to that point of 
transcendent excellence, whence they could build 
the ne plus ultra of that species of monument, or, 
the Great Pyramid ? 

Then comes the very strange answer from Dr. 
Lepsius (see pp. 364 and 365), that he believes the 



CHAP. VII.] 



ON SCIENTIFIC GEOUNDS. 



459 



Great Pyramid was the first built of all Egyptian 
Pyramids, and was even the first of their public 
buildings of any kind ; and that he cannot refer 
positively to any remains of the Egyptian nation of 
higher antiquity. 

This opinion is indeed not yet allowed in full by 
all authorities : though none venture to put more 
than two or three items of known remains, and 
these immediately preceding it, earlier ; so that the 
Great Pyramid, if not the very first, was very 
nearly the first work in point of time ; and abso- 
lutely the first in time and excellence combined, of 
all the buildings ever erected by the Egyptian race, 
— at the strangely sudden beginning which their 
national existence once experienced on the banks 
of the Nile. (See p. 371.) 

Hence we are driven back again, by the, in a 
manner, negative testimony of all monumental re- 
mains in Egypt, upon the theory of a Pyramid 
having been, as before expressed, an exotic to the 
Egyptian land. The idea was inserted there, evi- 
dently in vigour the most extreme and extraordi- 
nary, — because it was able to produce, even at the 
origin of the nation, a monument which, for size, 
style, and rank, has never since been equalled in any 
country on the face of the earth ; had no known 
prototype in any other country ; and has remained 
through ages, even of continually growing numbers 
of the human race, of increasing size of nations, and 
accumulating wealth of governments, — the emphatic 



460 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [dIV. III. 



and chief wonder of the world. The idea, too, was 
inserted so deeply in the Egyptian mind, that for 
many generations it was never entirely lost ; and 
Pyramid-building, — though in continually-decreas- 
ing scale, and for some other purposes, — with very 
rude, and often entirely mistaken or ignorant imi- 
tation, only, of the original, — went occasionally on.^ 
But this again confesses that the idea never grew ; 
and, like a full-blown flower cut from its parent 
stem, it began to decay from the moment it was 
planted into a new and unaccustomed soil. 

Pyramid idea, whence derived f 

If the idea, then, was exotic in Egypt, where did 
it come from ? 

At present there is no clue ; for though there are 
now occasional Pyramids and Pyramidal buildings 
in several other countries of the world, they are all 
held to be far inferior in age, as they certainly are 
in character, to the Great Pyramid, and could not 

^ That the Egyptians themselves did not understand the meaning of 
the peculiar proportions introduced into the Great Pyramid, has already 
been shown in Divisions i. and IL, where neither the angle of the outside 
slope, the length of a side of the base, the number of construction - 
steps, the commensurabilities of the coffer, nor any other points which 
have been shown to have been endued with a remarkable meaning in 
nature or art, — were ever again realized. Nor attempted to be realized, 
— for there was abundance of manual skill to have done it, had there 
only been brains enough to decide what the hands were to be employed 
upon. 

More strikingly still do the hieroglyphics show the want of appre- 
ciation in the Egyptian mind. For look at our Plate xii. (all whose 
excellences depend on Dr. Lepsius' drawings), and see how the charac- 
teristics of hawks, owls, ibises, geese, hares, etc. etc., are hit off with a 



Vol. Ill 



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ROYAL OVALS, 

Fltotvliiyko^raphe-d. frorrv Plaie^ V, of 
W: Lepsius's " K6iii^sl)ucli der alten Agypter- 

BETLLIl^ , 1858 . 

"WH,"M'TaTlane,LilW]!a,T^ 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



461 



have originated it. All, therefore, that we can ven- 
ture upon now is, to continue our mere mechanical 
investigation by inquiring further, if facts permit, — 
and whoever the real originator may ultimately turn 
out to have been, — whether his whole intention or 
purpose in designing the Great Pyramid, was fully 
subserved in having that one monument erected on 
his plans by the Egyptians in their Siriadic land ; 
or whether any of the subsequent Pyramids were 
necessary parts of the scheme to be filled in after- 
wards. How this inquiry is to be efficiently carried 
out, presents many difficulties; but our first pro- 
ceeding must evidently be, to concentrate our atten- 
tion on the numerous mechanical refinements and 
speaking, though uninscribed, walls of the Great 
Pyramid. 

Now we have already both in this work, and else- 
where,^ endeavoured to bring into notice the many 
confirmations, arising from recent measures, to the 
not new idea of the original purpose of the Great 

line or two put in with consummate skill, and turned with admirable 
truth and meaning. But then look at the little Pyramids in the same 
Plate, and see what angles they have got. By John Taylor's theory 
we are taught that the angle of rise of the Great Pyramid's side is the 
all-important feature which it possesses ; and that a difference of a 
few seconds, on one side or the other from 51° 51' 14*3'^ would entirely 
spoil its meaning. An able artist, therefore, if pervaded by this truth, 
would endeavour to give that angle nearly, when representing the 
Pyramid ; — yet we find by measurement, on Plate xii., that the angles 
of rise of the sides of three Pyramids attributed to Shofo, are on the 
paper = 72°, 12°, and 74° ; of two given to Shafre = 70° and 74° ; 
of one to Userchres = 74° ; and one to Tancheres = 76° ! 

^ Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. xxiv. Part ii. 
pp. 385-403. 



462 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [dIV, III. 

Pyramid having been, to serve as a metrological 
monument, — which was to testify, for some unknown 
reason, but through many thousands of years, to a 
particular system of weights and measures for all 
subjects, and on a very grand scale. And seeing 
that the various mechanical features which we have 
adduced in Divisions i. and ii. of this volume, as 
typifying these things, — are all of them directly 
connected with, or do actually form the radical 
laying out of the foundations, and, so to speak, the 
bones of the building, — they must have preceded 
the employment of any of the subsequently built 
and fitted-up parts for any purpose whatever. 

Hence it is no objection to the metrological 
theory, as that of the origination, — if a mummied 
corpse was latterly deposited, either in the King's 
or Queen's chamber, the subterranean, or anywhere 
else throughout the Pyramid ; nor whether the 
coffer in the former, when opened by Khaliph Al 
Mamoon, was either absolutely empty, or filled with 
gold pieces of large size, or occupied by the body of 
a man with a golden breast-plate, a sword of inesti- 
mable value by his side, and a carbuncle shining 
with the light of day on his forehead, — each of 
which stories has one or more Arab historians to 
vouch for its conflicting truth and superior credit. 
Neither is it of any importance now, when both the 
gold and the man, his sword and the carbuncle, if 
ever there, are all long since gone, — whether they 
had been deposited in that place by the first builders 



CHAP. VIT.] ON SCTEXTTFIC GROUNDS. 



463 



of the Pyramid or by Mencherian, Saitcan, or Amo- 
sian fanatics, breaking into the Pyramid, and employ- 
ing it for their own purposes, in the fifth, sixteenth, 
or eighteenth dynasties, — for the emptiness of the 
coflfer is all that remains : while the fractured ramp- 
stone over the well-mouth, indicates that some one, 
entering forcibly by the well from the lower subter- 
ranean passage, must have burst into the upper parts 
of the Pyramid, and worked his will there in minor 
matters, long before the time of Khaliph Al Ma- 
moon and his horde of Muslim excavators. 

The intervening experiences of the Great Pyra- 
mid are indeed vastly more difficult to investigate, 
than its present or primitive state ; and, happily for 
our problem, are of little importance. For such in- 
tervening effects have always been in the way of 
petty degradations and mischief, never with the 
view of adding to, or improving, and certainly not 
of building up again from the very foundation ; so 
that the work of later men can be easily distin- 
guished from those of the original builders. 

We put the metrological hypothesis, therefore, 
upon its trial for the explanation of the origirujil 
Pyramid form, proportions, characteristics, and re- 
quirements ; and find that for it, the Great Pyramid 
by itself, as actually erected in geogi^ajMcal position 
in form and parts, but without artistic ornament 
inside or out, is admirably suited and perfectly 
sufficient. Find also, that if executed once in a 
thorough manner, there need be no further repeti- 



464 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV, III. 

tions of it, — 80 far, at least, as its successful inter- 
pretation is concerned ; though for the purpose of 
shielding the one precious monument from barbarous 
mischief during long ages of war, invasion, and 
revolution, — a number of successive, nearly similar 
in appearance, though for the theory, or for prac- 
tical metrology, really valueless Pyramids, — might 
be considerably useful. And find also, in actual 
measurements of the building, the long series of 
coincidences working, as already detailed, into 
coincidences, — which terminate at last in showing 
that the Great Pyramid actually is a containing 
case or setting for a grandly complete system of 
metrology, — adapted to everything connected with 
size, weight, heat, angle, and time, — all on one uni- 
form and admirable system of referring to the most 
influential and wide-spreading features in nature for 
the value of its standards ; and expressing these in 
the neatest and most convenient arithmetical forms 
of one constant order of numbers. 

That such a metrological system should be con- 
tained in the Great Pyramid is no doubt a surpass- 
ing wonder ; but having been proved for it by all the 
preceding pages of our work in vol. ii., and Divisions 
I. and II. of vol. iii., and never having been made 
out for any of the other Pyramids in the smallest 
degree, — we obtain a complete solution of the par- 
ticular question just proposed. That is, we find 
that the scientific scheme of origination does not 
depend for its full expression on any of those other 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



465 



and subsequent Pyramids of Egypt, but is complete 
and perfect in the Great Pyramid taken by itself, 
and resting upon itself alone. 

Hence comes the encouraging conclusion, that for 
the still further prosecution of all the really im- 
portant parts of the mystery in a scientific point of 
view, — our attention and studies may be concen- 
trated entirely on the Great Pyramid ; and then the 
higher and more dijfficult personal question comes 
up again with greater force than ever, — viz., Who 
was the originator 1 Nay, who could have ori- 
ginated such a building ? 

Wisdom of the Egyptians fails. 

Many worthy persons imagine, in an indefinite 
manner, that the science of the ancient Egyptians 
was something of infinite power and scope. They, 
the Egyptians, had a particular deity, it is further 
contended, to preside over weights and measures ; 
and, therefore, if it be admitted, — as admitted, we 
conceive, it must be, both from the discovery of the 
quarry-marks and of superficial traces of the use of 
the cubit of Memphis, — that the Great Pyramid was 
erected by the hands of Egyptian workmen, while 
it stands confessedly to all on Egyptian territory 
— why go further, say these excellent and well- 
intentioned modern men, than to Egyptian learning, 
for the origination of the scheme ? 

The answer is twofold — First, if the system had 
been altogether Egyptian, and Egyptian means had 

VOL. III. 2 G 



466 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

been employed knowingly and purposely in com- 
memorating it by so expensive a structure as the 
Great Pyramid, — how is it that not a single element 
of the system was ever used by Egyptians at any 
time of their history, early or late ? For whenever 
we can ascertain at any period of their empire what 
their standards were in length, weight, angle, or 
time, they are perfectly different, — as already dilated 
on sufficiently, both in the last volume and the 
present one, — from those of the Great Pyramid. 
And second, let us test the depth and quality of this 
mysterious learning of ancient Egyptians, and which 
a special god in their pantheon was appointed— by 
themselves — to assist them in. 

In our attempt to give a fair abstract of their 
history from dynasty four to dynasty twenty, in 
chapters v. and vi., we have certainly not come 
upon much of the learning. But as our testimony 
may be objected to on principle, we prefer in this 
matter to appeal to Chevalier Bunsen ; whose pro- 
Egyptian tendencies crop out so vehemently to- 
wards the end of his world-famous volumes, — that 
all men may rest perfectly assured in finding in 
him, the utmost that can possibly be said with any 
regard to propriety, in favour of the respectable 
appearance of ancient Egypt. 

Now this deeply learned and very favourably 
inclined Chevalier Bunsen, when summing up the 
final statements near the end of his fourth volume, 
or p. 658, expresses himself thus, under the heads of 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



467 



* Geometry and Astronomy/ and in so doing he is 
including everything that can be said not only 
for the Egyptians of the fourth, or Great Pyra- 
mid building, and earliest monumentally proved, 
dynasty, — but for those of every other dynasty like- 
wise : ' Their knowledge of mechanics and of the 

* cognate mathematical principles is evinced no less 
' by the artistic perfection of their buildings, than 
' by the vastness of their masses. But this will not 

* justify us in supposing them to have possessed a 

* really scientific knowledge of these subjects. It 
' was ingenuity, based upon a keen natural percep- 

* tion, guided by the elements of geometric science.' 

* Their astronomy^ like everything Egyptian, 
' was strictly provincial, and calculated only for 

* the meridiayi of Egypt! 

This last sentence is indeed final, and is almost 
worthy of either W. Osburn or M. Eenan, in the 
felicity with which it fixes on the grand national 
characteristics of those quasi ' Chinese of the earlier 

* ages of time, to whom Egypt was the whole world, 

* and within the limits of whose Egyptian valley, 

* their ideas were entirely confined.' 

Another equally favourably disposed author to 
the Egyptians, M. Brugsch, writes, in his History of 
^^gyP^ • — ' Astronomy was not amongst them 
' (Egyptians), that mathematical science which 
' calculates the movements of the stars, in con- 
' structing the grand systems which compose the 
' celestial sphere. It was rather a collection of 



468 ORIGINATION OF THE GflEAT PYHAMID, [DIV. III. 

* notes of phenomena, periodical to the sky as seen 

* in the Egyptian country, and of which the reci- 

* procal bearing could not long escape the eyes of 

* the priests, who observed, in the clear nights of 

* Egypt, the brilliant constellations. Their astro- 

* nomical knowledge was founded on a base of 
' empiricism, and not on that of mathematical 

* observation.' 

While if we appeal to old Greek and Eoman testi- 
mony, we are told * that Strabo admitted that the 

* Egyptian priests of his own day were destitute of 

* all scientific and astronomical knowledge ; and, 
more searchingly still, that ' the science of Egypt, 

* like the wealth and power of Persia, was found by 

* the Greeks to be a nullity, when it became the 

* subject of certain knowledge and observation.' 

Such a people, then, as this of Egypt, never 
really scientific, * never with minds sufficiently 
' trained in abstract reasoning to be able to follow 
' the demonstrations of the conic sections,' and 
always cooped in their narrow valley, with their 
narrower opinions and exclusive ideas, — could have 
had no notion of founding their linear standard on 
the earth's axis of rotation ; their weight and capa- 
city measure on an employment of the whole 
earth's mean density ; a temperature standard on 
the mean surface-temperature of the whole earth ; 
and their time standard on the precession of the 
equinoxes, assisted by meridian observations com- 
bining a well-chosen polar, with an equatorial, star. 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



469 



The notion of Egyptians having done this, is evi- 
dently absurd beyond all the usual bounds of 
absurdity; they could not have done it, and we 
must look elsewhere for the habitation of the 
originator or planner and well-nigh perfect carrier- 
out of so remarkable a scheme. 

But in that case whereto shall we look? for 
Bunsen, Renan, and others discourse eloquently of 
the Pyramid-building age of the Egyptians, being a 
period when that nation was the one and only 
community of cultivated and civilized men, de- 
scending in their one and solitary bark the myste- 
rious stream of time ; whose current was then 
unploughed by any other keel. At the date of the 
Great Pyramid's building, too, or 2170 B.C., all the 
peculiarly so-called ' wisdom of the Egyptians,' — in 
reality, their more recondite idolatrous mysteries, 
with statecraft and handicraft, — had not begun. 
For, on referring to vol. ii. p. 435 to 438, it will be 
observed, that some exceedingly zealous friends of 
old Egypt, do not attempt to place the invention of 
the feast of the Isia, earlier than 1350 B.C. 

Even too, though we descend that stream of time 
to epochs when the Egyptian vessel of state, was 
hustled by the rival appearance there of the Assy- 
rian, Babylonian, Persian, Grecian, Phoenician, and 
other nationalities, — Egyptian astronomy was no 
better than what has been described above ; and 
we shall have to descend very much further still 
down the course of ages, even to within a few years 



470 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

of the present year of grace, 1866, before any human 
science will be found competent to have arranged 
and represented so full, philosophical, and perfect a 
metrology as that of the Great Pyramid. 

Who, then, could have been the originator of that 
system ; and in the day of the Great Pyramid, or 
when the particulars were actually inserted into that 
building; by the hands of Egyptian workmen no 
doubt, but without their knowing what they were 
doing; and when no real physical science existed 
anywhere in all the world ? 

Something beyond the usual ken of man, and even 
above the power and scope of science to grapple 
with, must have been here concerned (these facts 
would seem to imply). And the late John Taylor 
had come to the conclusion, — before he knew more 
than a tithe of the evidence which the Great Pyra- 
mid has since then proved itself capable of yielding, 
when properly examined by measurement, — that 
this wondrous monument of old had been built under 
the direction of chosen men, divinely inspired with 
wisdom from on high for that purpose. 

Necessity for seeking a wisdom higher than mans. 

Such an origination as that, would of course, if 
rea], instantly relieve the question of all its human 
impossibilities. But the mere naming of it, in the 
present day, before scientific men in a scientific 
subject, and connected with practical facts,— is 
greeted immediately with a storm of clamour, re- 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



471 



preaches, regrets, objections, and the most determined 
opposition. Not without some reason too, — because 
the attribution of a Divine origin, when men find 
anything either in science or early history, above 
their immediate power to explain on simple prin- 
ciples of human learning, — has been hitherto 
generally, if not always, a sign of weakness in the 
science of those employing it : so that the progress 
of natural philosophy in recent years, contains not 
a few cases of phenomena, once thought super- 
natural, yet now shown to be amenable to 
mechanical principles, as well as following implicitly 
the regular order of nature. 

Let us therefore, by all means, attend to, and 
weigh carefully against the facts already accumulated 
on our side, — for we cannot drop them on account of 
mere clamour, — all the explicitly stated objections 
by able men that we may be enabled to meet with. 

First amongst these, must be placed the opinions 
of men understanding mathematics, mechanics, and 
practical science. And they, after having examined 
the numerical admeasurements as given in vol. ii., 
and discussed in the present volume, — are usually 
ready enough to allow that a metrology, as alleged, 
is there indicated. They are then only taken up, 
with how its introduction can be attributed to 
something else than Di\^ne inspiration. 

Thus says one friend, of much learning after this 
kind, ' The capacities of the human mind, in special 
' instances, are marvellous ; and a single great genius 



472 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. Ill 

* might think out a whole system of mathematical 
' science in the course of a short lifetime ; and then 
' you might have from him some truly wonderful 
' publications, although the nation he belonged to, 

* and in the midst of whom he lived, knew nothing 

* whatever about mathematics either before or after 

* his day.' 

To this ^our answer is twofold : — First, according 
to the very independent testimony of M, Eenan, 
there was never a particle of genius in the whole 
land of Egypt. ' Egypt,' says he, * was of all coun- 
' tries the most conservative. Not a revolutionist, 
' not a reformer, not a great poet, not a great artist, 
' not a savant, not a philosopher, is met with in its 

* history. In that sad valley of general mediocrity 
' and eternal slavery, men vegetated for thousands 
' of years, they cultivated their fields, they made 

* good overseers, they carried stones upon their backs, 
' they lived on very contentedly without glory. One 

* and the same level of mediocrity pressed upon 
' every one.' Second, even if there had been such 
an amount of genius in that dull land, for abstract 
science, or science that can be thought out within 
doors, and even within the walls of a dungeon, as 
would have amounted in all actual experience, even 
in lands most favoured by genius and caprice of 
Nature, to a miracle in itself, — the mixture on the 
other hand of jyractical, with abstract, science, which 
is requisite for finding out the several features 
of the earth as employed in the Great Pyramid 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



473 



metrology, is not an affair of tlie mind alone, but of 
the general progress of all the arts and sciences of a 
great nation,— combined with much travelling about ; 
and extensive and accurate observations of various 
kinds, over a large part of the earth's surface, even 
from the pole, or its neighbourhood, to the equator; 
and round about the equator again in many different 
longitudes. And how could the earlier Egyptians 
accomplish all that, confined as they were in their 
narrow valley 1 

Another friend of the same order of knowledge 
then suggests : ' Grant that the Egyptians never 
' could have conceived such a metrology as that of 

* the Great Pyramid, — but why should there not 

* have been nations, — nations whose names we have 
' never heard of, — living long before the Egyptians 

* through many thousands of years ; attaining by 
' degrees to more knowledge than we possess at 
' present ; flourishing for long ages as we have 

* never flourished yet ; but finally dying away, and 
' leaving no other trace of their once existence upon 
' the earth, than this single Pyramid, which encloses 

* so much knowledge V 

To this we reply : ' that if they did live once, the 

* Great Pyramid is not their work, — for the quarry- 

* marks prove it Egyptian of the fourth dynasty ; 

* or decidedly, though only just, within recognised 
' Egyptian history. And as to these or any other 
' supposititious nations performing such great deeds 
' through unchronicled thousands of years, and yet 



474 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

' leaving nothing behind them, even in the land of 

* Egypt, — where Bunsen, Lepsius, and Renan all tell 

* us ^' that nothing decays^' — we have become so 

* accustomed to sound, tangible, and practical proofs, 

* as well as sterling material evidence, in our Great 

* Pyramid investigations, — that without something 
' of the same hard kind being brought up in favour 
' of the unknown and unnameable, theoretic, civi- 

* lized, and powerful nations long since passed 

* away, — we decline to believe that any one of them 

* ever existed/ 

Next come the objections of men who do not 
understand mathematics, mechanics, and practical 
science, but are supposed to be strong in mental 
philosophy and some other subjects ; and these 
individuals mostly refuse to allow that anything con- 
nected with metrology has been, or can be, proved, 
by measures taken at the Great Pyramid. Their 
reasons appear to be, that all practical sciences are 
over-ridden by logic and metaphysics, which both 
fix the bounds within which the others can be use- 
fully employed, and have given forth this dogma, 
that no number of coincidences makes a proof : 
therefore, say they, no number of agreements in the 
measured proportions of the Great Pyramid, with 
earth-features, can ever establish that there was an 
intention of the founders to typify such things, — 
much less to arrange a whole scheme of metrology 
upon them. 

Seeing, however, that the Great Pyramid is a 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



475 



practical matter, the said logicians and metaphy- 
sicians may be referred to that very frequent illus- 
tration, a watch, and a good watch keeping time to 
a second a day ; and asked, — whether the world at 
large is likely to accept their dogma practically ap- 
plied there. Or, that^all the numerous coincidences 
of the watch's wheels and pinions working exactly 
into each other, and the agreement of the resulting 
hour-hand's indications with the rotation of the earth 
on its axis, to such extreme closeness as only to be 
1- 86,400th in error — special means being also intro- 
duced to prevent changes of temperature spoiling 
that close approximation — that all this forms no 
proof that there has been any intention on the part 
of an intelligent watchmaker to produce such 
coincidence ! 

Lastly, but more numerously, come men, not 
exactly classifiable under either of the previous 
heads ; but so confident, nevertheless, in the teach- 
ings of their own sciences, — which require time 
almost illimitable for their operations, — that they 
refuse even to look at the Pyramid subject at all. 
An eloquent expression of the views of this party, 
as given by a master amongst them, is contained in 
the address of the President of the British Associa- 
tion at Nottingham, and runs thus : — 

* Can it be supposed that the inhabitants of Cen- 
' tral America, or of Egypt, suddenly, and what is 

* called instinctively, built their cities, carved and 

* ornamented their monuments ? If not, if they must 



476 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

' have learned to construct such erections, did it not 

* take time to acquire such learning, to invent tools 

* as occasion required, contrivances to raise weights, 

* rules or laws by which men acted in concert to 
' effect the design ? Did not all this require time ? 

* and if, as the evidence of historical times shows, 
' invention marches with a geometrical progression, 

* how slow must have been the earlier steps ! If 

* even now, habit and prejudice resulting therefrom, 

* vested interests, etc., retard for some time the 
' general application of a new invention, what must 

* have been the degree of retardation among the 

* comparatively uneducated beings which then 
' existed/ 

To this excellent piece of writing, however, we 
may answer, — that it does not attempt to prove 
anything, directly, of what actually took place at 
the building of the Great Pyramid ; it merely infers 
what ought to have occurred there, according to 
what is seen now to take place amongst men, when- 
ever an opportunity occurs for positive observations. 
In so far, then, it represents only, but truly, the 
deductions of science as to whatever characterizes 
a purely human beginning ; for whether among the 
modern European nations, or the ancient Greeks, 
or any other people within historical limits, their 
beginnings, both in astronomy and architecture, 
have been invariably marked by long wanderings 
in littleness, rudeness, and puerility alike of concep- 
tion and execution ; accompanied, indeed, by some 



CHAP. VII.] ON SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS. 



477 



tendency to enlarge or advance, but developing 
itself so slowly in their earlier years, as to be quite 
invisible except with the long lapse of ages. 

This then is, according to the growing and influ- 
• ential school represented by a large portion of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
first, the real characteristic ; and second (when it is 
found to have actually occurred anywhere), the 
scientific proof, of a human beginning. And if so, 
what follows when we come to the Great Pyramid, 
and find that its actual mode of beginning (having 
been sudden, see p. 370, etc.) was perfectly different 
from all the alleged characteristics of a human begin- 
ning, — as comprehensively, powerfully, and truly 
laid down by the above-mentioned philosophers ! 

Nay what can follow, but the conclusion, result- 
ing in a belief, — that the Great Pyramid was not 
altogether of human origination ? And in that case, 
whereto should we look for any supernatural assist- 
ance to man, but from Divine inspiration ? 

If there were any other method whatever of 
solving the problem, than that of referring to in- 
spiration, — or, if proofs were not multiplied on 
proofs to show that this case of the Great Pyramid, is 
the most remarkable instance ever submitted to the 
investigations of science, and is as true and certain 
as it is old and venerable, — we should have been 
the last persons in the world to have dared to pro- 
pose (or to adopt when others proposed it) a mode 
of solution so awful to contemplate, so dread to 



478 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. [DIV. III. 

appeal to lightly, and so little instructive if used 
without reason. But, as we have already shown, 
there is no other conclusion possible with the facts. 

Science, then, leads the case up, nor can it do 
more, to the boundary line, bordering only on relir 
gion. So that if we would next endeavour to 
ascertain whether, after being brought so far, the 
subject can really be admitted within that hallowed 
pale, — recourse must be had to trials and examina- 
tions of a very different order. 



CHAPTER VIIL 



ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, ON RELIGIOUS 
GROUNDS. 

No sooner have we satisfied the scientific objec- 
tors (as we trust has been done in the last chapter) 
that the manner of appearance and nature of con- 
tents of the Great Pyramid, are not according to a 
merely human beginning, — and that some assistance 
from the Deity micst be looked for, — than we find 
ourselves assailed by many well-meaning and reli- 
gious-minded persons, for presuming to look to such 
a source in such a case, example, or cause. 

Assistance, direction, instruction, in a word, tVi- 
spiration from God to man, they consider to exist, 
or be possible, only in the light in which it took 
place upon the Apostles, and at a certain Pentecost. 
And being therefore an affair of the Holy Spirit in 
connexion with the highest mysteries of spiritual 
religion, — they, the religious objectors, consider it 
actual impiety for any one to talk about inspira- 
tion in connexion with giving any man or set of 
men directions about the size, proportions, and 
arrangements of mere masonry work, — even though 



480 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [dIV. III. 



it should be for a building, so immense, so strong, 
and so enduring as to last all human time ; and in 
a cause connected with furnishing the metrological 
symbols of justice, and practical means of honesty, 
to all the nations of the earth. 

We have listened patiently and respectfully to 
all these objections (some of which have reached us 
from friends in the southern hemisphere) ; but can 
only imagine that their upholders are imperfect 
readers of their Bibles ; and have read of, or remem- 
ber, — which comes to the same thing, — only one 
class of cases of inspiration, viz., that most impor- 
tant one above alluded to ; and which is, in itself, 
precisely as they describe. But further reading in 
the sacred Scriptures would soon show, that it has 
pleased one and the same Almighty God to send 
His inspiration, at different times in the history of 
the world, for almost any, and every variety of pur- 
pose ; and sometimes for matters fully as material, 
and on a very much smaller scale, than those of the 
Great Pyramid. Else why do we find in Exodus 
xxxi. — 

* 1. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 

* 2. See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the 
^ son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah : 

* 3. And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, 

* and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of 

* workmanship, 

* 4. To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, 
^ and in brass, 

' 5. And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of 
' timber, to work in all manner of workmanship. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



481 



* 6. And I, bcbold, I have given with him Aholiab the son of 

* Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan : and in the hearts of all that 

* are wise-hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that 
' I have commanded thee ; 

* 7. The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the 

* testimony, and the mercy-seat that is thereupon, and all the fur- 

* niture of the tabernacle, 

* 8. And the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick 
' with all his furniture, and the altar of incense, 

' 9. And the altar of burnt- offering with all his furniture, and 
' the laver and his foot, 

'10. And the clothes of service, and the holy garments for 

* Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in 

* the priest's office, 

* 11. And the anointing oil, and sweet incense for the holy: 

* according to all that I have commanded thee shall they 

* do.'? 

This then is the kind of inspiration, if we may 
so allude to it, which we would seek for in the case 
of the Great Pyramid. Not, however, presuming to 
say of our own selves that it was exerted, — but 
merely venturing to inquire what points of simi- 
larity or contrariety there may have been between 
the many undoubted cases which are given us in 
the Bible, — and the circumstances of origination of 
the Great Pyramid, so far as known, and in the 
state in which its question has come to us, — after 
undergoing scientific examination. 



Time of its performance suitahle ? 

Now with these views, one of the first points to 
be discussed, respects the age of the Great Pyramid ; 
for, as a building, no matter for almost what pur- 

VOL. ITI. 2 H 



482 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

pose originally intended, or for which of the many- 
purposes hypothetically suggested at various times, 
and by various authorities, — it must be regarded as 
something verging much more on the material, 
than the spiritual. Wherefore, thence comes this 
precise point to be settled, viz., — was the date of 
foundation of the Great Pyramid a period of the 
world's history when, according to the Bible, either 
directions were given, or instructions are reported 
to have been communicated, by God to man, touch- 
ing the correct performance according to number 
and measure, of material work ? 

An examination of Scripture will soon show, that 
such subjects were dealt with more frequently in 
the earlier, than the later, parts of its history ; and 
two special instances may be taken as including 
within them, if not the most eminent, at least a very 
marked period of inspiration having that character ; 
these instances being, the construction of the taber- 
nacle of Moses, and the building of the ark under 
Noah. In each of which cases the precise measures 
of length, breadth, and height to be kept to, were 
clearly announced by inspiration. 

The date of the first-mentioned example has been 
abundantly treated of by many most able writers, 
on both scriptural and scientific grounds, and con- 
cluded to be certainly within the limits of 1600 and 
1300 B.C. ; or, as assumed in our chapter vi., with 
most probability of being close to 1320 B.C.; and 
no one doubts but that the Bible description there. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



483 



does really refer to work actually performed. But 
with regard to the date of the latter mentioned, though 
really prior example, — or the scriptural building of 
Noah's ark, — there is far greater uncertainty ; not 
only by reason of science being unable to say any- 
thing whatever about the operation, its date, or even 
the thing itself, — but that different Biblical authori- 
ties differ by almost irremediable amounts of time 
from each other. By amounts, indeed, so large as to 
have assisted in a notable degree to fan a very general 
impression, now current in much of learned society, 
to the effect — ' that the first book of Moses is to be 
' looked on as of profound metaphysical import, but 

* not as historical, nor as dealing historically with 
' matters of fact or, as others more distinctly 
pronounce upon the case, — * both the Noachic Deluge 

* and the Tower of Babel are myths not to be 

* taken literally as matters of physical existence, 
' though undoubtedly embodying great psychological 
' truths.' 

But this is not enough for our purpose of illustrat- 
ing the case of a huge fact like the Great Pyramid. 
We must, therefore, make some little amount of 
examination as to the reality of what we are refer- 
ring to ; and, as a first step, should take up the 
discordances of dates amongst the Biblical scholars 
themselves. To be certain that this discordance 
really exists, the reader has only to look into any 
good compendium of Scripture literature on chro- 
nology, such as Kitto's Cydopcedia or Smiths 



484 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

Bible Dictionary, for the date of ' the Deluge' (as 
something necessarily very close to the building of 
the ark) ; and he will immediately find himself en- 
tangled with disputes as to the relative trustworthi- 
ness of different versions of Scripture, the Hebrew 
giving one date, the Septuagint another, and the 
Samaritan yet another, each different from the rest 
by many centuries. 

The upholders of the Hebrew version declare 
that the Septuagint early dates, obtained by sum- 
ming up the patriarchal lives, were wilfully altered 
in the way of extension by the seventy of Alexan- 
dria, to make Bible dates more harmonious with 
Egyptian ideas of long chronology. But the sup- 
porters of the Septuagint, on the other hand, re- 
taliate that the keepers of the Hebrew copies of the 
Scriptures altered them in way of contraction of 
time after the taking of Jerusalem, — so as to per- 
suade men that the true Messiah of the prophecies 
must still be for to come and they further assert 
that our Saviour and the Apostles in their quotations 
from Scripture, always used the Septuagint version. 
As for the Samaritan manuscript, no one of note 
seems inclined to pin his faith on that uncertain docu- 
ment : and the dispute as to the true scriptural chro- 
nological date of the Deluge, or any nearly synchron- 
ous event in the earth's history, — will simply go on 
to the end of the present dispensation in a series 
of assertions from one side for the Hebrew, and 
counter assertions on the other for the Septuagint 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



485 



version/ — unless, indeed, some new material data 
more exactly to the point can be discovered. 

Evidence of such improved and additional kind 
would it be, could a copy of the Scriptures be dis- 
covered anywhere, capable of being clearly and in- 
dubitably proved to be older than the date of the 
Septuagint version ; but such a relic, we believe, 
nowhere exists. A friend, recently returned from 
the Holy Land, was loud the other day in praise of 
an ancient copy of the Scriptures which he had 
purchased from some Jews there, under a peculiar 
combination of circumstances favourable to the pro- 
duction before Western buyers, of the oldest mss. 
still existing in the East. And when we therefore 
inquired eagerly respecting its absolute age, he went 

^ Out of numerous couples of opponent writers, we subjoin the 
following as a fair sample of the wliole: — 

(1.) * . . . Our only real appeal is the Scripture. . . . And here, on 
' the great primary question of the Patriarchal chronologies, and whether 
' it be the Hebrew text with its shorter chronology, that has by fraud 

* been robbed of eleven centuries, or the Septuagint with its longer, that 

* has had them fraudulently added (for that the diflference is the 

* result of design is a thing evident, and long since noted by Augustine), 

* the answer seems on every account to be in favour of the Hebrew 

* text.' — P. 255, vol. iv. of Ilorce Ajjocali/jiticce, by the Rev. E. B. 
Elliot, A.M. 

(2.) 'The contracted scheme of the Hebrew text is rejected by the 
' greatest names in this branch of Biblical literature, as being glaringly 

* inconsistent not only with the records of other nations, but even 
' with the history of the ancient Hebrews themselves.' — Rev. J. R. 
Beard, in Kitto's Cyclopcedia of Biblical Literature. 

While the Rev. George Rawlinson, in his Bampton Lectures, de- 
livered in the Oxford University pulpit in 1859, seems to refer to the 
Hebrew text for doctrine and the Septuagint for dates ; the latter, too, 
he has so much confidence in, that he hxcs without scruple the date 
of building the Great Pyramid more than a century earher than the 
Deluge according to the Hebrew text. 



486 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DTV. III. 

off at first into a long account of the undoubted 
proofs he had obtained as to its superior relative 
antiquity to all other recently discovered mss. ; but 
concluded by stating, that he had submitted his 
copy to the examination of an expert in these 
things in Alexandria ; and the said skilled hand had 
rubbed the ms., and wetted it, bit it, and trode 
upon one corner, — and then pronounced it ' genuine 
' beyond all doubt, and twelve hundred years old' 

For ability, however, to throw full light on the 
vexed question between the two chief modern ver- 
sions of the Scriptures, a manuscript of at least 
2500 years old would be required; and proof also, 
capable too of being appreciated by ordinary men 
as well as experts, — that its writing had nowhere 
been tampered with in the interval ; and that the 
copy in question had been originally vouched for 
as to its literal correctness, if not actually written, 
by an authority of no less unimpeachable a character 
than one of the prophets capable of receiving the 
inspired messages themselves. And all that would 
be tantamount to a miracle in itself. 

Yet — within its own order both of subject, and 
mechanical mode of construction for the expression 
of its meaning — the Great Pyramid has all these 
forms of vouchers for its authenticity ; and for 
dating not only from 2500, but from more than 
4000 years ago. No one doubts but that the huge 
stones whose size, shape, and manner of arrange- 
ment and junction we can still examine, are, even 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



487 



by means, or on account, of these qualities, the very 
ipsissima verba, in so far as they represent words 
at all, of the original builders. Wherefore, in any 
cause which could be so represented, and where a 
power of proving at long future times the minute 
accuracy of the original message, should be im- 
portant, — there is evidently in practice a virtue in 
a builded monument like the Great Pyramid, which 
* no roll of a book' ever has been endued with or 
practically can possess, — when it is known only by 
copies, from copies, and these from other copies 
again, — all of which, together with the original, are 
long since reduced to dust. And now comes, or will 
soon come, the question, whether advantage has 
been taken for true religion of that remarkable pro- 
perty of almost undying authenticability, residing 
in the former method of commemoration. 

But our inquiries are now confined to the 
simple question to state, — though rather transcen- 
dental, to solve practically ; viz., that of testing one 
particular illustration derived from, and depending 
on the date of the Great Pyramid, by a proof to be 
derived from the Holy Scriptures : which latter, in 
their material form as they now exist among men, 
are far younger than the Great Pyramid, and in- 
finitely more difiicult to authenticate literally, ver- 
bally, and more especially, in their chronology. 

In this last point of difticulty, finding my own 
knowledge altogether insufficient, I turned to eccle 
siastical authority ; and after several fruitless or 



488 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

unsatisfactory answers from smaller dignitaries, — 
applied at length officially to the representative 
head of the largest and reputedly the most learned 
Established Church in Christendom, viz., the Angli- 
can — -requesting to know what that Church had 
concluded, and did believe, as to the true scriptural 
date of the Deluge ; and how far it approved of the 
dates inserted in the margin of many of the autho- 
rized copies of the Bible. 

The exact terms of the answer very graciously 
accorded, almost by return of post, are subjoined : — 

* Lambeth Palace, S., \4dh May 1866. 

' Sir, — In reply to your inquiry, I write to inform 
'you, 

' (1.) That the Church of England has assigned 

* no date to the Noachian Deluge. 

* (2.) That the Church has not fixed any dates 

* between which it must have taken place. 

' (3.) That the Church of England has not autho- 

* rized the insertion into the authorized copy of the 

* English Bible of any system of dates. — I have the 
' honour to be, etc., (Signed) C. T. Cantuar.' 

After receipt of such a letter, there was evidently 
nothing to be done, but for ourselves to attempt an 
approximate discussion, of what might seem humanly 
likely to have been the original Scripture date of 
the Deluge, — from a comparison of the various 
results of different private workers in this most 
interesting and important field. 



CHAP. VIll.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 489 

So far as we can gather the numbers, they run 
thus ; each result professing to be scriptural : — 

Authorities. Date of Deluge b.c. 

Septiiagint, Alexandrine (Kitto's Palestine)j . . = 3246 

Jackson, ......... = 3170 

Hales, = 3155 

R. Stewart Poole (Smith's Bible Dictionary), . . = 3129 

Samaritan (Kitto's Palestine), . . . . . = 2998 

W. Osburn {Monumental History of Egypt), . . = 2500 * 

EUiot's Horce Apocalypticce, = 2482 

Browne's Ordo Sceclorum, = 2446 

Playfair, = 2351 

Ussher, = 2348 

Petavius (Smith's Bible Dictionary), . . . . = 2327 

Mean, Years B.C., . «= 2741 



From all these various statements, then, what 
shall we conclude as to the real date of the one 
particular event which they each and all claim 
to chronicle ? 

We have taken a mean of the whole, and it 
chances to come to 2741 B.C. ; but, being derived 
from numbers differing so exceedingly as 3246 and 
2327, it can impart little confidence, — either as to 
the accuracy of the figures themselves, or, to what 
is more important still, the reality of the event 
alluded to. 

The actual range of the numbers, however, sug- 
gests a rudely parallel character with the crucial 
epochs of Great I^i^amid astronomy ; for the two 
occasions of a Draconis being seen in the direction 
of the entrance passage, or the years 2200 and 3400 
B.C., evidently circumscribe all of what can be called 
the Scripture dates of the Deluge ; while the time 



490 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DTV. III. 

of the star's uearest appulse to the pole, or about 
2800 B.C., approximates to the mean and most pro- 
bable time of the occurrence as above obtained. 
Such a resemblance of mere numbers, would of 
itself, be of no kind of importance ; but the manner 
in which the dates are obtained, proved, and memo- 
rialized by the Great P3rramid's method of observing, 
— connects itself astronomically, in a very remark- 
able manner, with numerous widespread and appa- 
rently genuine, independent, and authentic traditions 
of the Deluge, not yet explained on any scientific 
hypothesis. And yet when they are at last examined 
by what we have here to offer from the Pyramid, 
they are found to contain astronomical truths of 
rather too recondite a character to have been alighted 
on by savage tribes of imperfect civilisation. 

Now traditions of the Deluge, are undoubtedly 
rather too abundant in the present day ; and when 
one large work, presently before us, brings up with 
great rejoicing ' the celebrated Apamean medal,' 
struck in the time of the Koman Emperors ; and an- 
other equally ponderous volume discourses largely of 
Mohammedan traditions, — which even give what the 
people of the land said to Noah when he was build- 
ing the ark, and what he replied to them in return, 
— we object to such traditions entirely, because 
without any proof that they existed in the world 
until long after the dissemination of the Hebrew 
Scriptures among those very peoples and countries. 

But some of the annals of the Chinese, some of 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



491 



the Egyptian writings, some of the foundations of 
early Greek beliefs, some Chaldsean inscriptions, and 
by an inference of pretty sure character, some of the 
practices of Mexicans, Peruvians, Fijians, Australians, 
and other New-World savages whom Greece and 
Rome never knew, — these are free from the accusa- 
tion of possibly being founded in latter times on the 
Hebrew Scriptures. And when they all alike tell 
nearly the same story, they must allude to something 
founded on very broad, solid, and ancient founda- 
tions ; or, in other words, on truth and fact of a 
most cosmopolitan kind. 

Amongst such traditions, then, which we must re- 
spect, — and a few of which are contained in the 
quotation from Mr. Haliburton in vol. ii., pp. 380 to 
448,— there are not only traces of a belief in there 
having been a Deluge, destructive to the human race, 
but in there being some connexion between its 
cessation and the stars of the constellation Taurus. 
Why this should be, the traditions and their 
collectors say not ; they are only certain of the 
fact; and of the stars in Taurus being therefore 
associated with * sweet influences,^ and favourable to 
mankind. Wherefore, we take up the case at that 
point ; and suggest, by the light shed on the subject 
from Great Pyramid astronomy, that this is in the 
direction of being a reason : — 

Compute for the lower limiting date, or 2200 B.C., 
when a Draconis was last seen in the direction of 
the entrance passage of the Great Pyramid, — and 



492 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

when, both traditionally and scripturally, the 
dangers were over, and evil effects of the Deluge 
all subsided, — compute, we say, what equatorial and 
zodiacal constellation was on the meridian above the 
pole at the instant ; and, as abundantly described 
on pp. 279, 283, it was Taurus and the Pleiades. 

But compute for the upper limiting date, or 
3400 B.C., (i.e.) Pyramidally the penultimate occa- 
sion when a Draconis w^as similarly seen in the same 
angular direction from the pole, — and when both 
traditionally and scriptifrally the threatened punish- 
ment of the Deluge was impending over the human 
race, — and, as indicated on p. 277, the equatorial and 
zodiacal sky was as diverse from the epoch of 2200 
B.C. as anything can be under the whole heaven ; for 
Taurus and the Pleiades were nowhere visible, while 
Scorpio and Serpens occupied the dominant position. 

For almost any period, moreover, previous to 
3400 B.C., Scorpio and Serpens were nearly similarly 
dominant, — ^just as for ages after 2200 B.C., Taurus 
and the Pleiades were also, as at that epoch, the 
generally dominant stars ; and characterized post- 
diluvian, just as essentially as the former stars ex- 
pressed antediluvian, times. But they did this only 
through means of that most peculiar feature of the 
Great Pyramid astronomy, — a feature most certainly 
known to exist, though entirely neglected by modern 
astronomers hitherto, — viz., the feature of the Pyra- 
mid visibly memorializing its polar star fmly at its 
lower culmination. We, however, having attended 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



493 



to that clear principle of the builders connected with 
the lower, and not the upper, culmination, — have 
obtained for the earlier time-limit, something that 
seems to explain the maledictory names so generally 
bestoAved by all early Eastern nations on the stars 
in Scorpio and Serpens ; and for the later time- 
limit, an explanation of the rejoicing, fond, and 
grateful epithets similarly applied to the stars in 
Taurus. 

But what shall we obtain, on similarly comput- 
ing for the middle epoch, or that of a Draconis 
being at its closest proximity to the pole (yet still 
not at the pole, and therefore having a circumpolar 
daily circle, though an exceedingly small one, to 
describe, and with an upper and lower culmination, 
in principle as before) ; i.e., compute for 2800 B.C., 
which is so nearly the mean of all scriptural dates 
of the Deluge itself, as to come within sixty years 
of it % Why, this is what comes out, — that when 
a Draconis was then crossing the meridian below the 
pole, the zodiacal constellation crossing the meridian 
above the pole was Aquarius ! At that very date, 
the meridian line crosses the mouth of the water- 
pot whence the stream is issuing ; and thence, in 
the course of a short time, traverses through the 
water- stream ; next, the constellation of Pisces, then 
Aries, and finally — at the marked period of the Pyra- 
mid, or 2170 B.C., or when a Draconis was 3° 42' 
from the pole, — is found as already detailed in 
Taurus. Not only so too, but the Pleiades seems to 



494 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



form almost the limits of the movement of the 
meridian opposite to a Draconis ; so that that circle 
must have hung on those stars, as it were, almost 
inalterably for ages near to and about the year 2200 
B.C. ; and then have begun only slowly to retro- 
grade, even as it is doing now.^ 

So here, we have a series of genuine early tradi- 
tions, rendered in a manner vocal, or endued with 
a meaning, through the agency of ideas embodied 
in the constellations (to be presently shown prim- 
eval, prophetic, and memorial), in combination with 
a monument built not only before the dissemination 
of the Hebrew Scriptures over the world, but before 
even the writing of them had begun. 

Wherefore can there be any other explanation 
of so many mutually explanatory circumstances of 
opposite natures and independent origin, and now 
first brought together, — than that the Deluge to 

1 Hence, we may see an additional proof of the actual wisdom of the 
Pyramid's arrangements : for the Pleiades merely ojyposite to a Draco- 
nis in right ascension, would have been exceedingly indeterminate in 
date ; but the above, combined with a Draconis at 3° 42' from the pole 
(though that again bij itself has uncertainties spreading over twelve 
hundred years), is precise in the extreme. 

A star-map, specially adapted for tracing such changes as these, is 
now being prepared by Colonel Sir Henry James, R.E., Director of the 
Ordnance Survey at Southampton ; it will form the fifth of his series 
of star-maps, and being on his peculiar projection of the sphere, which 
gives much more than half at one view, or as he both exactly and 
classically entitles it, ' Coeli, besse tenus, liceat com^exa tueri,^ — both the 
ecliptic pole, and the whole of the constellations, whether zodiacal or 
at any date equatorial, will be commanded on a flat surface. The maps, 
which are splendidly engraved on copper, are published, and may be 
obtained at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton ; or by apply- 
ing through any bookseller. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



495 



which they all refer must have been, at least as re- 
gards all mankind then living, a real and material 
phenomenon, and within the limits of time assigned 
by Scripture authorities ? And if so, of course, it 
follows that the building of the ark of refuge is to 
be looked on as historical likewise. So that we then 
have from the Scriptures, first in this ark, and then 
in the subsequent ark of the testimony or of the cove- 
nant, two cases of real, practical work actually per- 
formed ; and in each case according to linear measures 
and proportions previously announced by Divine 
inspiration, — while the middle date between these 
two cases, falls very nearly on the time of the build- 
ing of the Great Pyramid. 

We might indeed now, not unreasonably, put 
forward some further claims for the inspired origin 
of the Great Pyramid, depending on the manner of 
its memorializing a primeval and scriptural pheno- 
menon, — but will content ourselves with merely re- 
marking, that so far as the one point of chronology 
is concerned, there need be no objection to the in- 
spiration hypothesis being tried further. And then 
there immediately arise some other and more directly 
related features, as well as some of a higher order, 
to be examined into. 

Metrology suitable as a Subject ? 

Whether metrology at large, or some special means 
for the typification and regulation of weights and 
measures (which we now look on as the chief ori- 



496 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



ginal purpose of the Great Pyramid), was a subject 
likely in the earlier ages of human society, to have 
formed the burden of any inspired commands from 
the dread God of all nature, — whom no man could 
expect to behold and live, — admits of quick general 
settlement ; for, from the time of Paucton in France 
to John Taylor in England, very frequent reference 
has been made to passages in the earlier portions of 
Scripture, as in Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Proverbs, 
and Ezekiel, directly stating in the words of inspira- 
tion that such was the fact : — 

Leviticus xix. 35-37. — ' Ye shall do no unrighteousness in 

* judgment, in mete-yard, in weight, or in measure. 

^ Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall 
' ye have : T am the Lord your God, which brought you out of 
' the land of Egypt. 

' Therefore shall ye observe all my statutes, and all my judg- 

* ments, and do them : I am the Lord.' 

Deuteronomy xxv. 15. — ' Thou shalt have a perfect and just 

* weight, a perfect and just measure shalt thou have : that thy 
' days may be lengthened in the land which the Lord thy God 

* giveth thee.' 

Proverbs xi. 1. — ' A false balance is abomination to the 

* Lord ; but a just weight is his delight.' 

Proverbs xvi. 11. — ' A just weight and balance are the 
' Lord's ; all the weights of the bag are his work.' 

Ezekiel xlv. 9, 10, 11. — ' Thus saith the Lord God, Let it 

* suffice you, princes of Israel : remove violence and spoil, and 

* execute judgment and justice, take away your exactions from 

* my people, saith the Lord God. 

* Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephah, and a just 

* bath. 

* The ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, that the 

* bath may contain the tenth part of an homer, and the ephah 

* the tenth part of an homer ; the measure thereof shall be after 
' the homer.' 



CHAP. VIII.] 



ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



497 



These words, — as we have attempted to set forth 
in Chapter iii. Part 5, of Our Inheritance in the 
Great Pyramid, — few though they be, yet compen- 
dious, imply that much besides was, and had been, 
actually done, performed, and completed practically, 
— before they could be, in any spirit of justice and 
mercy, issued as binding commands on a people just 
escaped from a grinding slavery. 

But rather than go over that identical ground 
again, it may be more satisfactory to the reader, as 
well as more within the bounds of this division of 
our whole question, to quote the testimony, now 
one hundred years old, — and perhaps not so gener- 
ally known as it deserves to be, — of the learned 
John David Michaelis of Gottingen. 

An unusually good Hebrew scholar, his contribu- 
tions to Biblical and Oriental learning are said by 
competent judges to be invaluable, especially when 
he treats of subjects capable of illustration from 
history and philosophy. In following up these views, 
and in order to throw more of the light of modem 
investigation on Biblical science, Michaelis planned 
the expedition to Arabia and India which was after- 
wards conducted by Carsten Niebuhr, and other 
travellers chiefly selected by Michaelis. His most 
celebrated work, however, is his Mosdisches Recht, 
in six volumes, in which his object is described by 
his English translator to be, — ' to investigate and 

* illustrate the philosophy of the Mosaic laws, to 

* show their wonderful adaptation in every respect 

VOL. III. 2 I 



498 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

* to the very peculiar circumstances in which the 

* people to whom they were given had been placed 

* by Providence ; and, while he takes every opportu- 

* nity of establishing the claims of Moses to the 
' character of an ambassador from heaven, to incul- 
' cate upon human legislatures the important lesson 
' of studying those particulars respecting the nature 
' and political situation, the ideas and prejudices, 

* the manners and customs of their countrymen, by 
' attention to which alone they can ever hope to make 
' them virtuous, prosperous, and happy/ 

Strong, then, in the principles of the subject, 
though unacquainted with some important features 
of absolute fact, as well as of characteristic differences, 
in the Egyptian and Hebrew metrologies, — such as 
we have attempted to set forth in vol. ii. pp. 454- 
470, * On the Sacred Hebrew Standards of Weights 
' and Measures,' — the worthy Michaelis expresses 
himself thus, in an extract which we are indebted 
to kind friends at Brighton for bringing to our at- 
tention : — 

' Of the Plans which Moses took for the Regulation of 
* Weights and Measures. 

* Here, then, we have a remarkable specimen of legislative 

* policy ; and when I consider Moses merely as a man, without 
' any reference to his Divine mission, he must, methinks, have 
' profited by his education among the Egyptians ; but he has, at 
' the same time, far surpassed them, and acted with much more 
' honesty, than their policy,— which was so thoroughly interwoven 
' with mystery and priestcraft, — permitted them to do. For 



CHAP. VI 11.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



499 



' although he constituted the sacred tribe guardians of the sacred 

* standards, and imposed upon them the duty of acquiring a 

* knowledge of weights and measures with mathematical accuracy, 

* — yet of things in which all were thus interested, he made no 
' priestly mystery, but placed certain models of them all in the 

* view of all ; besides describing these in the books which were 

* put into the hands of the whole people. Considering him, on 
' the other hand, as sent by God, it appears to me, that he had 
' in this matter, by God's express command, done the very same 

* thing that a wise people had done of their own accord ; but in a 

* much more honest and open manner, and, at the same time, in 
' a much higher degree of perfection. 

* In the first place, then, the weights and measures were pre- 
' served in the tabernacle of testimony, in more ways than one, 
' and partly in the view of every individual, for at least many 

* hundred years. Some of them, it is true, might by use and 
' time suffer some change ; but for that very reason, there were 
' various standards, so that the error of any one could always be 
' rectified by the others, and some of them were kept within the 
' sanctuary itself, and were thus less liable to variation. 

* In the description of the tabernacle, we may, perhaps, have 

* read, with some degree of weariness, many particulars relative 
' to measures, in which we took no interest, and have often 

* thought with ourselves in the meantime, Why did not Moses 
' "rather leave this out? I should have dispensed with it.'' 

* Some people, in order to assign some use to these mensurations, 
' endeavour to discover in them a variety of types and mysteries. 

* But, although I am very far from denying the typical nature of 

* many of the Mosaic ceremonial laws, yet I cannot here agree 
' with such people, nor comprehend what moral, doctrinal, or 
' spiritual meaning there can be in ten ells long, one and a half 
' ell hroad, and a half ell thick. Others, again, equally short- 
' sighted, are so vexed at finding that these things are of no use 
' to them, as to conclude, with great theological depth, that they 

* could not be written by the command of God, because they 
' contain nothing useful or edifying ; just as if God should have 
' had the Bible written for them alone (a requisition, by the 
' way, which they would never think of making in the case of 
' any human work), or as if in a book written by the immediate 
' command of God, tligrc ought to bo nothing that did not mini- 



500 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



* ster to moral edification ; and as if revealed religion did not 

* inform us that Grod had condescended to become a civil legisla- 

* tor to the people of Israel. This very specification of longitu- 
' dinal measures, which we find so frequently repeated, answered 
' one of the most important purposes of police to the Israelites, 

* and as a masterpiece of legislative wisdom in this respect, it 

* merits our admiration. 

' I shall now speak of their measures of length, measures of 

* capacity, and weights, separately and in succession. 

* 1. The longitudinal measure was fixed for future ages in a 
' great variety of ways. The measures of the court of the taber- 
' nacle and its hangings (Exodus xxvii. 8-19) ; of the curtains 

* that covered the tabernacle (Exodus xxvi. 1-13) ; of the boards 
' that framed it, which were made of a wood very little apt to 

* alter (Exodus xxvi. 15, 16) ; of the tabernacle itself, which 

* was 30 ells long, and 10 broad ; of the altar of burnt- offerings, 
' overlaid with copper (Exodus xxvii. 1) ; are all specified in ells, 

* and that in a book which every Israelite was to read." It is 
' true, that the curtains and the wood might be affected by ex- 

* posure to the atmosphere, although one error would correct 

* another ; but still every Israelite that came to attend Divine 
' service, in any future age, would here obtain a pretty accurate 

* view of the ell, and might, at any rate, measure some of those 

* things with more perfect accuracy, and thus judge whether the 

* nation still retained in common use the ancient original ell 

* or not. 

* Still less variation was to be dreaded in those archetypes of 
' the ell, that were kept in the sanctuary itself. Of the table of 
' shew-bread (Exodus xxv. 23), the altar of incense (Exodus 
' XXX. 2), and the ark of the covenant (Exodus xxv. 10), all the 
' dimensions are specified. These were made of acacia wood, 
' and only overlaid with gold. But the most invariable of all the 

* standards of longitudinal measures, as being made entirely of 
' gold, is the lid of the ark, which was two ells and a half long, and 
' one ell and a half broad (Exodus xxv. 17). No doubt, this ark 
'■ always remained in the obscurity of the sanctuary, unless it 
' happened to be brought into the light by any rare occurrence, 
' as during a campaign in the time of war. But for that very 
' reason it was so much the more invariable, and could thus, if 
' necessity required, serve, after many centuries, to ascertain 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



501 



* whether any errors, and what, had aflfected the other standards 

* of the ell. 

* I admit, that at last a time would come, when all those 

* standards of longitudinal measures would become useless, 

* because nothing on earth endures for ever. But then new 
' standards could be previously made from them ; and we jBnd 

* that this was actually done. When the tabernacle (according 

* to the reading in the printed Hebrew text) was 480 or (accord- 

* ing to another reading which Josephus and Paul found in the 

* Bibles in common use in Palestine in their time) 592 years old, 

* and must certainly have been pretty much decayed, Solomon 
' began the building of his temple. At this time they would, 
' from the remains of the tabernacle, still be able to ascertain 
' the Mosaic ell. This measure was transferred to the temple ; 

* and that edifice which, being built of stone, was liable to still 
' fewer changes, particularly in a southern country, where no 
' severe frosts make the stones of a building separate from each 

* other, was 60 ells long and 20 broad ; and thus, without taking 
' into account other expedients that Solomon might have em- 

* ployed for the purpose, the ancient Mosaic ell was preserved 

* until the time of Nebuchadnezzar, by whom this temple was 
' destroyed. The numerous golden utensils which it contained, 
' the vessel called the brazen sea, and the two copper columns, 

* Boaz and Jachin, of which the altitude and circumference are 
' specified, answered the same purpose. Now the question is, 
' Have we ourselves such ancient and such authentically attested 
' memorials of our ell, as it was 480, 592, or, reckoning to the 
' time of Nebuchadnezzar, 903, or 1015 years ago ? (I know 

* not whether we have or not ; and I merely ask : for my readers 

* will not be offended at me for my ignorance of many things), 
' and are these (I really do not ask this question, for I well know 

* the contrary) specified in a book, that is in every one's 
' hands?' 

' From what I find merely in the details relative to the struc- 

* ture of the tabernacle, where it is so manifestly his object to fix, 

* in different ways, one uniform standard of measure, I am led to 

* conjecture, that Moses had done still more with that view, and 
' had given to the priests other special patterns of the ell, which 

* they were ordinarily to use, and moreover, one archetype which 

* they were sacredly to preserve. Of this, however, he does not 



502 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. Til. 



' himself inform us ; but if it was the case, the models mentioned 

* in his writings, would always serve the purpose of preventing 

* any alteration from being made upon them, either from care- 
' lessness or fraud, without its being quite manifest to posterity. 
' This is actually more than what the author of the excellent 
' Essay upon Money and Coins projected in the year 1768,, and 

* Parliament took into consideration. And if the British Legis- 

* lature were desirous to insure to future ages the true measure 

* of the ell, on the Mosaic principles and plan, they ought to have 

* it ascertained by the mathematicians of St. Paul's Church, with 
' the most perfect accuracy, and to have an authentic record of 
' the mensuration drawn up in the plainest and briefest terms, 

* and published in a book, which every Briton might read, as 

* easily, at any rate, as the Israelite heard the law read, once 

* every seven years, — in the Catechism, for instance, or the 
' Calendar, which should not be allowed to be printed without 
' this appendix concerning St. Paul's.' 

* It is to be hoped that my readers are, by this time, some- 
' what reconciled to the Mosaic measures ; and that they will no 
' longer seek for types in the numbers ; nor from the mensura- 
' tions, whence they can derive neither edification nor amendment, 
' deduce any more objections against the Divine mission of Moses, 
' and the inspiration of his writings ; else must I class them with 
' the man who could not comprehend what could be the use of 
' the rampart of a fort, because he saw no crop of either rye or 
' wheat upon it, and therefore could not be persuaded, by all the 

* assurances that were given him, that it was formed after a plan 

* drawn by the king himself. "It is not," persisted he, " for 

* " use as a corn-field ; neither wheat nor rye grows upon it ; 

* " and our most gracious sovereign can have had no hand in 
' " any such thing." 

' 2. The measures for corn and wine (mensurce aridorum et 
^ fluidorum) were among the Hebrews more uniform in their 
' contents than ours are. For their ephah or bushel, and their 

* hath (for liquids) were equally large.' 

* It is very certain that there was a standard of these measures 
' in the sanctum sanctorum, and that it stood before the Ark of 
' the Covenant. Moses was ordered to place an homer of manna 

* (and the homer is the tenth part of an ephah or Hebrew bushel) 
' before God ; and it appears that the vessel was not of wood, 



CHAP. Vril.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



503 



' but of gold (Exodus xvi. 33, 36 ; Hebrews ix. 4). It is 
' probable that there were various other measures in use, although 

* Moses has not inserted in his writings any account of their 

* contents. At this no one need be offended, who joined in 

* finding fault with the too frequent repetition of the ells ; for, in 

* fact, measures of this description could not properly be specified 

* in the Book of the Law, because the standard vessel, which was 
' of gold, could not, without risk of being injured or stolen, be 

* put in view of every Israelite, as the tabernacle was, in all its 

* specified dimensions. 

* To notice, however, some probable examples of standard 

* measures of capacity which may have been described in the 

* catalogue by which the sacred utensils were delivered to the 

* priests and Levites (Numbers i. iv.), I would remark that, be- 

* longing to the table of shew-bread, there were not only golden 

* tankards in which wine stood, and from which it was to 
' be poured out, but also small drinking vessels, shaped like 

* cups, likewise of gold. Now, considering Moses not as sent 

* from God, but as merely versed in the learning of the Egyp- 

* tians, we must think it probable that all these vessels had their 

* contents very accurately determined, I presume that the very 
' same was the case with regard to the basins belonging to the 
' altar of burnt- ofi"erings ; and for regulating the baking of the 

* shew-bread, the flour for which the law fix't by bushels, there 

* may have been a standard ephah within the sanctuary. Before 

* the tabernacle stood the brazen laver. In the more particular 
' description of the vessels delivered to the priests, it was pro- 

* bably specified how much water this laver contained, both when 
' quite full and when filled only to a certain mark ; and accord- 

* ingly we find that the contents of this brazen sea, as it was 
' called, are mentioned in both respects, in the historical books 
' of 1st Kings (vii. 26), and 2d Chronicles (iv. 5). 

* 3. As to weights, Moses specifies them in the following man- 

* ner — 20 gerahs make one shekel of the sanctuary ; see Exodus 

* XXX. 13, Leviticus xxvii. 25, Numbers iii. 47, xviii. 16. 

' 3000 such shekels make one kickar, or talent. This appears 

* from Exodus xxxviii. 25, 26 ; where 301,775 shekels are 

* reckoned 100 talents, and 1775 shekels more. Moses gave no 
' statute relative to the talent, as he did in the case of the gerah 
' and shekel ; probably because there was no dispute about the 



504 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



' talent, every one reckoning it at 3000 shekels ; whereas the one 

* shekel might comprise more and the other fewer gerahs. 

* By this information alone, however, posterity would not have 

* been much benefited ; for the question would be, Hoio much is 

* a gerah ? and if it was replied, TJie twentieth part of a shekel^ 
' the question would recur, And what is a shekel ? and if the 

* answer was, Twenty gerahs, they would have been in the very 
' same predicament in which the evil spirit stood, when he 

* catechised the orthodox collier on the subject of his belief. If, 
' in the course of time, the shekel became smaller, so likewise 
' would the gerah diminish in the same proportion. 

' But here, too, a standard was provided. The fifty boards 
' of which the walls of the tabernacle were composed, rested each 

* upon two silver sockets, and every one of these hundred sockets 

* was of the weight of a talent (Exodus xxxviii. 27). Here, there- 
' fore, they had no fewer than a hundred standards for the talent, 
' by which the shekel could at any future period be determined. 
' If they lost anything by friction it was in proportion very 
' trifling ; whereas in the case of smaller weights, like the shekel 
' and gerah, the loss by wear or friction amounts to something 
' more material. The golden candlestick in the sanctuary, to- 

* gether with all its appurtenances, in like manner, weighed a 

* talent (Exodus xxv. 31-39) ; and in the catalogue according to 
' which the different pieces of furniture belonging to the taber- 
' nacle were given in charge to their keepers, it was doubtless 
' accurately specified what was the weight of the golden candle- 
' stick by itself, as well as of every golden pair of snuffers, and 
' of whatever else belonged to it ; and likewise that of all the 
^ golden articles belonging to the table of shew-bread, and of the 
' golden lid of the ark with its cherubims. In this way they had 
' a great variety of standards for their weights, and if in any of 
' them, by the wear of the gold, any small diminution of weight 
' took place, others were always at hand to rectify the defect. 
' But it is not to be forgotten that these standards, of which 
' some, at any rate, could certainly lose nothing by wear in the 
' course of thousands of years, from their being so very sacredly 
' preserved, were not of iron and copper, which in process of 
' time are corroded by rust and verdigris, if exposed to damp- 
' ness or even to acids, but of gold and silver, which defy 
' moisture and the common acids. Nor was there any reason to 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



605 



* apprehend that the gold would ever be wilfully and feloniously 

* filed down, for the profit of such sacrilege would have been too 
' inconsiderable for people so rich as were the priests ; and even 
' though we should represent them to ourselves as ever so destitute 

* of principle, they could scarcely have run the risk of being stoned 

* for a few grains of gold. Besides, they must have had to de- 

* liver the articles under their charge, according to their weight, 
' when required ; not to mention that the sanctity of the golden 
' standards would make them shudder at the very thought of 
' committing theft upon them in any shape. The best possible 
' provision, therefore, was made for unalterable and authentic 
' standards of weight.' 

* And now, as to the superintendents of weights and measures. 

* These were, much in the Egyptian style, priests and Levites. 

* To them the standards were delivered ; and, indeed, article by 

* article, to particular persons, that so, if of gold or of silver, they 

* might re-deliver it by weight ; besides, the whole tribe of Levi 

* were maintained by the public in return for their devoting 
' themselves to the sciences. Nay, more, we find it expressly 
' mentioned in 1st Chronicles xxiii. 29, that David, when he 

* assigned to each Levite his department, appointed some to 

* superintend the weights and measures.' 

' Thus were these things really consecrated ; and thus are 

* the words of Solomon in Proverbs xi. 16 true, in a sense which 

* readers seldom think of : A just halance is sacred to Jehovah ; 
' and all weights are his work. 

* At the same time, however, Moses nowhere prohibits the 
' use of foreign weights and measures ; at least I can recollect 

* no such prohibition ; and from his so often mentioning the 
' sacred shekel, and in Leviticus xxvii. expressly saying, All 
' estimations of vows shall he made by the sacred shekel, it would 

* appear, that there had been another shekel, which he did not 

* prohibit, but only meant that everything in his laws relative to 
' imposts, penalties, etc. etc., should be understood in reference to 

* the shekel of the sanctuary. At any rate, there seem, besides 

* this sacred shekel, to have been many foreign ones, and, more- 
' over, a royal shekel, established by later laws (2 Samuel xiv. 
' 26), and of a smaller weight than that of Moses ; concerning 
' which I have treated in another place, and the origin of which 

* may have been the following. As it was not forbidden to deal 



506 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



* in common life by dififerent weights, there arose, in process of 

* time, a much smaller, but variable shekel ; and to prevent un- 

* certainty and imposition, the kings fixed the weight of this 
' common shekel more accurately ; so that from this time there 
' were two lawful shekels current among the Israelites, the 

* sacred and the royal. Even Moses himself, in his historical 

* relations, does not seem to adhere uniformly to his own mea- 
' sures ; as, for instance, where he describes the coffin of Og, 

* king of Bashan, as nine ells long, and foitr broad, measured by 

* the elbow of a man (Deuteronomy iii. 11) ; concerning which 

* passage, I request that the remark in my German version of 

* the Bible mny be perused. 

' It is no doubt an imperfection of police to permit the use of 
' different weights and measures ; and it may be asked, Why 

* Moses did not go a step further, and expressly prohibit all but 

* one set ? We must here, however, take into consideration the 
' circumstances of the Israelites, and bear in mind, that, not 
' being themselves a commercial people, they were dependent for 

* trade upon other nations ; upon the Phoenicians for maritime 
' commerce, and upon the Arabs for the caravan trade that 

* passed through Palestine. A people in such circumstances 

* cannot altogether avoid making use of foreign weights and 

* measures, if they would avoid being over-reached by the foreign 

* merchants, in whose hands the whole trade is ; only they should 
' have one invariable standard of their own, to which all others 

* can be reduced, and that they ought in justice to use in dealing 

* one with another. This standard may, no doubt, be departed 

* from by an abuse, and other foreign weights, etc., become 

* current among the citizens ; and I suppose it was some such 
' abuse that gave occasion to the establishment of the royal 

* shekel. Some writers, however, look upon the royal and sacred 

* shekel as the same ; and if that be admitted, much of what I 

* have here written falls to the ground. 

' That Moses enjoins the use of just balances, and just weights 

* and measures, is very obvious. The statutes relative to this point 
' occur in Leviticus xix. 35-37, and Deuteronomy xxv. 14-16. 
' If it is forbidden there to have a great and a small bushel, a 

* great and a small weight, the meaning is not, that beside the 

* shekel of the sanctuary, they were not to have any other, nor 

* even in their dealings with foreigners to use their shekel ; but 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



607 



' only, that they were not to have two different weights of the 

* same denomination, a larger to purchase by, and a lesser to 

* sell by. 

* It would appear, that these statutes were, in the time of 

* Moses,. pretty sacredly kept, because he does not once mention 

* any punishment as being annexed to their violation ; but deems 

* it sufficient to say. Whosoever committeth such unrighteous deeds 

* is an abomination to Jehovah thy God. The very circumstance 

* of their regarding balances, weights, and measures, as conso- 

* crated to the Deity, might keep a people, while yet honest and 

* religious, from fraudulent practices, as being offences in the 
' sight of a holy God. In later times, however, we find the 

* prophets often charging them with the use of false weights, 

* etc' 

So far the venerable Michaelis, on the proceed- 
ings of an inspired teacher among the Israelites and 
his method of illustrating, exhibiting, enforcing, and 
preserving extreme exactness with regard to one 
particular system of weights and measures ; a 
system too, which was considered so sacred, that 
any deviation therefrom was declared to be imme- 
diately and peculiarly obnoxious to Jehovah. AU 
this description refers, indeed, to a period long 
subsequent to that of the building of the Great 
Pyramid; but at another period much preceding that 
event, — or when the commands were delivered to 
Noah with regard to the formation of the ark, — a 
knowledge of what the cubits, so called, ' of Jehovah' 
are equal to, was evidently pre-supposed as then 
existing on the part of the patriarch. We have 
shown too, already, the commensurability (vol. ii. 
p. 470) of Solomon's still later, 'Molten Sea,' with 
Moses' Ark of the Covenant ; and everything that 



508 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



we know concerning the continuity of the scheme 
of revelation from one end of the Bible to the other, 
allows us to admit of no other, than one, constant, 
length as the cubit of the sacred people of God in 
every age and in every clime. 

Hence we cannot but see, that not only the sub- 
ject of metrology, but more especially the formation 
of a sufficient monument to preserve the length of a 
certain set of sacred standards in a practicable and 
reliable shape, — from the time of the very Deluge or 
its proximate epoch, down to the ends of the world, 
— in a religious point of view, — ^is most agreeable 
to scriptural enunciations on the case. Nay, in- 
deed, something of the kind would appear to have 
been, and to be, absolutely necessary ; for how 
otherwise (see vol. ii. pp. 455 and 456), unless the 
original standards of inspiration are set before us, 
can we have full confidence in a supposed cubit of 
the present day being of the same length as the 
sacred cubit, and not more like any of the numer- 
ous other cubits of profane nations, — the employ- 
ment of any one of which the Hebrews were 
especially taught, would have been abomination to 
Jehovah thy God. The scriptural family of the 
Hebrews, indeed, living in the earlier ages of the 
world, and only for a definite epoch, — could, for such 
period, be supplied and kept safe by a temporary set 
of standards ; — but the Christian nations of the world 
three thousand years after the inspired Hebrew time, 
could only be served by something very difierent 



1 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



509 



from, and much more lasting tlian, Moses' standards 
of wood and gold. 

Style of the Metrology suitable ? 

Although sufficing reasons may now be considered 
to have been produced, illustrating both the expe- 
diency and propriety of some grand and lasting 
monument of sacred origin having been erected, for 
the purpose of conveying to present and still future 
times the originals of the standards employed by 
Moses and Noah, — yet we are not thereby imme- 
diately justified in concluding that the Great 
Pyramid is that monument. 

The Great Pyramid is indeed the worthiest build- 
ing for the purpose yet known to man, being the 
largest, the most purely scientific in form, the most 
accurately and solidly constructed, the most capable 
of resisting alike fire and water, storm and earth- 
quake ; and actually does span all the immense 
interval, stretching from the latter days of Noah 
of the Hebrew Scriptures, down to — what many 
writers on the prophecies look on as the proximate 
termination of the Christian dispensation, and near 
approach of the second glorious advent. But we 
must pass all these things by for a time, while we 
put the building through another more searching 
test still, — by inquiring whether its peculiar and 
now well-ascertained metrology is likely to resemble 
very closely, that one sacred system of weights and 



i 



510 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. 111. 

measures with which alone, Jehovah of the Hebrews 
desired to be served. 

This point, however, we have in eJffect already 
settled, by the concluding memoir in vol. ii. ; where, 
founding on Sir Isaac Newton's admirable disser- 
tation on cubits, — and agreeing with him that the 
sacred cubit was quite different from the profane 
Egyptian cubit, — we have yet found it (the sacred 
cubit), to be precisely the same as the cubit of the 
Great Pyramid. Found also that the most sacred 
Ark of the Covenant, was the same lidless-box mea- 
sure, identical in cubic contents with the coffer of 
the Great Pyramid; and found still further that 
Solomon's Molten Sea was of the same cubical capa- 
city as the lower marked-off course in the King s 
chamber. Beyond this too still, we have shown at 
p. 240 in this volume, that the week of the Queen's 
chamber is identical with the sabbatical week, alike 
of the second chapter of Genesis and of the book of 
Exodus ; and is just as entirely different from the 
profane Egyptian week of old, as from the decadal 
week of the modern French metrical system ; — and 
all this being so,-r-why, the Great Pyramid is 
simply a representation of the sacred Hebrew 
weights and measures, so far as known, — and is in 
large opposition to either ancient pagan, or modern 
atheistical, measures. Hence our present titular 
argument is proved entirely. 

There still remains, however, quite open, the 
further very important question, — whether the 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



511 



people employed in the building of the Great 
Pyramid were those who, on scriptural grounds, 
may be considered likely to have been made the 
channels of inspired commands from God to man ; 
and for producing a then world's wonder, but ulti- 
mately a benefit in many ways to the whole human 
race. Wherefore we must next advance to the dis- 
cussion of the 

Suitability of the men concerned ? 

Nearly all the recorded cases in Scripture, so far 
as we are aware, of inspiration having been granted 
for the purpose of promoting either directly or in- 
directly the revealed religion, — were confined to men 
conspicuous above their fellows for piety, morality, 
and amenability to the doctrines of that religion of 
which they were to become either the mouth-pieces 
or exemplars ; and the number of mortals so highly 
favoured, in post-diluvian times, seldom travelled 
far out of the direct line of the family of Shem. 

But how does this principle suit the case of the 
Great Pyramid, if built, under instructions from the 
same inspiration, but in Egypt, and by the hands of 
Egyptian workmen, — Egypt being the most wofully 
idolatrous of all countries; while its people were 
exclusively descendants of Ham ? 

Several answers in mitigation somewhat of this 
extreme view of the Egyptian idolatry, — everything 
else being allowed as above stated, — have been at- 
tempted by various hands. 



512 ORIGINATION OF THE GKEAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

In the first place, for instance, there has been a 
growing feeling of late, — among those men who 
have made a special pursuit of Egyptian hierogly- 
phics, sculptures, and paintings, and who consider 
deep and curious investigations into the detail of f he 
animal-headed Pantheon of ancient Egypt, a most 
worthy and elevating study for Christian men of the 
present day, — that it was not all so bad as it looks. 
They have strong impressions, say these well-mean- 
ing students, that the old Egyptians were not so 
very far from the truth ; and that all these idolatrous 
figures on the temple- walls which ofi'end the eyes of 
casual observers, — were deep-meaning mysteries and 
symbolical expressions of something really very dif- 
ferent in its nature. And in fact, these modern 
students not only endeavour to show that Moses 
formed the chief part of the Hebrew worship on the 
model of the Eg3rptian ; but that the latter faith, on 
receiving ' its expansion into the world,' became the 
efiective origin of the Christian religion as well. 

* At the present day,' says one of these authors, 

* Christianity, Judaism, and Mohammedanism keep 
' the conscience of the world, and as each of these 

* religions was merely the Egijptian idea carried 
' {colportee) into another country, it is in reality 
' the Egyptian idea which still rules the world.' 

* In stating this fact,' proceeds the author in ques- 
tion, ' we conceive we have been acting in a very 

* Christian manner ; for it belongs to a Christian to 

* know how to render to Csesar that which belongs 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



613 



* to Caesar, and to God what belongs to God ; and 
' similarly to the Egyptians what belongs to the 
' Egyptians, instead of robbing them/^ 

Now very far be it from us, to refuse to the 
Eg}^ptians whatever really belongs to them ; and 
with regard to all their sculptures of animal-headed 
gods, and actual worship of animals, we know of no 
reason whatever why Egyptians should not have 
the full credit, and responsibility too, of having in- 
vented them. On the very same principles, indeed, 
whereby we could not allow Egyptians to have con- 
ceived the idea of the Great Pyramid as a metrolo- 
gical monument, — because its birth was not after 
the necessary manner of all human beginnings 
(p. 371), — we are specially bound to let them, the 
Egyptians, take to their share all their false gods ; 
— for the number of these did increase with their 
own growth and strengthen with their strength as a 
nation, according to the law of human inventions 
and national commencements. So that although in 
the earlier monuments such idolatrous figures are 
few and far between, they abound exceedingly in 
the later days of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
dynasties ; and have even forced from M. Renan the 
remark we have already given, as to the temples of 
that period seeming, when contrasted with the earlier, 
to have been * invaded by a whole Pantheon, the 

* Les Divinites Egyptiennes, leur origine, leur culte, et son expansion 
dans le monde. Par Olivier Beauregard. Paris, 1866. See p. 604. 

VOL. IIL 2 K 



514 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

' most horrible and ridiculous that the human mind 
' has ever conceived/ 

* Ah !' but say others of the Egyptologists, * though 
' the figures appear repulsive or silly, that is only 

* because they are mysteries to the uninitiated/ 

When these gentlemen have tried to prove their 
case openly, in some other manner than by myste- 
rious assertion, — it will be quite time enough to 
examine their reasons ; but in the meanwhile it is 
sufficient for all the plain-speaking world, that 
neither the Mosaic nor Christian religions either 
copied or permitted such a pictorial or sculptorial 
method as that of the Egjrptian temples, for con- 
cealing grand ideas of religion from the people. 
The adoption, indeed, of such devices as figures of 
animal-headed gods in every city of the land, by the 
Egyptians, even for a good purpose momentarily 
allowed, placed them in antithesis to the religion of 
inspiration. But we have only to read the accounts 
of what the religion of the Egyptians actually was, 
by those who saw them engaged at it — to perceive 
that their purpose was not good, and that they did 
worship animals as gods ; for thus, as merely one 
among hosts of similar witnesses, did Clemens Alex- 
andrinus write 1600 years ago : — 

* Among the Egyptians, the temples are sur- 

* rounded with groves and consecrated pastures ; 

* they are furnished with propylsea, and their courts 

* are encircled with an infinite number of columns ; 
' their walls glitter with foreign marbles, and paint- 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



515 



* ings of the highest art ; the naos is resplendent 
' with gold, and silver, and electrum, and variegated 
' stones from India and Ethiopia ; the adytum is 
' veiled with a curtain wrought with gold. But if 

* you pass beyond into the remotest part of the en- 

* closure, hastening to behold something yet more 

* excellent, and seek for the image which dwells in 

* the temple, a pastophoims (or shrine-bearer), or 

* some one else of those who minister in sacred 

* things, with a pompous air, singing a paean in the 
' Egyptian tongue, draws aside a small portion of 

* the curtain, as if about to show us the god ; and 

* makes us burst into a loud laugh. For no god is 

* found within, but a cat, or a crocodile, or a serpent 

* sprung from the sod, or some such brute animal ; 

* the Egyptian deity appears, — a beast rolling him- 

* self in a crimson coverlet/ 

Even if we enter still more into the inner life of 
their religion, and take for our guide, not an ajicient 
Greek living in the time of the Egyptians, but a 
modern European ' Egyptologist,' translating re- 
cently exhumed papyrus rolls, — the religious phrases 
and ideas are again found as opposite as they can 
well be to the religion of the Bible. This one fol- 
lowing illustration will probably suffice. We choose 
it because it is found more elaborated in the later, 
than the earlier, papyri ; indicating it, in so far, to 
be the growth of the Egyptian mind ; and it con- 
sists in these tv/o points mainly, * first, the rejection 
' of any idea of an atonement ; and second, the self- 



516 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

' assertion by every man, of his own absolute and 

* complete righteousness/ (See p. 430.) 

Hence, our examination of the first apology for 
the Egyptians, ends in showing them more than 
ever, as not the people likely to have received any 
inspiration for Bible purposes. 

But then arises a second class of apologists, — 
who allow freely that in the latter days of the Egyp- 
tian monarchy, their religion did become very gross, 
— but state their belief that in the Pyramid-build- 
ing age, there was no idolatry in Egypt ; and that 
even down to the visit of Abraham, or the close of 
the old empire, * the one God was still invoked at 

* the altars of the Nile land.' ^ Others further assert, 
there was no animal- worship in Egypt until after 
the Exodus.^ 

* There are even passages in the inspired volume,' 
continues one of the apologists, ' which seem to hint 

* at a special revelation to the sons of Ham, anterior 
' to the call of Abraham. Horeb would appear to 

* have been known as the mountain of God, before 

* it was made the scene of a Divine manifestation to 
' Moses. The Syrian nation in an earlier and purer 

* stage of its history seems to have been favoured 

* with a peculiar presence of God ; and the Syrians 

* being Cushites, were nearly allied to the children 

* of Mizraim, or the Egyptians. The families there- 
' fore of Gush and Mizraim, Palestine, Egypt and 

^ Rev. George Trevor's Ancient Egypt. 
^ Rev. H. Browne's Ordo Sceclorum. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



517 



* Ethiopia (i.e. Arabia), might keep their religious 

* festivals at Horeb, as the children of Israel after- 

* ward went up to appear before the Lord in Jeru- 

* salem. The Mount of God would thus be the 

* centre of worship to a band of kindred nations, 

* scattered beween Libya and the Persian Gulf, till a 

* gradual apostasy vitiated their covenant, and an- 

* other law, another priesthood, and another people 

* were chosen out of the families of Shem.* ^ 

With the latter part of the argument we shall not 
attempt to deal, having no contemporary monu- 
ments wherewith to compare it, and considering it 
therefore altogether above our powers. But with the 
former part, or that asserting Egyptian idolatry to 
be a growth entirely subsequent to the time of 
Abraham, or later, — we enter into direct antago- 
nism ; for the Sinaitic tablets of the kings of the 
fourth dynasty, or two hundred years at least before 
Abraham, — show animal-headed gods as rampant : 
besides which, Manetho expressly states, that earlier 
still, or in the time of the second dynasty, ' the bull 

* Apis in Memphis, and Mnevis in Heliopolis, and 

* the Mendesian goat, were appointed to be gods in 
' Egypt' 

In addition to which we may announce, from find- 
ing a large greenstone statue of a baboon god, half- 
buried in the sand at the north-east corner of King 
Shafre s tomb,— and from picking up a fragment in 

1 Ancient Eyypt, by the Rev. George Trevor, M.A., Canon of York, 
pp. 11.3-115. 



518 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [dIV. III. 

diorite, apparently the shin of a figure of Pthah, 
— near the temple in front of the second Pyramid, — 
that the Egyptians had then loose and portabfe 
idolatrous images, like Laban's gods, though the 
standing walls of their temples were not as yet cjarved 
and sculptured. 

True it is, no doubt, that the Pyramids generally 
are without either idolatrous decorations or contents ; 
but that is at once shown by the above to depend, 
not on idolatry being as then uninvented, but more 
probably because each Pyramid was a blind copy 
from another Pyramid ; and the origin of them all 
was the Great Pyramid, in which the reasons, 
whatever they were, for omitting idolatrous allu- 
sions, concentrate themselves. 

To that vast and admirably preserved monu- 
ment, all men can still go, and undoubtedly see 
that there is no idolatry within it at all. While the 
traditions of 2300 years old, — relating how that 
freedom was procured ; viz., by Kings Sliofo and 
Nu-Shofo of the hieroglyphics, or Cheops and Che- 
phren of Herodotus, shutting up the temples and 
forcibly stopping the animal-worship of the people for 
the time,^ — these traditions, we say, in so far as they 
can be trusted, only make it more certain than ever 
that the people of Egypt, were no more at that 
period than at any other of their history, like those 
whom Jehovah was accustomed to favour ; from 
Noah who was a preacher of righteousness, or Job 

1 Compare Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Manetlio, and others. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON KELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



519 



who was the servant of God, down to Moses and 
the prophets of Israel. 

It might have been expedient, in the 'Divine 
economy,' to employ the people of Egypt in the 
building operation, on account of their remarkable 
talent for mechanical work of an enduring order. 
The descendants of Shem, certainly had no leading 
capacity that way ; so that centuries after the great 
Pyramid had actually been built, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob lived in nothing more substantial than 
tents ; each of them being emphatically described 
as ' a Syrian ready to perish \^ a mere wanderer on 
the face of the earth, without settled or solid 
habitation. 

The sons of Cush are indeed honourably noted in 
Scripture, — and more prominently than their cousins, 
the Mizraites, and all others, — as adepts in building ; 
so that even before the dispersion, Nimrod's king- 
dom is at once defined by his four great cities : — 

* And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, 
' and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of 

* Shinar. 

' Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded 

* Nineveh, and the city Kehoboth, and Calah, and 

* Kesen between Nineveh and Calah : the same is a 

* great city.' 

But not only were these cities,— in so far as we may 
judge from the remains of some, and of the successors 
of others, in the same Cushite or Chaldsean land, — 

^ Deuteronomy xxvi. 5. 



520 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

built of very perishable materials ; but there were 
none of them either in, or even near, a country of 
appropriate latitude for the Great Pyramid. That 
remarkable monument demanded to stand in the 
parallel of 30° ; and Egypt was the only country of 
the then world containing both that latitude, and 
a people clever in building after a permanent 
manner. 

But then, it was by no means necessary for the 
mere performance of the masonry part of the oper- 
ation, whereat they were already skilful, that the 
Egyptian workmen, when employed on the Pyramid, 
should have received inspiration from on High. 
Enough, if those who kept them to the Great Pyra- 
mid, rather than any other work, and more especially 
those who told them what lengths, breadths, heights, 
and angles to make the several parts of the Great 
Pyramid, — were so assisted. 

Now all traditional and monumental testimony 
assure us, that the Kings Shofo and Nu-Shofo were 
at least those who kept the Egyptians to the work 
of the Great Pyramid. Were they then also those 
who were gifted with the superhuman knowledge 
for the time, of being enabled to lay down the pro- 
portions requisite to cause the Great Pyramid to 
become the wonderful metrological monument which 
modern science, after four thousand years, is proving 
it to be ? 

There seems at first to be something in favour of 
the idea ; because, even by the confession of their 



Vol. III. 



PI. 13.. 



Of the 

Fourth and nei^hhourin^ 
DYNASTIES. 



Shofo. 



Si) 



Sorts 



Of the 
XIV DYNASTY, 



[TOO) 



Later JToittL 



XIV DYNASTY cont^ 



OUg) 



Of tlie 

X I X r DYNASTY, 



1^ 



or 

Arnvcds . 



Sosostrves Ramsf^ 




1 



□ 2 



or 



ROYAL qUARRY MARK 
TO IN THE HIS 



S AND OVALS REFERRED 

TORICAL SECTIONS. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



521 



enemies, those kings did stop animal-worship for a 
time; and sundry tomb-inscriptions, translated by.W. 
Osburn, show them to have been, in all other things, 
beneficent monarchs, attending to the solid interests 
of their people, — and not by any means such bar- 
barous rulers and profligate tyrants as the priests of 
the idolatrous temples in after times used to love to 
represent them. But then again, these same traditions 
going on to describe Shofo and Nu-Shofo (Plate xiii.) 
as having before the end of their lives become repent- 
ant towards the gods, — i.e., the animal-gods ; or, in 
other words, become favourers of animal-worship 
once again, — we are induced, therefore, to fear, that 
the good courses of the kings during the time of the 
Pyramid building, were temporary only, and due to 
some peculiar pressure for the time being ; or that, 
in fact, they were not the original, immediate, and 
worthy recipients of that inspiration, under which, 
and under nothing short of which, the arrangements, 
proportions, and measures of the Great Pyramid 
could have been received. 

{The inspired messengers, were foreigners f) 

Whereto then shall we look for any known his- 
torical medium, that would be recognisable on Scrip- 
ture experiences of inspiration, wherever certainly 
enjoyed ? 

J ohn Taylor found, that on the Hebrew chrono- 
logy, Noah must have been still living when the 
Great Pyramid was built ; and felt inclined there- 



522 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

fore to expect that so venerable a character, already 
experienced on the ark in building according to 
measures divinely communicated, may have had 
some share in the operation. And who shall say that 
he had not ? We hardly know, unless it be those 
ordained priests in the Established Church, ^who 
declare that the chronology of the authorized English 
Bible, as being translated from the Hebrew, is 
entirely false for all the earlier periods ; and that 
according to the Septuagint, which alone is true in 
time particulars, Noah must have been dead for 
several centuries before the Great Pyramid began to 
be built. But it is hardly worth our while to enter 
into discussion on this question at present, because, 
let the death of Noah have occurred at almost any 
time, there is no direct mention in the Bible of his 
having been engaged in building a Pyramid in the 
land of Egypt. 

Much the same, too, may be said for the claims of 

* Peleg and the sons of Joktan.' For though John 
Taylor^ has shown with much learning, that the 
former name signifies ^ division,' with probable refer- 
ence to geographical science ; and that ^ Almodad/ 
the eldest of the latter, signifies Hhe measurer; while 
in an old Chaldaean paraphrase, the same personage 
is even declared to have been ' the inventor of 
' geometry, and one who measured the earth with 

* cords and though much Divine favour appears to 
have been shown to the family (each of the thirteen 

* Great Pyramid, chapters xxiv., xxv,, and xxvi. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



523 



sons of which has his name expressly given in the 
Bible,— the last of them, Jobab, being thought to be 
Job, in whose majestic book, as will presently be 
shown, there do appear some allegorical allusions to 
the Great Pyramid) ; still none of these things are 
sufficiently to the point, or capable, by ourselves at 
least, of being considered as contemporary Scripture 
authority, for any one of the personages named 
having been sent down to the land of Egypt : nor 
for their being instructed from on High to build a 
Pyramid in that land ; and gifted with eloquence to 
persuade, or power to control, the men of the region 
to act according to his orders. 

Yet though we can find no direct authority from 
Scripture for any one being thus sent to Egypt dur- 
ing the Pyramid-building age, — there is a very note- 
worthy allusion in the sacred pages respecting some 
persons, families, or people being brought back from 
Egypt, and planted in Palestine about that time, 
and under the Divine favour. There is the well- 
known tradition, moreover, on the other hand, col- 
lected in Egypt by Herodotus — of a remarkable 
shepherd, or Palestinian, having been encamped near 
the Great Pyramid during the time of its building ; 
and having had, in the estimation of the people, 
much to do with the progress of the work. 

The first of these notices is to be found in Deute- 
ronomy, second chapter ; where Moses, — when en- 
couraging the Israelites to be of good heart in their 
march under Divine favour out of Egypt and into 



524 ORIGINATIOIS OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

Palestine, — mentions two other and preceding cases 
where God had been pleased to conduct other 
nations into a new country, and had given them the 
lands of the previous inhabitants, as thus : — 

* As he did to the children of Esau which dwelt 

* in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from before 

' them ; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in . 

* their stead, even unto this day : 

* And the Avims which dwelt in Hazerim, even 

* unto Azzah, the Gaphtorims, which came forth out 

* of Caphtor, destroyed them, and dwelt in their 

* stead/ 

Now these Gaphtorims are usually (for there 
have been other theories broached) supposed to be 
Egyptians ; or persons at least out of Caphtor, which 
is considered to be the north-western part of Middle 
Egypt, or the very locality of the Great Pyramid. 
And, that they were positively brought out of that 
region under Divine favour, and in a manner typical 
of the subsequent bringing out of the Israelites, — 
is still further to be inferred from the following : — 

' Have not I (the Lord) brought up Israel out of 
' Egypt ? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the 
' Syrians from Kir ? ' (Amos ix. 7.) 

The second again, of the above notices alluded to, 
is the very unintended and incidental tradition in 
Herodotus, to the effect, — that the Egyptians so ex- 
ceedingly detested the kings under whom the Great 
Pyramid was built, that rather than mention their 
names when asked who erected the colossal monu- 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



525 



raent, tliey would say, — either that it was built 
when the shepherd Philition fed his flocks there- 
about ;^ or that the Great Pyramid was called after 
him, and that he was * the great enemy of the 
' Egyptian gods.'^ 

Now any servant of the Almighty must have 
been necessarily obnoxious to the gods of Egypt 
and their worshippers ; and while no man of humble 
calling amongst the Egyptians would ever have 
been allowed any separate existence or identity 
under their oppressive government, — we may be 
assured, from all their traditions and history, that 
the name ' Shepherd,' implied a Palestinian, or one 
from Palestine, and arriving in Eg3rpt through the 
Isthmus of Suez. The particular name of ' Philition/ 
implying, moreover, as John Taylor was disposed 
further to imagine, a remembrance of the feasts 
whereat there is a shedding of blood for the propi- 
tiation of sins ; or a characteristic of the first shep- 
herd Abel, and the religion subsequently taught to 
mankind through the descendants of Shem : but 
hated even to * abomination ' by the Egyptians. 

The shepherd Philition, then, with his friends and 
flocks at the Great Pyramid, looks exceedingly like 
a Scripture character ; and if he would preserve his 
descendants in the true religion, and free from 
bondage to the Pharaohs of Egypt,— it was abso- 

^ See Rawlinsou's Herodotus, volume ii. p. 207, with Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson's note. 

Ancient Egypt, by the Rev. George Trevor, p. 118. 



526 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. HI. 

lutely necessary that he should leave that land 
again, as soon as possible after he had performed 
the business for which he originally journeyed there. 
Hence, if he went to it charged with the message of 
the Almighty, we need not be surprised that the 
Almighty's assistance was given in bringing him 
out of the tyrant's clutches again ; even in such 
manner as the Lord expressly states that He did 
bring the Philistines and Caphtorim out of Caphtor 
or Egypt. 

(Cuseans retire from Egypt, northwards f) 

This pre-Mosaic bringing-out, then, for which in 
itself there is direct Scripture authority, we are 
inclined, on account of the mutually explanatory 
facts, to connect with the shepherd Philition, and 
his friends of Great Pyramid Pagan fame ; and 
there appears to have been, after a most noteworthy 
manner, from that time subsequently, — a continued 
series of successions between those Philitian shep- 
herds from Egypt and the Israelites, — in several 
important parts of the world. The principal steps 
too in this remarkable chain of coincidences, were, 
— independently of all Pyramid allusions, and with 
sometimes needless digressions to the subsequent 
shepherds of the fifteenth Egyptian dynasty, — dis- 
covered by the learned Jacob Bryant, and published 
by him in his Dissertation on Ancient History in 
the year 1767. 

Sons of Chus, Cuseans, and Cushites, he appears 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



527 



to consider them, — shepherds too, of Egyptian story, 
though not of the Egyptian nation or faith either, 
— in their first retreat from Egypt, they retired 
towards the Amalekites, and the country to the south 
of what was afterwards Judah's portion of the Holy 
Land ; ' for there are many names of places that 

* correspond exactly with others in Egypt, which we 
' have shown,' says Bryant, ^ to have been of Arabian 

* original. There is in the first place to be found 
' the name of the very country they had deserted, 

* Goshen or Gushin,' as testified twice over in the 
Book of Joshua, with the further indication in 
Chronicles, ' that they of Ham, or out of the land of 

* Egypt, had dwelt there of old.' 

But these Philitians from Egypt did not remain 
in these parts so long as to be involved in the sub- 
sequent destruction of the Canaanite nations by 
Joshua ; — for they seem, on the contrary, to have at 
an early period betaken themselves further north- 
ward, or into the upper parts of Mesopotamia. 
Because, * here too,' says Bryant, * was a land of 

* Goshen, and a river Gozan, the same as the Chabor. 

* Also the river Seghor, or Sehor, which was the 
' name of the Nile in Egypt. All these circum- 

* stances prove that the sons of Chus forced them- 
' selves very early' (after their sojourn on the Nile), 

* into the upper provinces of Mesopotamia.' 

'In this country also, were the tribes of Israel 
' (afterwards) placed ; at least a great part of those 
' who were carried away captive by Shalmanasser ; 



528 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. IIL 

* who took Samaria^ and carried Israel away into 

* Assyria, and placed them in Halah and Hahor 

* hy the river Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes 
' (2 Kings xvii. 6). Halah and Habor, called like- 
' wise Chala and Chabor, were, as I have in part 

* shown, in the upper region of Mesopotamia between 
' the Tigris and Euphrates ; both upon the Gozan, 
' called likewise the Chabor ; the cities of the Medes 

* were beyond. There was something very signal 
' in the catastrophe of those tribes, that were carried 
' into the country, which I have been describing. 
' It is well known how the Israelites, after their 

* servitude in Egypt, were conducted to the land of 

* promise, which they enjoyed above seven hundred 
' years. Upon their repeated rebellion and idolatry, 

* ten of the tribes were carried into a second bondage ; 

* and, what is remarkable, many of them went into 

* another land of Goshen ; but not like that of old, 
' to another Avaris ; and in succession to the same 

* people, to whom their fathers had succeeded in 

* Egypt, even Cuseans.' 

{Egyptians punished in the Great Pyramid ?) 

In this reiterated manner do the destinies and 
successive local habitations of the Israelites and the 
Philitian shepherds of the Great Pyramid, appear 
to be interwoven ; and it is possible we have not 
come to the last of their accompaniments and mutual 
illustrations even yet. But these things belong to 
another chapter ; and meanwhile, if we have been 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



529 



enabled with regard to the very distant past alone, to 
indicate something of the course actually taken by 
Divine inspiration, for propounding amongst men 
and carrying out the laborious plans of the Great 
P3rramid, — our readers may probably be struck with, 
on one side, the scriptural appropriateness of the 
manner in which the idolatrous and Cain-like 
Egyptians were made, without being at all aware of 
it, to carry out other ideas than their own. 

This undoubtedly remarkable people, had in its 
first origin as a nation, fled from before a judgment in 
the land of Shinar ; but arrived on the banks of the 
Nile, unsubdued, unrepentant, and still determined 
' not to be scattered abroad.' They repeated, there- 
fore, their coercive political system ; and for a time 
they throve and waxed exceeding mighty, above all 
the then nations of the earth ; they wrote, they built, 
they ploughed, they sculptured, they painted, they 
warred, and they tyrannized ; but at the moment 
they held everything vile before them, and asserted 
that they were indebted for their greatness to them- 
selves alone, and their own purity, — then were they 
made to erect the most toilsome monument which 
the whole world has ever seen ; not for their own 
glory as they thought, but really, and in the latter 
end, for the honour of the God whom they had de- 
spised, and even dethroned, in favour of bulls and 
goats. 

' Egypt, in fact,' says Chevalier Bunsen, and here 
with the utmost truth, * Egypt appears as the instru- 

VOL. III. 2 L 



530 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



* ment of Providence for furthering its eternal pur- 
' pose, but only as forming the background and 

* contrast to that free, spiritual, and moral element 
' which was to arise out of Israel.' ^ 

Even as perfect part of such a scheme, does the 
manner of erection of the Great Pyramid' now 
appear ; for it tells in more than speaking terms of 
the marvellous talents in constructive art, and for 
administration, which the Lord had bestowed on 
Eg3rptians through their progenitors, and intended 
them to use them well. But they forgot wherefore 
these gifts were received, and in place of devoting 
them to the service of the God of all nature, they 
employed them to strengthen themselves against 
Him. 

The spirit, then, of the Egyptians at the building 
of the Great Pyramid, was the same which marked 
them, both at the oppression of the children of Israel 
afterwards ; and, in conjunction with other peoples, 
at the building of the tower of Babel before. In so 
far as the Egyptians could accomplish it in their 
new work on the banks of the Nile, and as they 
flattered themselves, too, for ages that they had 
accomplished it even to the full, — the Great Pyramid 
was a resurgence in a new land, and with a com- 
munity speaking a new language, of their thwarted 
ideas in another place ;^ but through the humble 

1 Bunsen's Enypfs Place in Universal History, vol. iv. p. 104. 

^ ' And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower whose 

* top unto heaven ; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered 
' abroad upon the face of the whole earth.^ — Genesis xi. 4. 



CHAP. Vlll.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



531 



agency of the shepherd Philition, their labours were 
made really to tell against themselves ; and have 
eventually caused the Great Pyramid to become in 
these latter days a most distinguished protest against 
the ancient tower, and aU the principles of false 
religion connected therewith or descended there- 
from. 

On the other hand, if the inspiration afforded on 
this remarkable occasion, was vouchsafed not to a 
descendant of Shem, but to a Cusean, i.e., if 
Philition was a son of Cush,^ some other momentous 
openings thence arise. 

{Early Shemites not chosen? ) 

From Abraham downwards, for instance, as every 
one knows, the race of Shem in his line was 
peculiarly favoured ; in so far fulfilling not only the 
promises of the Almighty made to Abraham, but 
those also through Noah to Shem himself But 
from Shem to Abraham is a long and dreary genea- 
logical journey ; during the latter part of which, at 
the least, even the lineal ancestors of Abraham had 
become so engrained in idolatry, and so given to the 
worship of other gods than the true God, — that 
Abraham had to be called out from amongst them, 
in order to live a pure life and receive the blessing. 

Hence, while there is reasonable doubt, whether in 
the year 2170 B.C. a descendant of Shem was then 

^ In subsequent times the name of Cush was applied to Ethiopia ; 
but we here employ it in accordance with Genesis chap. x. verses 
8-12. 



532 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 



worthy, on the score of faith and religion, to be 
charged with any message of the Almighty,— there is 
on another point almost a certainty, that no Shemite 
was so fit for the peculiar Pyramid work, as a 
Cushite. For the Shemites were originally dwellers 
in tents, and had at that early period no more 
notion of masonic art or practical science, than any 
Bedouin Arabs of the present day, — who are still 
living under both the tent-poles and tent-cloths of 
Kedar ; and, if cultivating and developing any 
scientific faculties at all, it is rather those connected 
with logic, metaphysics, moral philosophy, and 
other mental affections, — than any of those branches 
of natural philosophy which might enable men to 
execute mathematical forms on a large scale, in a 
solid material, with exceeding accuracy, and with a 
power for enduring through all human time. 

True it is, no doubt, that the Almighty has it in 
His power to inspire any man, and for any work 
whatever, though never so strange to his previous 
constitution and knowledge. But, judging from 
Scripture, that is not the manner in which it has 
generally pleased the Lord to exert His inspiration 
gift ; for in the instances recorded there, that man 
was almost invariably taken for either anointing 
or gifts who was nearer than his fellows to the 
quality required ; and who could perhaps on that 
very account, be afterwards permitted so much free 
agency even under inspiration, that the prophetic 
messages are generally found tinged more or less 



CHAP. VI 11.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



533 



with the previous life-experiences of each particular 
prophet 

The defect, then, of the Shemites, in not having 
early improved their faculties for practical science, 
may have lost them an opportunity indeed, in the 
history of the world ; and in that case, gave it to the 
Cuseans. Of these we have not hitherto been hear- 
ing much ; but if it be true that their chief work 
remains behind them, and speaks in a language of 
which modern science is the simple and yet power- 
ful key, more will be known concerning them as the 
centuries roll past. 

{A new objection.) 

But now, that so much connected with Divine 
inspiration has been approximately made out, — an 
objection to the whole subject of this chapter 
may probably arise in some minds ; and, if Cuseans 
were really employed, such objection will be greatly 
strengthened, and probably stated thus : — 

* In the early ages of the world there were, and 

* even must have been, many inspirations from God 

* to man ; but being connected merely with giving 

* to him in his infancy the beginnings of useful arts, 

* they were not deemed appropriate to be mentioned 

* in the Bible, which records alone things necessary 

* to salvation. Now,' continue these objectors, ' even 

* if the architect of the Great Pyramid was inspired, 
' still the subject of the Great Pyramid being con- 

* nected with precisely such useful arts, its inspira- 



534 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

* tion cannot l)e looked on as a religious inspiration, 

* has no place in the Bible, and need claim no regard 

* from any Christian in the present day/ 

In reply to this, let us see what the Bible, which 
says so little about the builders of the Great Pyra- 
mid, may say about the Great Pyramid itself; for 
from the Bible alone can a safe opinion be formed. 

Pyramid itself, ivheiher Scripturally acknowledged? 

This branch of the religious bearings of the sub- 
ject we owe almost entirely to John Taylor. He it 
was who first perceived an allusion to the Great 
Pyramid in the Book of Job — a work arranged in 
its present shape by Moses, — but descriptive of the 
life-events of one who had flourished seven hundred 
years earlier, or at the very time nearly of the 
building of Great Pyramid. 

In the chronology of the margin of some Bibles, 
the date B.C. 1520 is inserted against the Book of 
Job, but more to represent the time of Moses writ- 
ing, than the age of Job's living : while Townsend, 
in his Chronological Index to the Holy Scriptures, 
gives the date of Job himself as b.c. 2130, i.e., 
within forty years of the Great Pyramid's founda- 
tion ; and appends the following note : — 

* The life of Job is placed before the life of Abra- 

* ham, on the authority of Dr. Hales. Job himself, 

* or one of his contemporaries, is generally supposed 

* to have been the author of this book, which Moses 

* obtained when in Midian, and, with some altera- 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



535 



' tions, addressed to the Israelites. But my chief 

* reason for assigning to the life of Job its present 

* date, is derived from a consideration of the manner 

* in which God has condescended to deal with 

* mankind. 

* Idolatry, as we read in the preceding part of 

* this period, had occasioned the dispersion from 

* Babel. It was gradually encroaching still further 

* on every family which had not yet lost the know- 
' ledge of the true God. Whoever has studied the 
' conduct of Providence, will have observed that 

* God has never left himself without witnesses in 

* the world to the truth of his religion. To the 

* latter times of patriarchism, Abraham and his 

* descendants ; to the ages of the Levitical law, 

* Moses, David, and the Prophets ; and to the first 

* ages of Christianity, the Apostles and the Martyrs, 
' were severally witnesses of the truth of God. But 
' we have no account whatever, unless Job be the 
' man, that any faithful confession of the one true 

* God arose between the dispersion from Babel and 

* the call of Abraham. If it be said, that the family 

* of Shem was the visible Church of that age, it 

* may be answered, that it is doubtful whether even 
' this family were not idolatrous, for Joshua tells 
' the Israelites (Joshua xxiv. 2) that the ancestors 

* of Abraham were worshippers of images.' 

The times of Job then were evidently remarkable 
ones in the history of God's government of the earth, 
even as Job himself was especially * the servant of 



536 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

' God and we may also imagine those times (with- 
out any guiding reference derived from their date, 
as above, and that of the Great Pyramid), to have 
been contained within the period of smaller Pyramid 
building for sepulchral purposes, — from the improved 
translation in Job iii. 13 and 14, as given now for 
several years past by Mr. Gliddon and other leading 
Egyptologists ; wherein we read after Job's expressed 
wish to have died, his further exclamation : — 
' For now should I have lain still and been quiet, 

* I should have slept : then had I been at rest 

* With kings and counsellors of the earth, which 

* built Pyramids (desolate places) for themselves/ 

The manner of mention here contrasts rather 
noticeably with another, recently pointed out by Dr. 
Horatius Bonar, in Jeremiah's Lamentations iii. 6. 
This Prophet wrote his inspired Lamentations in 
Egypt, so that it is perfectly possible that he may 
have seen the Pyramids, and included the Great one 
amongst those ' signs and wonders set in the land 

* of Egypt, by the Lord of Hosts, great in counsel 

* and mighty in work : ' and which signs and wonders 
being made to last there, even up to his, J eremiah's, 
day,^ may be inferred to have been of a material 
order. But that day was long subsequent to the 
time of Job ; probably in 588 B.C., when Pyramid 
building had long ceased throughout all Egypt ; 
and such specimens as still existed, were separated 
at their foundation by more than twenty dynasties 

^ Jeremiah xxxii. 18-20. 



4 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 537 

of kings from that late period of the new empire 
in Egypt. Wherefore the mention of them by the 
Prophet of the Lamentations appears peculiarly 
appropriate in the words, — 

* He hath set me in dark places (or Pyramids), as 

* they that be dead of old.' 

While some of Job's descendants are moreover 
often looked for among the Sabeans of Arabia, Mr. 
Palgrave mentions, in his volumes of recent and 
very instructive travel there, that old Arab writers 
relate of the Sabeans, 'that they had a special 

* veneration for the two great Pyramids of Egypt, 
' believed by them to be sepulchres of Seth and 

* Idrees ; that their stated prayers recurred seven 

* times a day (although some others say five, — a 

* divergence which may admit of easy explanation), 

* and that during their devotions they turned their 

* faces to the north,' — the direction of the entrance 
passages of those Pyramids, and 90° distant from 
the ancient western opening of tombs, or the 
general eastern direction of prayers/ 

But with the further and more authoritative 
Biblical notice of the Great Pyramid, in the para- 
graph quoted from the marginally corrected transla- 
tion by John Taylor, — describing indeed ostensibly 
the Divine creation of the earth, though under the 

^ Idrees, or Edris being, moreover, said to be a name among the 
Arabians for Enoch ; traditionally, merely, the third with Adam and 
Seth in the invention of astronomy, and particularly connected with 
the polar star. (See Mazzaroth, or the Const ellation.% pp. 7 and 34, of 
Part II. ; see also Howard Vyse's vol. ii. pp. 342, 349, 358, and 360.) 



538 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

figure, as he contends, of the mechanical foundation 
of the Great Pyramid, — there the description con- 
tains nothing sepulchral in its allusions; bearing 
indeed rather on metrology, and of a very signal 
and unusual kind, as thus : — 

* Where wast thou [the Lord answers Job out of the whirl- 
' wind], where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the 
' earth ? declare, if thou knowest (hast) understanding. 

* Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest ? or 

* who hath stretched the line upon it ? 

* Whereupon are the sockets thereof made to sink (the founda- 

* tions thereof fastened) ? or who laid the corner-stone thereof, 

' When the morning-stars sang together, and all the sons of 

* God shouted for joy ? ' * 

This description, if applied to the earth, that 
well-known ball of dense and heavy matter, revolv- 
ing in its endless course through thin ether or prac- 
tical vacuity, — is not only not exactly, but not in 
any degree, agreeable to the teaching of modern 
science ; nor indeed to another account of the earth 
as a whole, and in its position in space, in Job 
xxvi. 7, where of God the Creator it is said : — 

* He stretcheth out the north over the empty 
' place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.' 

Hence the presumption is with John Taylor, that 
in chapter xxxviii. of the Book of Job, we have the 
creation of the earth under a type of something 
else, more human, more understandable, and more 
practical ; this type might be, indeed, in the earlier 
part of the description, the building of an ordinary 

^ Job xxxviii, 4-7. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



539 



house, — but the successive features elicited, the lay- 
ing the measures thereof ; the stretching a line upon 
it, as on its sloping sides, not vertical walls ; and 
above everything, the one and final corner-stone, as 
contradistinguished from the lower corner, or founda- 
tion, stones at the commencement of the building, 
— these seem to single out a metrological Pyramid, 
of all other real or hypothetical buildings whatever. 

* The sockets thereof being made to sink,' is evi- 
dently a most peculiar phrase ; and would probably 
never have been fully appreciated, as it certainly 
was not correctly interpreted in the authorized 
Bible, — but for the perfectly independent discovery 
by Bonaparte's savants in 1799, to the effect that 
the Great Pyramid had at least two such sockets, 
i.e. J at its north-eastern and north-western base 
corners. Sockets these were, neatly cut out, or 
' made to sink,' with the chisel in the levelled sur- 
face of the living rock ; and the foundational corner- 
stones of the casing, at these angles, were placed 
therein. An inimitable discovery was this, and 
never to be forgotten, though some great men do 
forget it ; for at once those two sockets (so far at 
least as concerned the northern side of the Great 
Pyramid), enabled the measures thereof, as originally 
laid out in primeval times, to be recently recovered ; 
and gave thereby the holding turn both to the 
theory of the Great Pyramid as being a metrological 
monument, and to the practice of the same, in 
showing it to be a good reference for base-line 



540 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. [DIV. III. 

measures still ; besides illustrating this terse Scrip- 
ture phrase of ' the sockets thereof being made to 
' sink; 

Hence, as we have ventured to express in our 
Dedication, the features thus discovered at the Great 
Pyramid, — by what one of Napoleon Bonaparte's 
politically opposed historians could only call, years 
after, ' a singular accompaniment to a military ex- 
* pedition,' viz., a corps of first-class savants, — these 
features, we say, are really ' not unalluded to in 
' Holy Writ.' 

By the Scriptures thus assisted and made plain to 
our comprehension, we ourselves concluded the fur- 
ther existence of other two socket-holes, making up 
four equidistant sockets for the four lower corner- 
stones of the base of the Great Pyramid ; and such 
sockets were found last year by the first person who 
excavated intelligently for them, as already de- 
scribed in vol. i. chap. xvii. 

So much then for the four lower corner-stones at 
the commencement, and completing the founda- 
tions, of the structure ; and after them comes the 
final test of a methodically constructed stone Pyra- 
mid being alluded to, in another still, and therefore 
a fifth, corner-stone being mentioned. Though men- 
tioned as being placed, not anywhere near the 
bottom or beginning of the Pyramid, but as forming 
its topmost corner or summit ; so that when that 
top corner-stone, emphatically the corner-stone, is 
laid, — the building is thereby finished, its symmetry 



CHAP. Vin.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



541 



perfected, and in commemoration thereof, 'the mom- 

* ing-stars sang together, and all the sons of God 

* shouted for joy.' Or, as in Zechariah iv. 7, where 
it is said that the * bringing out the head-stone of 

* the great mountain,^ was greeted with shoutings, 

* Grace, grace, unto it.' 

And now let us ask our readers, or our readers 
their hearers, how a series of men living in tents, as 
the Shemites of the period seem certainly to have 
done, were of their own experiences to acquire so 
much technical knowledge of the mode of building 
a stone P3Tamid ; and to grow in such righteous 
enthusiasm therein, as to look on its final completion 
with rejoicing ideas of pure and high religion, unless 
they were assisted by inspiration ? And is it likely 
that acknowledged prophets of religious inspiration, 
would have employed again and again the features 
of a Pyramid head-stone (which they had never 
seen) as a symbol of the Messiah himself, — unless 
such a use of the figure should have been approved 
of by the Author of all inspiration ? 

And that such a use was made of the chief or top- 
most corner-stone of a stone-built Pyramid, by both 
the Psalmist of Israel, and the Apostles of the New 
Testament, — the late excellent John Taylor showed ; 
for their words, said he, apply to nothing else. 

Thus David, Psalm cxviii. 22 and 23, *The stone 
' which the builders refused, is become the head-stone 

* * The Great Pyramid, the nearest approach to a mountain that 
' the art of man has produced.' — Dean Stanley's S^jria and Palestine. 



542 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID, [DIV. III. 

* of the corner ; this is the Lord's doing, and it is 

* marvellous in our eyes/ 

And more particularly St. Paul, in Ephesians ii. 
20, distinguishing between the lower corner-stones, 
which are the foundation, — and the upper corner- 
stone, which is the summit, head, and finish, and 
therefore the last, the noblest, and most essential 
part of the whole structure of a Pyramid, — but of a 
Pyramid alone, of all buildings under the sun, 
writes thus — 

* Ye are fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the 

* household of God ; and are built upon the founda- 

* tion of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ him- 

* self being the chief corner-stone, in whom all the 

* building, fitly framed together, groweth unto an 
' holy temple in the Lord.' 

The same stone, before its visible elevation to the 
chief or topmost corner of the Pyramid, has likewise 
been recognised as ' the stone of stumbling and rock 
'of ofi'ence'^ to all disbelievers; physically, on 
account of its inconvenient, many-cornered figure, 
always lying on the ground, with one acute angle 
stuck up in the air, — untoward among the other 
regular-shaped, flattish building-blocks, — forming 
therefore the very image, according to John Tay- 
lor, of the dangerous stone, ' on which, whosoever 

* shall fall, shall be broken, but on whomsoever it 
' shall fair (especially if it be from the top of the 
Great Pyramid), ' it will grind him to powder.' ^ 

1 1 Peter ii. 8. ^ Matthew xxi. 44. 



CHAP. VIII.] ON RELIGIOUS GROUNDS. 



543 



An early mediaeval traveller, M. Belon, reports 
having been shown, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, 
near Jerusalem, the stone to which our Lord alluded 
in the preceding sentence, and states that it was 
'triangular/ The mere general circumstance of a 
relic being shown in any Palestinian locality is 
usually thought now to be more against, than for, 
the probability of its genuineness. But in this case, 
the alleged triangular shape, which is a very usual 
popular method of describing a Pyramidal figure, is 
a curious coincidence at the least, with what John 
Taylor had concluded from his theory of a Pyramid 
topmost corner-stone ; and may have some connexion 
with mementoes of Egyptian experiences left behind 
them by Philition and the other Cusean shepherds, 
at the various spots which they inhabited for a time 
in South Judsea, and particularly in Hebron, before 
proceeding farther north. 

Should the Cave of Machpelah, among its long- 
hoarded contents, ever reveal to Europeans such a 
pyramidal stone in good preservation, — there can be 
no doubt that scientific examination would be able 
to distinguish, with extreme accuracy and conse- 
quent certainty, whether it could have once formed 
the head-stone of the Great Pyramid or not. From 
the earliest times of history, that head-stone has 
been removed ; and one is greatly inclined to 
imagine that its removal may not have been alto- 
gether accidental, but that it will be rediscovered 
some day, a silent yet unimpeachable witness of 



544 ORIGINATION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. [DIV. III. 

events which took place four thousand years ago ; 
and may have still to subserve a part in the history 
of the world. 

Meanwhile, however, as this is only a fond hope ; 
and as we trust that proof has now been abundantly 
adduced, illustrative of the inspired authors of the 
Bible both having been familiar, in the spirit, with 
characteristic features of the foundation, construc- 
tion, and finishing of the Great Pyramid; and having 
looked on it with the utmost allowable religious 
respect, — making use of its similes for the noblest 
religious purposes known to Christianity, only ; — the 
argument of this last branch of our present subject, 
or that the Pyramid building in itself, and quite 
independent of any particular agency employed in 
its building, is owned and acknowledged in the 
Scriptures, both of the old and new covenants, — 
may be considered, like every other section in the 
chapter, to have been settled in the affirmative. 
Wherefore the next step should be, to take up the 
whole elements of the case, and endeavour to ascer- 
tain to what end, all these ancient facts and modern 
discoveries, culminating just at this time, may pro- 
bably be leading. Yet for one moment more, and 
in the course of a very short chapter, we must re- 
quest our kind reader's attention to the bearing on 
the case of one more item of lay learning, partly 
astronomical, but unfortunately not altogether so. 



CHAPTER IX. 



ON SOME POINTS IN PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 

WJio invented the oldest Constellations ? 

In preparing the star- maps of Plates vii., viii., 
and IX., certain figures of the constellations were 
introduced, to assist the reader in identifying the 
stars concerned in the problem then laid before 
him. Such being the sole purpose, the figures were 
those ordinarily received in the present day; ex- 
cepting only, that Gaiies Venatici, Lynx, Camelo- 
pardcdis, and a few lesser asterisms, had been 
omitted, on account of their extremely modern 
European invention. 

The other figures, however, which had been 
allowed to remain, although generally reputed * the 
* ancient constellations,' are not, for comparison with 
Great Pyramid astronomy, much more satisfactory 
than the above rejected ones ; being to a great ex- 
tent not older than the time of the Greeks, and in 
their present form, of the Alexandrine Greeks only. 
They were, too, even at that date, so evidently per- 
verted in scientific ignorance and poetic presumption 
from a still older system, and one of more serious as 
well as solemn import, — as to give remarkable iUus- 

VOL. III. 2 M 



546 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



tration to that maxim of Scaliger, * Grceculorum est 
' mentiri, et falsa veris qffingere.' Or, as the labo- 
rious Bryant feels compelled to write, after extensive 
investigations into the antiquities of history and 
geography,— 

* Great part of the knowledge that we are' pos- 
' sessed of, in relation to ancient times, has been 

* transmitted to us through the hands of the Greeks ; 
' for which we are to make proper acknowledgment. 
' But when we consider how much more they might 

* have transmitted, and how foul and turbid the 

* streams are that are derived to us, it takes off 

* much from the obligation.' 

And again : ' Sometimes they (the Grecians in 
' transmitting primeval history) only translated the 

* names of places ; which was something tolerable ; 

* for there was then a chance of recurring to the 
' primitive language, and recovering the original ; 

* as the meaning would lead one to the truth. But 

* they were too vain to be consistent even in this ; 
' and what one advanced another confounded ; each 

* thinking that he had a right to change things, and 

* new-model them to his taste. Above all things 

* they strove to introduce their own gods and heroes ; 

* and to attribute everything to their performance, 

* wheresoever transacted. Their vanity was so great 

* in this respect, and their prejudices so strong, that 

* it led them into a thousand childish errors ; but, 

* when they were not originally mistaken, they wil- 
' fully deviated ; imposing names on places, and 



CHAP. IX.] PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



547 



* adding legendary stories, which they must know 

* were foreign to the countries where they introduce 
' them. Hence we are informed that one branch of 

* the Nile was denominated from a sailor of Mene- 

* laus, and another from Peleus of Thessaly ; that 
' Perseus gave name to Persia ; and that the Medes 

* received their name from Medea ; and what hap- 

* pened on the occasion. For they were never guilty 

* of a mistake, but they framed some story to support 

* it.' Or, as a more recent author puts it, a shade 
more philosophically, — ' it was a part of the Greek 

* character to frame systems on insufficient know- 

* ledge, and to explain false systems by false hypo- 
' theses.'' 

Unfortunately, in the present state of astronomy 
and literature, it is much easier to find proofs 
demonstrative of the Greek and Greek- Alexandrine 
constellations not having been first in the field, than 
to show what the more ancient system precisely 
was. With exceeding truth and judgment, there- 
fore, the author of the article Constellation in the 
Penny Cyclopwdia writes It is sufficient for us 

* here to say, that it is certain we derive our constel- 

* lations from the Greeks, and that it is nearly as cer 

* tain that they derived them from the East, though 

* it is highly probable that they altered the legends 
' to suit their own mythology, and in some instances 

* even the figures. Their firmament, if it confined 

* itself to recording the vast and striking events of 

^ Saturn and its System, p. 194. By Richard A. Proctor, B.A. 



548 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



' their mythic system, as in Argo or Hercules, 

* might bear an external presumption of originality, 
' which it wants altogether while so prominent a 

* constellation as the Great Bear represents nothing 
'but the unimportant and irrelevant story of 
' Callisto/ 

Even if we begin with known and scientific times 
not very distant from our own, we cannot feel 
greatly impressed with either the dignity in spirit, 
or worthiness of the objects, of modern constellation- 
makers. For thus writes the celebrated Hevelius, 
whom all men are now so content to follow, that 
they have placed his new constellations side by side 
with those which have descended to us of old : — 

1st, * Because Bootes is regarded as a caller, brawler, 
' and hunter, who pursues the bear in hunting, and 

* raises his hand and arm as if in the act of slipping 

* his dogs, I could not find a more suitable place for 

* GanesVenaticL One of them I have called ^s^eWori, 

* because the name is very pleasing to me, and is 

* well known to the poets. The other I have called 

* Chara, because most likely to Bootes, after the 

* manner of huntsmen, a female dog, on account of 

* its greater fleetness of foot, would be more chara, 
' or favourite.'^ 

2d, 'Of certain nine stars I have formed between 
' the Great Bear and the Greater Lion, a less or 

* junior Lion, and the reason was this : — I wished 

* to disturb the arrangement of the astrologers as 

* From the Prodromus AstronomicB, 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



549 



* little as possible ; and seeing that the Bear and the 

* Lion are usually considered the most violent and 

* ferocious of animals, I put in between them an 

* animal of the same order, that the stars of which 

* it is composed might retain the same qualities.' 

Sd, *The Fox and Goose (Vulpecula et Anser) 

* constellation was made on this principle, that being 

* composed of stars between the Eagle and Lyre, 

* both of them over rapacious and voracious animals, 

* it (the Fox and Goose) should pursue the same 

* nature. This fox, then, has stolen a goose, which 

* he carries in his mouth at a run to Cerberus, that 
' three-headed, infernal, and devouring dog, by 

* which he may have a breakfast and some comfort, 

* before he is killed by Hercules, already raising his 

* club for the purpose. Thus I have been able to 
' locate the Fox and Goose in this position as appro- 

* priately to the fables of the poets as conformably 

* to the rules of the astrologers.* 

The Lyre, though we all know it to be a perfectly 
innocent musical instrument, is here spoken of as a 
voracious animal, — because the mediaeval astrono- 
mers made the Lyre a heraldic blazon on the breast 
of a certain * falling eagle but the classical poem 
of Aratus, and a very ancient MS. in the British 
Museum, are generally considered to decide for the 
claims of the musical instrument, pure and simple ; 
while the Cerberus alluded to above has in most 
modern maps been replaced by a many-headed snake 
of small size. 



550 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



According, in the next place, to a rather earlier 
authority, or Thomas Hood of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in A.D. 1590 and author of a discourse on 
the celestial globe, the following is an explanation 
of the length of tail possessed by the Great Bear : — 

^Scholar. — I marvel why (seeing she hath' the 

* forme of a beare) her taile should be so long. 

' Master. — I imagine that Jupiter, fearing to come 

* too nigh unto her teeth, layde holde on her tayle, 

* and thereby drewe her up into the heaven ; so 
' that shee of herself being very weightie, and the 

* distance from the earth to the heavens very great, 

* there was much likelihood that her tayle must 
' stretch. Other reason know I none.'i 

If again we seek the earliest transmitted Greek 
legends of the same constellations, — we are told 
there, much of the amours of Jupiter with the frail 
Callisto ; of her metamorphosis into a bear by Diana 
for her breach of chastity; of Jupiter saving her 
from hunters by transferring her to the skies ; and 
of her then component stars not being allowed, in 
describing their circumpolar revolutions, to dip 
below the horizon, — because the ocean deities re- 
fused to let their pure waters be polluted by the 
presence of the concubine of Jupiter.^ 

For the earth was at the time considered among 
the Greeks as being an extensive flat, reaching to 
the very heavens on the horizon ; while the omphalos 

^ Admiral Smyth's Celestial Cycle, vol. ii. p. 310. 
2 Sir G. Cornewall Lewis's Ancient Astronomy, p. 64. 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



551 



or navel-stone, marking the centre of such earth- 
flat, was proudly shown in the temple of Delphi ; 
to prove that Greece was in the centre of the 
whole world.^ 

In fact all prosecution of the subject of the C07i- 
stellatioiis amongst, or from, the schoolmen of the 
present day, up to and including the classic authors 
of Alexandria, Eome, and Greece, — ends only in 
shame of soul, vexation of spirit, and prejudice, 
probably, that even the most ancient, or pre-Gre- 
cian, constellations never had any noble meaning 
or scientific use. And as the author of Mazzaroth^ 
says, on viewing the proceedings of one very 
learned man in this country, — * Therefore it is 
' evident that this great astronomer had not, in the 
* course of his studies, met with any account of 
' their (the older constellations') possible significa- 
' tion which appeared to him worthy of notice.' 

Hence a difi'erent track altogether requires to be 
taken, if we would arrive at an acquaintance with 
the primeval wisdom of the earth touching the 
heavenly constellations. And while the Great Pyra- 
mid has now recently proved that, quite agreeably 
with much of ancient tradition, such knowledge 
did once exist, — the author of Mazzaroth has for 
some years past, indicated that the most probable 
road to it would be found in the Hebrew language. 

* Sir George Cornewall Lewis's Ancient Astronomy, p. 4. 
^ Mazzaroth or tlie Constellations. By Miss F. RoUeston. London, 
1S62. 



552 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



* For it is in the Hebrew antiquity alone/ — says 
that most learned linguistic writer, after deep re- 
searches into the most ancient forms of Hebrew, 
Arabic, and other Eastern languages, — ' in the 

* Hebrew antiquity only, that we find any vestige 

* of a received, connected, and respectable meaning 

* being attached to the names of constellations/ 
And as an illustration that such an improvement 
does take place there, besides there being in that 
language a higher antiquity to rest upon, than 
amongst any of the classics,— the same author pro- 
ceeds to describe the signs of the zodiac as borne on 
the standards of the tribes of Israel, — and with 
meanings partly retrospective and partly prophetic 
attached to them, — in their, the Israelites', march 
under Moses through the wilderness ; besides claim- 
ing the same signs as being also alluded to in the 
blessing of Jacob, as early as 1700 B.C., or fully one 
thousand years before the Greeks were known as a 
people. 

If too, we deviate at aU from this well-marked 
Hebrew road, and try another very different lan- 
guage, though equally pre -Grecian, such as the 
Egyptian, — we lose sight of the early constellations 
immediately. For even that eminent Philo-Mizraite, 
Baron Bunsen, has been constrained to record, at 
p. 353 of his fourth volume of Egypt's Place in 
Universal History, that the signs of the zodiac were 

* wholly unknown to the Egyptians till the reign 

* of Trajan.' And although M. Arago and a few 



CHAP. IX.] PRIMEVAL ASTKONOMY. 



553 



other academicians used to believe in the extreme 
ancientness of the zodiacs at Denderah, Esneh, and 
elsewhere on the Nile, — the researches of all modern 
hierologists have united in fixing them to the later 
part of the Eoman period only. 

A claim, however, is put in by the learned M. 
Ideler, for the zodiacal figures, and perhaps some 
extra-zodiacal ones also, having been known to the 
* Chaldees, at a very early period and we may 
fortunately pursue this important, though rather too 
indefinite, statement, a little further, by referring to 
Mr. Proctor's admirable book on Saturn and its 
System, published in 1865. For that most original 
author, dealing with ancient as well as modern 
astronomy, feels compelled to look through the 
Chaldees of subsequent history, — when their astro- 
nomy was degraded to astrology, and they them- 
selves were enslaved to do the will of Assyrian 
despots on the banks of the lower Euphrates, — and 
to trace the rise of their old characteristic science, 
as well as their own best days, to earlier times, when 
their Cusean forefathers enjoyed freedom and self- 
government, in a land situated somewhere about the 
fortieth degree parallel of north latitude. 

This result, again alluded to in his * star-maps,' 
Mr. Proctor deduces with much skill from calcula- 
tions, which he bases on features taught subse- 
quently in both the Greek and Hindoo astronomies ; 
but features evidently not belonging to the dates of 
those systems, or even to those countries at any 



554 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



time. Those countries were in fact only making 
use, and rather ignorant use, of the discoveries 
of an earlier age, another part of the world, and a 
different race of men, — or the Chaldeans ; at that 
period of Chaldee history too, when they ' resided 

* in Armenia, between the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, 

* not very far from Mount Ararat ; and at a date 
' somewhere between 2200 and 1800 B.C.' 

Now these dates include the probable time of the 
Cusean and Chaldsean shepherd Philition, of Great 
Pyramid story, immigrating, perhaps returning, 
through Palestine to that same Armenian and 
Median region above indicated (chap. viii. p. 527), 
after his remarkable sojourn in the land of Siriad, 
or Egypt. And after his eventful occupation there, 
in superintending the construction of both an astro- 
nomically placed, and a generally scientific, build- 
ing ; in which, too, the chief metrological standards 
commemorated, were the same as those possessed in 
after days by the Hebrews, — as well when they went 
down into Egypt under Jacob (see Sir Isaac New- 
ton on Cubits), as when they came up therefrom 
under Moses. 

Hence, even from the metrology alone, there ap- 
pears a something of possession in common between 
the early Chaldsean knowledge on one side, and the 
Hebrew on the other, — as to certain useful and 
accurate practical deductions from both astronomical 
and geographical science of a very high order. 

But much more remarkably still does this con- 



CHAP. IX.J PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



555 



nexion come out in the astronomical part of the 
memorializations. For there, the Great Pyramid 
does, by its peculiar combination of a polar star, — 
taken on the meridian below the pole, — with an 
opposite zodiacal constellation above the pole, very 
remarkably single out for world-wide notice and 
time-long attention, the several asterisms of Scorpio, 
Aquarius, Pisces, and the Pleiades. Not only so too, 
but it assigns them to exact and precise dates ; 
which, when combined with the Biblical history for 
the same period, vivifies and renders vocal the char- 
acteristic expressions of all those figures (p. 493). 

Here then, is a wonderful agreement in mind 
between, (1.) the building of the Pyramid, (2.) the 
invention of the constellations, and (3.) certain 
grand primeval phenomena recorded in Scripture. 
The agreement too, will appear yet all the more 
striking, when we consider that there is no attempt 
made to assign any physical efiects to the stars in 
these or all other constellations, and no endeavour 
to explain, in any manner, the production of the 
Deluge ; but that the stars were taken as they 
were, and as they are still, by the architect of the 
Great Pyramid, and simply an observing method 
invented, by which they were made to fix certain 
dates. Similarly, too, the stars were taken as they 
were, by the inventor of the constellations, whoever 
he was or whenever he lived ; and out of his mind 
(not from the arrangement of the stars themselves, for 
there is nothing of the kind traceable there), certain 



556 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



figures were invented and attached to those stars. 
And there those figures have remained ever since, 
with a preternatural fixity ; for, with very little 
alteration at any time, — either of character, mode 
of action, or name, — they have outlived all the suc- 
cessive great monarchies of the earth. 

Hence the date of invention, of at least the above 
specified constellations, cannot be less than that of 
the building of the Great Pyramid, or 2170 B.C., and 
may not improbably be more. Whether the learned 
author of Mazzaroth is justified, from the quarter of 
language and old tradition, in taking them up, 
through the survivors of the Deluge, to a very much 
higher epoch still, we are not prepared at present to 
give any opinion. 

But having already laid before our readers both 
mediaeval and Grecian ideas of certain well-known 
asterisms, it may be only right to exhibit also a 
specimen of the kind of results imagined to have 
been arrived at by the writer just mentioned, — 
when studying the same celestial phenomena from 
a mainly Hebrew point of view. We conclude this 
section, therefore, with Miss EoUeston's last 
page :— 

* In the time of Seth and Enoch (the supposed 
' originators of the ancient constellations under 

* Divine inspiration, and for prophetic purposes of 

* religious comfort to all mankind after the fall), the 
' pole was among the stars of Draco, the emblem of 
' the enemy ; the constellation of the Lesser-sheep- 



CHAP. IX ] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



557 



* fold ^ had no relation to it. But by degrees the 

* pole drew nearer to the brightest star in that con- 

* stellation ; the sheep represented by three of its 



* sure, faintly typifying Him who was and is the 

* object of their faith. In the brilliant intensifica- 

* tion of this emblem of the fold and sheep going 

* forth, the Greater fold (now miscalled the Great 

* Bear), it is strikingly represented that their course 

* is to the Great Shepherd and Guardian of the flocks 

* typified in Arcturus, He who cometh and returneth. 

* The three stars, daughters of the flock, seem fol- 

1 Notes from MazzarotJi, pp. 29 and 30, on the Great and Lesser 
Sheep-folds, miscalled Bears : — 

* It has been remarked by Oriental scholars, that the Arab astronomy 

* abounds with allusions to cattle, but without observing that the 

* camel, the peculiar possession of the desert tribes, does not exist 
' among the emblems. Only once, if at all, does even the name occur 

* among the more obscure names of minor stars, as it is said to do in 

* Cancer. Were proof needed that astronomy did not originate in 

* Arabia, this circumstance would afford it. The cattle with which the 
' nomenclature of the stars abound, are the lamb and the kid of sacri- 
' fice, the flock of the shepherd, the sacrificial ram and bull of the 

* zodiac, where the western nations still behold them ; but besides 

* these are the magnificent emblems of the greater and lesser sheep-folds, 

* with their sheep, long obscured by fable and misconstruction of the 

* names by which they were originally distinguished — names perverted 

* by the Greeks and Romans, but still to be traced in the records of 

* Oriental astronomy. Most people know the remarkable constellation 

* called by some the Great Bear, by others the Plough, or Charles's 
' Wain. In reference to the starry host, the Book of Job mentions 

* Ash : — ** Canst thou guide Ash and her offspring? " where the Eng- 

* lish has " Arcturus and his sons," according to the confessedly imper- 

* feet Greek translation of this most ancient and difficult book. It is 

* not, however, far wide of the real meaning in this place, as Arcturus, 

* though not in the same constellation, appears to lead or govern the 
' three stars, where we still find the name Benet-naish, the daughters 




558 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



* lowing, seeking Him ; but two, representing the 

* boundaries of the fold, point above to the star 
' typifying Him in the earlier dispensation, the 

* Lesser, and as it were further removed fold. There 
' He, the Great Shepherd of the sheep, is figured 
' above, gone before ; and below in Arcturus, as 
' about to return in greater glory. The foot of the 

* other figure, the suffering Mighty One, is on the 
' head of the Dragon below. 

' These emblems made part of the ancient astro- 
' nomy, but the guiding star was not the Pole-star 
' then, nor will it always be. Still, while to us it 
' seems to be so, it is well to connect it with Him to 

* of Ash, the assembled. The Arabs still call this constellation Al- 

* Naish, or Annaish, the ordered or assembled together as sheep in a 

* fold. The ancient Jewish commentators on Job, say that Ash is the 

* seven stars in the Great Bear. In the three stars, miscalled the Tail, 

* where we find the name Benet-naish, there is also Mizar, a guarded 

* or enclosed place. Another name is Alioth, the ewe or she-goat, near 

* which is the star celebrated in modern astronomy, Al Cor, the lamb. 

* Among other names in this constellation. El Acola also is a fold : 

* Phacad is a watched or guarded place ; Dubh^, in Hebrew, a she- 

* bear, is still written on our globes ; but in Arabic, Dubah is cattle, 

* and in Hebrew Daber is a fold, either of which might easily be mis- 
' taken for Dubh6 by the Greeks, and understood as a bear. 

* In the name of the nymph Calisto, by Greek fable said to be 

* changed into the constellation, we find the Semitic root, which we 

* meet again in the west as Caiila or sheep-fold. With the idea of 

* a sheep-fold in the mind, it needs but to look at these seven re- 

* markable stars to perceive how well is imaged there the fold, and 

* the sheep j)roceeding from the corner of it, as if following the bright 

* star Arcturus, always said to be the guardian of these stars, whatever 

* they might be called. Arcturus means. He cometh the guardian 

* or keeper. 

* As in Ursa Major, so in Ursa Minor, the Semitic names show 
' that here also were set forth the fold and the flock, in Scripture 

* metaphor the Church ; and its chief star Al Gedi, the kid or lamb 
' of sacrifice ; called also Areas, the son of the Supreme Deity.' 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



559 



' whom the hearts of His people turn as the needle 

* to the Pole. 

' These leading or guiding stars, Arcturus in 
' Bootes, and Kochab or Cynosura in the Lesser 

* sheep-fold, have both symbolized the Great Shep- 

* herd of the sheep, — Him whom they follow in life, 

* and trust in, to attain to His side in departing to 

* be with Him, which is far better/ 

Proposed Reforms among the Constellations. 

Modern astronomers have little true love for the 
constellations, as usually accepted and fixed by 
modern public opinion ; for they are of no acknow- 
ledged use to them when actually observing, and 
have even become rather ridiculous in their eyes. 
There was a well organized and rather sweeping at- 
tempt a few years ago, headed by the first astrono- 
mer of the age, to reform those strange figures — at 
least for the southern hemisphere, — altogether. The 
outcry at the Astronomical Society was very loud ; 
' for,' had said their intellectual leader. Sir John 
Herschel, in his Outlines of Astronomy, * the con- 

* stellations seem to have been almost purposely 
' named and delineated to cause as much confusion 
' and inconvenience as possible. Innumerable snakes 
' twine through long and contorted areas of the 
' heavens, where no memory can follow them ; bears, 

* lions, and fishes, large and small, northern and 

* southern, confuse all nomenclature,' etc. etc. 

These were among the points, the reform of which 



560 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DTV. III. 



was to be attended to in future ; and the improved 
arrangement was therefore to have consisted, in 
dividing and subdividing the surface of the heavens 
by lines, defined for the most part by circles of 
right-ascension and declination ; names being given 
to such areas or sectional spaces, and also to the 
principal stars therein, culled from the neutral liter- 
ary ground of classical antiquity and mythology ; 
on some well-considered general system too, so that 
the name of a star, or its section, should always give 
some idea of its place in the sky. 

Had this attempt been successful, — it would have 
been a triumph to the furtive Greeks and their 
heathen gods and goddesses, who would have been 
thereby re-established with new force on the minds 
of all educated men. And it would have been creat- 
ing greater difficulties than ever in the way of re- 
covering the truly ancient constellations, or what 
came down to the Greeks from the purer light of 
primeval times ; and which they, before passing on 
for the use of posterity, sophisticated, metamor- 
phosed, and mythologized, for their own and their 
false gods' glory. We are rather glad, therefore, 
that modern astronomy was not allowed to assist at 
so untoward an improvement ; though we must 
acknowledge that the . arguments on which the at- 
tempted reform finally foundered, were not the right 
ones ; and are very little satisfying still, to the soul 
of the astronomer pursuing his science for itself 
alone. It was said, for instance, * no modern im- 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



561 



* provcr must presume to disturb an ancient dis- 

* coverer, therefore the modem astronomer must 
' not remove the long-established Greek names of 

* both stars and constellations/ But as we have just 
seen, the Greeks were not the original discoverers, 
earliest observers, or first namers of the stars and 
groups of stars ; and for us to be keeping up their 
nomenclature, is only confirming the success of 
their unjust appropriation of the works of their 
predecessors ; and approving their anticipatory 
fracture also of our well-considered rules and 
principles of just procedure. 

Again it was said, and said triumphantly, in 
opposition to the proposed reformation, * that the 

* existing system of constellations maintains the cor- 

* respondence between the old astronomy and the 

* new ; while, moreover, the ancients having looked 
' to the rising and setting of certain constellations, 
' for their times of ploughing, sowing, sailing, and 
' ailing, a general knowledge of the scheme is neces- 
' sary for understanding their poets, historians, phy- 

* sicians, and writers de Re Rusticd! But this 
apology evidently fails, in the first place, by, as 
before, not going far enough back on the stream of 
time to reach the real ancients ; for Greek authors 
are the earliest ones alluded to in this extract : 
and in the second place, by indicating that the 
method of observing the constellations then in vogue 
amongst the Greeks, was so weak in execution and 
erroneous in principle, that no working astronomer 

VOL. III. 2 N 



562 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



of the present day would care to inconvenience him- 
self very much in his daily practice, for the sake of 
keeping up the glorious memory of such very poor 
ancients as those, in the matter of practical astro- 
nomy. 

With whom rests the right to name, or re-name. 

Especially too will this be the feeling among 
workers of the present day, when they discover that 
the much earlier races of men who really invented 
those constellations which the Greeks afterwards 
appropriated, had far more accurate ideas and more 
successful methods of making astronomical observa- 
tions ; for they observed stars, not at their risings 
and settings, but at their meridian transits. So 
that in times far before those of the Greeks, — the 
mere existence of this method at once indicates, that 
there were then a more exact astronomy, better 
knowledge of physics, and truer understanding of 
mechanics actually in practice, than that ingenious 
people of Hellas in after times ever possessed a 
notion of ; in fact, an astronomy as much superior 
to the early Greek, as the primitive religion of man- 
kind (whencesoever that might have been derived)^ 
was purer than the Grecian mythology. We can indeed 
hardly paint in words sufficiently powerful the not 
decline merely, but the positive catastrophe, which 
befell the practice of astronomy when, from the hands 

* See Thoughts on the Doubts of the Day, by the Dowager Lady 
Shelley : London, 1864 ; especially pages 16 to 20. 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



5G3 



of those who directed the building of the Great 
Pyramid, — in part to commemorate the then 
polar star, equatorial star, and equinoctial point 
being all on the meridian together (see Plate 
VIII.) — it passed on to Phoenicians, Egyptians, and 
Greeks, to be by them employed not only on 
less well selected stars for chronological purposes ; 
but, on risings and settings, in place of meridian 
passages ! 

This method of meridian observation, which so 
signally marked the pre-Grecian astronomy of the 
Great Pyramid, and generally of the Pleiades year, 
— is a main feature likewise of modern astronomy ; 
even as we hope the worship of the true God, the 
God of the earliest patriarchs of old, is by the grace 
of God, the inheritance renewed of the present age. 
So that in seeking, on the score of astronomy, to 
produce an acquaintance between the earliest and 
latest times of man upon earth, we find a remark 
able resemblance between these two chronological 
extremes ; for on each occasion, the true religion is 
accompanied by right and learned principles in the 
grandest of all the sciences. In the last instance 
indeed, the admirable meridian observation-method 
was arrived at by the slow development of human 
learning, gradually working its way through many 
thousand years of toil, towards the light ; but in 
the former, at least in the case of its chief practical 
manifestation, or at the Great Pyramid, it was 
accompanied by proofs both scientific and religious 



564 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



of having been given at once, and suddenly, to 
chosen men by Divine inspiration. 

This similarity in practical religion and observing 
methods in astronomy, of either end of man's career, 
or rather of his earlier, with the present a^e, — 
for when the end is to come we know not, — and the 
total contrast of both of them to all that has been 
prevailing among nations and people in the interval, 
— is strangely illustrated in the polar stars of the 
sky. We have now for the northern hemisphere, 
a good pole-star, a Ursae Minoris, and the accuracy 
of modern meridional astronomy is greatly promoted 
thereby ; five thousand years ago, too, more or less, 
there was another good pole-star, viz., a Draconis, 
respectable in brightness, and inimitable for proxi- 
mity to the pole ; but in all the intervening period 
there has been nothing to compare with either ; as 
may be instantly perceived on reference to our star- 
map, Plate VII. 

We do not certainly pretend to know any suffi- 
cient reason why true astronomy should flourish 
only when the northern heavens show a good pole- 
star, — ^but it has apparently, somehow or other, been 
so as yet ; and though much is still talked in litera- 
ture about Greek and Phoenician pole-stars, as used 
in navigation, they were from six to twelve degrees 
from the pole, and therefore mightily inexact if 
looked on as rotation-point references. Neither can 
we give the mariners of those nations all credit for 
making the best possible use of what nature placed 



CHAP. IX.] PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



565 



at their disposal in that age of the world ; for if, as 
Chevalier Bunsen states/ the Phoenicians employed 
/3 Ursse Minoris, under the name of Astarte, Has, 
and Hastoreth, queen of the Zidonians, for their 
polar star, as early as 2000, or even 2200 B.C., — 
making as much use of it, and regarding it as holy to 
them, as the Egyptians did of Sirius to themselves for 
their ends and their purposes, — we can only say that 
the Phoenicians did not take the best star, seeing that 
a Draconis was then at only half the distance from 
the pole that Ursae Minoris was ; and this last 
star, never even in subsequent years came within 
some six degrees and a half of the rotation point of 
the heavens. 

Chevalier Bunsen indeed contends in favour of 
the Phoenician preference, that a Draconis could not 
compare against /B Ursse Minoris in the matter 
of brightness ; for according to him, the latter 
star was of the first magnitude, ' the brilliant one 
of the Jlrst magnitude, Beta of the Little Bear,' 
he writes (vol. iv. p. 350) ; and again, 'this same 
' brilliant star /S.' But we are quite unaware of his 
having the smallest authority for asserting that 
that star was ever above its present size, or of the 
third magnitude only ; and as a little further 
on, he makes the star belong to the Great Bear, 
we fear that this part of his text, whether by 
printer's error or otherwise, is not much to be de- 
pended on. 

* ^VyP^'^ P/ace in Universal History^ vol. iv. p. 353. 



566 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[dIV. III. 



The Constellations as means for perpetuating 
Ideas, 

But while we are thus showing the similar stellar 
facilities for exact astronomy, which the heavens of 
five thousand years ago, and these alone in air time 
past, were ofiering in their day, — to what they are 
again affording now ; and the similar ideas which 
then prevailed amongst men as to the best method 
of making astronomical observations, for either the 
absolute fixation of place, or accurate determination 
of time, — with what are newly approved of in the 
world at present, — we are involuntarily afibrding 
grounds for an argument, and one of no mean 
importance, for the continued use of constellation 
arrangements of some kind. 

The modern astronomer in a meridian observatory, 
working on from year to year, finds the right 
ascension and declination of a star, spite of the 
small alterations by precession in such short lengths 
of time, to be abundantly sufficient, and even very 
convenient, both for distinguishing the star as by a 
name, and for directing a telescope to its place in the 
heavens. But when the most important question for 
solution, both by that observer and all astronomers, 
comes to be, the connexion of the present astronomy 
with that of four thousand years ago, — then, right 
ascension and declination will neither serve the pur- 
poses of a name, nor the uses of a ready finder ; for 
truly we may say, a Draconis we know, and the 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



567 



Pleiades we know, — but who arc right ascension 
12h. 4m. 268., with declination 86° 18' 0", and right 
ascension 2 3 h. 5 8 m. 4 5 s., with declination 4° 1 1 ' 5 5" 
They are certainly not the present places of the 
previously mentioned stars, even to the most ap- 
proximate naked-eye observation ; for these places 
are respectively, right ascension 14h. Om. 46 s., 
with declination 65° 0' 53", and right ascension 
3h. 39m. 31s., with declination 23° 41' 17"; yet 
are the former very diverse numbers the places 
after all of the self-same stars about four thousand 
years ago ! 

Although these vast variations of numerical posi- 
tions, would be lessened by adopting ecliptic latitude 
and longitude in place of right ascension and decli- 
nation, — the movements of the plane of the ecliptic, 
in periods so enormous as four thousand years, 
would prevent such variations disappearing alto- 
gether, besides introducing many other incon- 
veniences ; but the ' Pleiades in the shoulder of the 
' Bull,' remain in that situation age after age, 
without any sensible change. Hence, if any one 
had wished to preserve the same names of the stars, 
and hand down the same ideas unchanged on certain 
subjects from primitive man to the most distant 
posterity, — he could not have selected amongst all 
objects in nature, anything so appropriate and so 
permanent as the constellation figures of the stars. 

As we have these figures now, puerile and 
absurd though many of them, after repeated altera- 



1 



568 



ON SOME POINTS IN 



[DIV. III. 



tion, may have become, — they have lasted some 
two thousand five hundred years or more ; and have 
been employed by hundreds of thousands of millions 
of men. But in proportion as we are enabled, and 
the Great Pyramid has now enabled us with several 
of the constellations, to rise above those adventitious 
accompaniments which mediaeval nations introduced, 
— so do we find the original figures bring us at once 
into mental companionship with those who lived 
five thousand years ago, and even with some who 
enjoyed the privilege of Divine inspiration. 

* From the names and emblems of ancient 
astronomy,' says the author of Mazzaroih, referring 
to the meanings of the words describing the constel- 
lations in a primitive language, and confirmed now 
very remarkably, in some cases (see p. 493), by the 
Great Pyramid, — * we may learn the all-important 

* fact, that God has spoken ; that He gave to the 
' earliest of mankind a revelation, equally important 

* to the latest ; a revelation even of those truths, 

* afterwards written for the admonition of those on 

* whom the ends of the world should come.' 

If it be true, as the late lamented Dr. Arnold re- 
marked, * that modern history is not only a step in 

* advance of ancient history, but the last step, and 

* appears to bear marks of fulness of time, as if there 

* would be no future history beyond it,' — then every 
symptom of the extreme beginning being brought 
by a higher power to be compared with the latter 
end, and the intervening clouds and mystifications 



CHAP. IX.] 



PRIMEVAL ASTRONOMY. 



5G9 



of heathen nations passing away as a tale that is 
told, becomes of most intense interest. 

But it is time now, that we should leave this 
single question of the ancient constellations, their 
origin, character, and meaning, — for a broader con- 
sideration of the whole contents of that most 
authentic book of primeval science, which the Great 
Pyramid proves itself more or less in essence to be. 



CHAPTEK X. 

INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE GREAT PYRAMID'S 
MANIFESTATION. 

If, in the course of volumes i. and ii. of this work, 
we have now succeeded in showing, that both the 
grandeur and stability of the Great Pyramid, as 
well as the minute perfection of its parts, are a 
marvel to all practical working men ; and if we 
have also been enabled to prove in Divisions i. and 
II., and the earlier chapters of Division iii. in the 
present volume, that the original metrological and 
chronological plans, — in memorializing which after a 
permanent manner all that unrivalled amount and 
unequalled skill of workmanship were spent ; — that 
those original plans, we say, must have been based 
on a knowledge of astronomy, geography, and 
physics, so vastly beyond the powers of unaided man 
in the day when the Pjrramid was built, or indeed 
within several thousand years therefrom, — that scien- 
tifically there is no resource for us, but to allow that 
the planners of the building must have been assisted 
by Divine inspiration ; and if we have also been 



CHAP. X.] INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES. 571 

able to set forth in chapter viii. of Division iii., that 
there are both good historical, and sound religious 
reasons for believing in such Divine inspiration 
having actually been aflforded, or rather perhaps, 
that Divine commands were given for the work, — 
then we are arrived at the threshold of a more 
difficult question still ; — viz., why a divinely origi- 
nated system of weights and measures, should have 
been constructed in the earlier ages of the world, to 
be made known to man only at the present latter 
day? Or, as others choose to express it, — *if the 

* Pyramid system be really all that has been repre- 

* sented, why was it locked up for so many ages, 

* instead of being published as speedily as possible, 

* to confer its choice advantages on men of all 

* times V 

This form of the question travels, we fear, beyond 
its legitimate ground; for, on the principles ap- 
parently taken for granted, men might equally well 
inquire, why sundry events appointed to special 
times in the Biblical history of the human race, — 
were not carried out earlier; especially when St. 
Paul tells us, that they had been prepared from the 
beginning of the world. But such principles being 
evidently erroneous, in a religious point of view, — all 
inquiries based on them would prove to be in vain. 
Our time will therefore at present be more safely, as 
well as more profitably, occupied in investigating, — 
not why the Great Pyramid metrological system was 
not published sooner, — but in ascertaining what are 



572 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 

the accompcmying features observable in the world 
in our own times, when the publication is at last 
apparently taking place ; and in endeavouring to 
apprehend what wants of humanity may thereby be 
supplied, what purpose served, or what good pro- 
moted. There are, too, several proposed solutions 
of this part of the case, already in the field, and 
highly deserving of attention. 

Solution 1 ? 

The first of these proposed solutions says — If the 
Great Pyramid is — throughout every part of its 
building — a monument devoted to memorialize a 
system of weights and measures, it must have been 
intended to be used as such ; and if the standards 
of its system are based on grand earth-features com- 
mon to all nations alike, giving to no one people an 
advantage over another, — the system must, by the 
logic of facts, have been intended to be a universal 
one, and to be employed by all nations. 

This universality is further contended for by the 
same party, on account of the geographical position 
of the Great Pyramid in Egypt ; which land, 
' situated between Africa and Asia, and in easy 
* communication with Europe,' was long ago de- 
scribed * as the centre of the ancient civilized world;' 
and has been more recently computed by modern 
science, to be the efiective surface-centre of all the 
inhabited regions of the globe taken together, and 
treated according to the number and importance of 



4 



CHAP.X.] GREAT pyramid's MANIFESTATION. 573 

tlieir populations. Wherefore, if the special question 
is then put, as to why so admirable and universal 
a system is only just now produced, — an answer 
comes to the effect — that mankind was not prepared 
for general peace and universal brotherhood sooner ; 
and under these social circumstances alone, can one 
system of weights and measures ever be expected to 
obtain all the wide world over. Steam-navigation, 
railway-travelling, the electric telegraph, universal 
expositions, and international commerce, are now 
progressing at such accelerated pace, it is contended, 
that one weight and one measure will soon be re- 
quired for the merchant princes trafficking over a 
whole w^orld ; and here, just at this very point of 
time, the Great Pyramid, — situated precisely at 
the crossing of all the many roads employed by 
modern commerce, in passing between the East and 
the West, the North and the South,— has disclosed 
its system — the most universal in its arrangements 
and the most scientifically founded in its standards 
of any that has yet appeared ; leaving even the 
metrical system of the French savants a long way 
behind it. What, then, can the Great Pyramid 
system be disclosed for, it is argued, at this juncture, 
but to supply the new wants of humanity, and 
herald in some of the accompaniments of the pro- 
mised millennial peace and good- will to all men ? 

In answer to this statement, it must be confessed, 
we imagine, that if there is ever to be one weight 
and one measure for all nations, the Pyramid system 



574 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [dIV. III. 

would be the fairest and best ; and is in so far- 
worthy the earnest attention of all good men who 
look towards the future, and desire the ultimate 
benefit of the whole human race. But we are not 
sure that the occasion for such a system as painted 
in the last paragraph, is likely to occur for an 
indefinite length of time yet. Sager persons than 
ourselves have doubted long since, whether the 
growth of mere material prosperity and increased 
means for driving the wheels of commerce faster 
than ever, are of themselves doing much for 
peace and good-will to all men. Wealth is accumu- 
lating in special localities and for the few, much more 
rapidly than of old, — but the poor remain as miser- 
able as before. A commercial treaty with a new or 
weak people, is soon followed up by an armament. 
Insurrectionists canying fire and sword with them in 
one country, are contributed openly by the citizens 
of another pretending to be at peace with it ; and 
in the very centre of Europe and learning, wars are 
plunged into, neutral nations invaded, non-com- 
batant peasants maltreated, and hecatombs of fight- 
ing men are slaughtered with far greater speed than 
in any earlier epochs of the world, and apparently 
with less compunction on the consciences of the 
slaughterers, regal and subject alike. So that, 
whether by crowned kings, or arrayed nationalities, 
or needy political conspirators, — war, in this year of 
grace 1866, is levied at a moment's notice or without 
it ; man's blood is freely taken by his fellow-man ; not 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 575 

a nation considei*s itself safe except surrounded with 
its armed hosts, more numerous than at any pre- 
vious stage of its history, even in open war ; and 
every new invention out of which peace had been 
expected, has been turned to increase the destruc- 
tion of battle ; while in the eyes of the people at 
large, success in war, whether just or unjust, has 
been recently held to take the place of charity in 
absolving their rulers from every sin, whether of 
commission or omission, against the laws and in- 
stitutions of their country. 

In presence then of this scene, which the Ger- 
many, Bohemia, Italy, Poland, Canada, Mexico, 
Crete, and even Siberia, of the year 1866, are exhi- 
biting ; and in presence of this failure of mere 
human learning and modem science to put an end 
to wars and the tumults and destruction of war, — 
we must express our entire dissent from the suppo- 
sition of the disclosures of the Great Pyramid 
metrology having been intended to be so timed, as 
to greet a state of general amity and peaceful com- 
munication already existing, and accomplished by 
themselves, amongst all mankind. 

Solution 2 ? 

Well, remarks another solutionist of the case — 
granted that the revealing of the Great Pyramid s 
long-kept secret, was not intended to greet a general 
peace already accomplished over the earth by man, 
— but why should it not have come to enable him to 



576 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 

accomplish so great a good, by supplying to his 
hand such a general means for universal amity, as 
a system of weights and measures, calculated to be, 
and worthy of becoming, universal to all mankind ? 

To this question, probably, many persons besides 
ourselves will be inclined to answer, — that any new 
instrument suddenly put into the hands of man, as 
man merely, is not likely in the next few years to 
have a totally different effect, from all his previous 
proceedings and developments during the last four 
thousand years. He has indeed now, and has had for 
many centuries, the gospel of Christ to assist him in 
his endeavours after what is right. But it is even 
with its assistance, as already described, that the 
so-called peace-establishment of Europe has grown 
to be something like four millions of armed men. 
According to gospel principles, too, — as further 
abundantly shown in the antithesis, by Egyptian 
history, — no further assistance from the same 
quarter need be looked for, until there has been 
full confession on man's part as to his total inability, 
of himself, to mahe a reign of general peace and 
good-will over the whole earth, — any more than to 
work out his own salvation. 

How, too, is such an instrument, or one pretending 
to the same character of a universal metrology, but 
not from the same source, — being used at this very 
moment ? Why, we are told in the public papers, 
that Napoleon iii., seeking recently to join the 
South German States to France as a counterpoise to 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 577 

tlic late agglomeration of North German States 
about Prussia, — proposed to them to adopt the 
French metric system, in place of their old here- 
ditary weights and measures. And we are also 
informed, that the said South German States fired 
up with indignation at the proposal ; looking on it 
as neither more nor less than a proposition to them, 
to abandon everything national and traditional that 
they had derived from primeval times, — and to 
become Frenchmen : Frenchmen, too, of the order 
of those amongst whom the metric system was pro- 
duced, who publicly as a nation abolished religion and 
set up atheism, in their capital city, and finished with 
consigning all their liberties to a military despotism. 

Solution 3 ? 

Then says a third solutionist, — All the alteration 
needed in the last proposition is merely this, — that 
the revealing of the Pyramid s information is to 
help man to do, what he would never have been 
able to bring about by his own powers. 

There is a very great deal though in that altera- 
tion, if it really comes from the Christian heart. 
We might then too take account, of the unex- 
pected and confirmatory light which the Great 
Pyramid has thrown, — not only on the question so 
disputed amongst Churchmen, and in which they 
were not receiving any more light by the progress 
of their disputations, viz., as to whether the Sabbath 
had ever been heard of in the world before Moses ; 

VOL. III. 2 



578 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. IIT. 

— but also on the reality of the still more widely- 
disputed, we might even say, of late, generally 
doubted, phenomenon of the Noachian Deluge. And 
any further insight whatever into these things must 
be of extraordinary importance, and possess a rami- 
fying influence through many departments of re- 
ligious life and progress. 

But the main substance of the Great Pyramid, so 
far as at present ascertained, is metrological ; and 
though we must confess to be quite unable to see 
our way as to how its system is ever, notwithstand- 
ing all its excellences, to become universal amongst 
men under the present dispensation, — yet we fancy 
that there may be traced another part which the 
Pyramid standards are actually fulfilling ; and not 
so much in combining, as in singling out, or render- 
ing more distinct, both certain classes of men and 
particular characteristics of nations. 

Solution 4 ? 

Of olden time, all the mental and physical dis- 
tinctions between Hebrews and Egyptians, sacred 
and profane, revealed religion and man-invented 
idolatry, — were in a manner typified to the eye 
under the diff'erent lengths of the cubits of the two 
nations. Each of those nations keeping to its own 
cubit faithfully or pertinaciously ; and thereby still 
further illustrating their inmost thoughts and even 
principles of action. For the one people adhered 
to their 25-inch standard, because they believed 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 579 

that they had been taught by inspired prophets to 
observe it as a duty appointed of the Lord their 
God; — while the other people kept to their 20*7- 
inch standard, merely because it was a species of 
custom amongst themselves ; and, if traditionally 
traced up, through the Flood, to Cain, and to his 
invention of it merely as a means of hasting to be 
rich at the expense of all his neighbours,^ they saw 
no particular objection in that. 

In later times, however, a third party has appeared 
on the metrological field, evidently diverse from 
either of the former; for while it repudiates the 
mere mammon-acquiring character of the last ex- 
ample, it pronounces still more strongly against the 
revealed religious origin of the other. This party 
is, of course, that which originated the French 
metrical system ; whose 3 9 '3 7-inch metre standard 
was expressly brought out as the product of modern 
science alone ; and as being infinitely more grand in 
its earth-commensurability, and more ennobling to 
the soul of man to contemplate, than any other pre- 
viously known national measures. 

But the introduction of this third system on the 
scene, instead of either confusing the distinctions of 
the other two chief systems already in possession of 

^ ' He, Cain, augmented his household substance with much wealth, 

* by rapine and violence. . . He also introduced a change into that 

* way of simplicity wherein men lived before ; and was the author of 

* measures and weights ; and whereas men lived innocently and 
' generously while they knew nothing of such arts, he changed the 
' world into cunning craftiness.' — Josephus, Book i. chap. ii. 



580 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 

the ground, or throwing them both hopelessly into 
even shade, — has only made them more broadly 
and visibly diverse than ever : while it has more 
especially invested the Hebrew system with new 
claims to admiration ; and such as can be shared in 
by the whole educated Christian world of the 
present day. For now has it been discovered, — and 
mainly through the Pyramid investigations, — that 
not only does the ancient Hebrew standard possess 
all the earth-commensurabilities claimed for the 
French metre,— but it possesses them in a far higher 
spirit and of a purer kind : while the Egyptian has 
nothing whatever of the sort. 

Hence we might arrange the three systems, or 
Hebrew, French, and Egyptian, — as representing, 
best earth -commensur ability, indifferent earth-com- 
mensurability, and no earth-commensurability at 
all. Or by looking to what lies at the grounds of 
the reasons for their having such qualities, — they 
might be taken as representing attention to the 
dictates, or a giving way to the domination, of, 
revealed religion, modern science without any re- 
ligion, and old idolatry. This, too, will probably be 
the more instructive manner in which to look at 
them ; for it illustrates strikingly the direction of 
the progress of society at the present time, and the 
principles under which both individuals, and even 
nations, are now classing them^selves. 

The carrying out, however, of so general a review 
of the whole world, is for other minds than ours, as 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. r>81 

well as for works especially devoted to such ques- 
tions. Here, we merely attempt to elucidate the 
subject of the Great Pyramid, so far as may be in our 
power, or may lie within the compass of a moderate 
practical astronomers professional employments, — 
leaving many other sides of even the Pyramid ques- 
tion to be prosecuted hereafter by other men better 
adapted therefor. Hence there remains now but one 
topic which falls within our province to attempt ; but 
this has so much of both home interest and national 
importance about it, that we do not scruple to ask 
the reader s attention for a few minutes longer. 

Anglo-Saxon Originals in Metrology. 

Not only have we shown, in the last pages of 
vol. ii. and in chapter viii. of this volume, that the 
sacred Hebrew and Great Pyramid standards of 
weight and measure may be regarded as identical, — 
but we have had again and again to point out, 
that the Anglo-Saxon measures come, in many of 
their features, so exceedingly close to the above, that 
the coincidence cannot be accidental. This fact 
had not escaped John Taylor, nor indeed the 
anonymous author of the Pyramid book of 1706 
(see p. 117), — but they had not advanced very far 
in ascertaining whence, or how, so remarkable a 
triple agreement arose amongst three nations or 
parties now widely removed in both time and 
geographical limits. 

We ourselves have indeed set forth already, in 



582 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. 111. 

chapter viiL and elsewhere, reasons for believing 
that both the Great Pyramid and the Hebrew mea- 
sures were communicated by inspiration ; at very 
various times in history, but from the same eternal, 
all- wise, unchanging Source ; and therefore they 
are found to be the same, or, that continuity pre- 
vails with regard to them. 

But in such case where, how, and when did the 
Anglo-Saxons receive their traditional and heredi- 
tary measures; so closely alike, that they must 
either have been copied from one or other of the 
above, — at a date something more than two thou- 
sand years ago, — or have been similarly derived from 
the same high and original Source as theirs. This 
latter idea will probably be forbidden by every one, 
or found by them without any proofs to support it ; 
while, again, the Great Pyramid was a sealed book 
to all the world, until this present day, when modern 
science, — aided in part by the dilapidation of the 
building and the structural features thereby opened 
up, — has at length been able to assign the chief in- 
terpretations. There remains, therefore, only the 
Hebrew origin as likely or possible ; but still ex- 
tremely distant as well as difficult, and partly 
because so little is known of the Anglo-Saxon race 
at any very early dates. 

Anglo-Saxons, where from, of old. 

At present, indeed, we all appreciate the name as 
applying to a majority of the inhabitants of Great 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 58^ 

Britain aiicl the United States, with their roots 
among the Scandinavian, German, and Gothic popu- 
lations of the Continent ; but the Anglo-Saxons are 
no more the aborigines of these European, than of 
the American, countries where they are now found. 
They came, indeed, confessedly, according to all 
history, to these regions from the eastward, within 
the last eighteen hundred years ; and if we inquire 
of the ethnologists what all the Anglo-Saxon, Scan- 
dinavian, German, and Gothic nations are called in 
their science, we are told * Indo-Germanic,' or that 
they all had an eastern and southern origin. 

This subject has been followed up more particu- 
by Mr. John Wilson of Brightou,^ for the English- 
speaking races of the Anglo-Saxon, with some 
remarkable results ; one of the first being, that 
though in the dark ages constituting a part of the 
Gothic immigrating hosts, and in so far Goths, with 
whom we are accustomed to connect everything 
barbarous and savage, they, the Anglo-Saxon por- 
tion, and some others too of the Goths, were not 
savages ; but had, on the contrary, the physiological 
testimony— in large well-formed brains and fine hair 
— of a race long nurtured in superior intellectual and 
social culture, besides political proofs of the same in 
the possession of very complete and wisely devised 
systems of laws, with orderly manners and customs. 

^ Especially in his monthly serial of 1866 and 1867, entitled The 
Watchman of Ephraim. See Lanjuage as a Criterion of Race, p. 202, 
and other papers. 



584 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. TIL 

That all Goths were necessarily barbarians, is an 
idea that has grown up from our first descriptions 
of them having been unfortunately written for us 
chiefly by their enemies, whom they were conquer- 
ing ; viz., the pampered and enervated sons of Rome 
in her decline and decrepitude. To such luxiirious 
debauchees, the simple and regularly-living Goths 
were of course mere so-called savages, and yet might 
be more highly appreciative of moral virtue. While 
as for artistic feeling, and in architecture, where the 
Romans did little else than servilely follow the 
Greeks, the Gothic peoples produced an entirely 
new variety of the art ; and so exceedingly exquisite 
as to oblige all the present world, by the fact, to use 
the name of Gothic in connexion with the beautiful, 
just as systematically and frequently as erroneous 
literary and Roman-derived prejudices have hitherto 
made us inclined to appropriate it also, to everything 
the very opposite of beautiful. 

The Anglo-Saxons, then, are not, as a Jewish 
author lately tried to make out, a mere recently 
sprung horde of northern savages, emerged only the 
other day from a mud-hole in a German forest ; but 
a race who had been already long accustomed to 
virtues and refinements in some land, said by the 
ethnologists to be south and east of that which they 
now occupy ; and of that one also where they first 
appeared to astonished Europe in the midst of carry- 
ing out their great military migrations in the 
several centuries following the Christian era. 



CHAP. X.] (JllEAT pyramid's MANIFESTATION. 58 5 

What was the country, then, whence the Anglo- 
Saxons started on that occasion ? This is the second 
point on which Mr. Wilson has reached some most 
noteworthy results, and by the method of language, 
applied in a very safe and thoroughly inductive 
manner ; for he distinguishes '^the traces of the 
original foundation of a language from the often 
very numerous facts and sometimes preponderating 
mass of substance introduced into it at subsequent 
times ; an effect witnessed to the utmost degree in 
the present day on the Jews in Russia, who all speak 
German, not because they are of the same original 
race and stock as the Germans, but because they 
sojourned in the cities of Germany for several cen- 
turies in the middle ages before going to Russia. 

The chief importation of this nature which Mr. 
Wilson finds in the Anglo-Saxon, is from the Persian 
or Median. In this conclusion he was indeed pre- 
ceded, as he also acknowledges, by Sharon Turner, 
and many other writers on the Germanic and Scan- 
dinavian languages and peoples. 

In so far, indeed, there is nothing contradictory 
either to ancient tradition or modern science, in de- 
riving the Anglo-Saxons, with some portion of Scan- 
dinavians, Slavonians, and Germans, from Persia or 
Media, as one station merely of a more extensive 
journey, either by the southern or northern route 
from thence. In fact, the generally acknowledged 
theory of the German philologists, given expression 
to in Bunsen s third volume of Egypt's Place in 



586 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 

Universal History, p. 459, brings the modern Ger- 
mans from further east still than Persia or Media, 
or from what he terms * the primeval land, Iran 
' proper, Airy ana Vaego, or the high land about 
the sources of the Oxus and Jaxartes, between the 
fortieth and thirty-seventh degrees of nortli lati- 
tude and eighty-sixth and ninetieth of east longi- 
tude, or in Eastern Central Asia ; that, says he, was 
' the aboriginal Iran proper, inhabited by the fathers 

* of the Arians (and consequently our own, as we 

* speak the same language/) 

But Mr. Wilson does not trace up the Anglo- 
Saxons, — before they arrived in Media and Persia, 
— to that primeval land of the Arians ; nor to an 
intervening residence in the Indian Punjaub, whereto 
Chevalier Bun sen traces his own more immediately 
connected portion of the great Indo-Germanic 
peoples. On the contrary, Mr. Wilson finds a 
separate and distinct line of experiences for the 
Anglo-Saxon tribes, which begins with traces of 
greater proximity between the Anglo-Saxon and 
Persian, than between any other modern European 
language and Persian ; implying for the Anglo- 
Saxons, and perhaps also the Danes, a longer resi- 
dence in that part of the world, than for the majority 
of the Indo-Germans. This remarkable fact, fairly 
arrived at by an inductive examination of the lan- 
guages, forms an apparent anomaly in the general 
ethnological problem, of the highest importance as 
such, for any philosophical mind to trace up to its 



CHAP. X.] GREAT pyramid's MANIFESTATION. 587 

source and explanation. And Mr. Wilson does follow 
it up further, showing satisfactory indications, after 
eliminating the Persian and Median imported addi- 
tions, that there is a small portion of Egyptian or 
Coptic similarly imported ; but that the structure 
and foundation of the language is Hebraic ; one of 
his closing paragraphs having the following words, 
' indeed, the basis of the English language may, to 

* a reniarkahle extent, he found in the Hebrew. 
' Many of our most common w^ords, and names of 

* familiar objects, are almost pure Hebrew. I have 
' observed this particularly with regard to the Low- 

* land Scottish.' 

Not only, too, does Mr. Wilson show that this 
Hebraic foundation of our language could not, as 
such, have been introduced into it by our copying 
from the Jews subsequent to our Persian and Median 
period of residence, — and since the time that the 
Jews, expelled from Jerusalem, have been a homeless 
people, scattered abroad amongst all nations, — but 
he further shows that the Hebrew of the English lan- 
guage specially appertains to one tribe of Israel, who 
never belonged to the king'dom of Judah at all, and 
were never therefore to be termed Jews ; a tribe, in- 
deed, which formed the head of the historical oppo- 
sition to Judah, viz., Ephraim, — with its capital 
city of Samaria, and the kings thereof, usually 
termed Kings of Israel.^ Hence the Hebraic por- 

^ As an illustration of what the Ephraimite feature of the Hebrew 
was, the reader may be reminded that the Bible mentions (Judges xii.) 



588 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 

tion of the Anglo-Saxon language may be called 
either Ephraimite or Israelite with historical truth, 
but never Jewish.^ 

Now, this is without doubt a very capital point ; 
because as clearly as extensive linguistic connexions 
can make them so, and agreeably with all the' prin- 
ciples of language applied to ethnological science, — 
and which indeed seldom has such broad and ample 
foundations to work upon, in its ordinary discussions 
and conclusions, — the Anglo-Saxons are showTi to 

that the men of Ephraim could not say Shibboleth^ but only Sibboleth ; 
Samaria also for Shemar ; and Mr. Wilson gives the following list of 
English words derived from the Hebrew, but by an Ephraimitic road, 
or a dropping out of the difficult ' h ' after the ' s ' at the beginning 
of the word. 



English Word. 


Hebrew Word. 


Meaning in English of the 
Hebrew Word. 


Sever, 


SJiaver, 


To break or tear. 


Sabbath, 


Shabath, 


To rest. 


Sad, .... 


Shad, 


Desolation. 


Scaith, 


Schacath, 


Destruction. 


Steep, .... 


Shatap, 


To drown. 


Slake, .... 


Shalak, 


To lay. 


Saim (fat of swine), 


Shaman, 


Fat. 


Son, .... 


Shanah, 


PvepetitioH. 


Sift, .... 


Shafat, 


To judge. 


Speak, 


Shpak, 


To pour out. 


Soak, suck, sack, 


Shakah, 


To give water. 


Scale, .... 


Shakal, 


To weigh. 


Settle, 


Shathal, 


To plan. 



^ For the correct use of the terms Israelite and Jew, see Mr. John 
Wilson's many publications ; where, founding on a most extensive 
study of the appropriate portions of Scripture, he has been able to de- 
fine the terms almost with the rigidness of mathematical demonstra- 
tion, — and at the same time to give more expressiveness to the histories 
of these two most diverse and hostile nations, though they did, indeed, 
at one time march together under Moses, and were both originally 
sprung from Israel. 



9 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 580 

be compounded of the very Israelite people of old ; 
in fcict, they are the representatives of those Israelites, 
or may be said themselves to be of Israelite descent ; 
and therefore heirs of whatever portions of Hebraism 
were retained, when the more particular religious 
rites of Mosaicism were abolished and superseded 
by Baalim, under King Jeroboam. 

This is the conclusion from the side of language ; 
and is remarkably confirmed by history. For the 
Israelites were carried away captive from Samaria 
some two thousand five hundred years ago ; and 
though they have been lost to sight, as such,^ ever 
since, — yet it is known (see p. 528), that they were 
taken northward to the cities of the Modes, and 
beyond them still. Whence, excepting some very 
few stragglers, they not only never had any oppor- 
tunity of returning southward to their Palestinian 
land, — but they found themselves compelled to 
move away westward, in that grand current of the 
human race, by which their then surrounding 
neighbours, the Arians, Germans, and subsequently 
many other nations, were in long ages perpetually 
passing on towards Europe ; and never stopped 
until, in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ, 
they had reached the westernmost coasts looking 
upon the Atlantic. Mixing then with these nations, 

* Mainly because they have always been looked for as Jews, or a 
people with Jewish institutions, and those distinguishing religious rites 
of the Mosaic creed, — which they, the Israelites, had most formally 
abandoned, and made particular war against from the instant that they 
set up their separate kingdom. 



590 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. TIL 

— the Israelites, always a people of strong vitality, — 
must have prospered in mere numbers ; and if the 
two tribes of Jews in the present day have eight 
millions of descendants to show, in spite of all their 
sieges, wars, and persecutions, — and the continual 
filtering away also from amongst them of their best 
minds by conversion to Christianity, and subsequent 
amalgamation with their European neighbours, — 
the Israelites, could they only be recognised, ought 
to have with their ten tribes, no less than forty 
millions. A large amount of leavening to be intro- 
duced amongst the present or mediaeval inhabitants 
of Western Europe. 

This conclusion, however, of who are the Anglo- 
Saxons, — viz., a people largely partaking of Israelite 
admixture, — although it is something of infinite 
mystery to man, seeing that its chief facts and 
phenomena ascend to ages far beyond the powers of 
any Heralds' Office, or the genealogical roUs of the 
proudest aristocratic, or even royal, family of Europe, 
to presume to say anything whatever about, — this 
conclusion, we say, making out a lineal descent for 
the mass of the nation during no less than two 
thousand five hundred years, and then attaching 
them to the most favoured branch of all mankind, 
and the longest known to history, — has further and 
most remarkable testimony afi'orded to it from the 
Scriptures. 

Most ably, and with eminent success, has this 
side of the general question been treated by Mr. 



CHAP. X.] GREAT pyramid's MANIFESTATION. 591 

Wilson, in the several works mentioned below ;^ to 
such an extent, indeed, that not only would it be 
uncalled for in us, to attempt to throw any addi- 
tional ray of light upon its foundations ; — but we 
rather believe that there are contained already, and 
introduced unintentionally, perhaps, in Mr. Wilson's 
works, — arguments, illustrations, and indications 
quite sufficient to help forward all religiously in- 
clined minds, towards appreciating not only how the 
Anglo-Saxons are now found in popular possession 
of both old Hebrew words, and the ancient Hebrew 
metrological standards, — but why there should have 
been Divine inspiration afforded for the first estab- 
lishment of the Great Pyramid metrology, — and 
why also it was sealed up in such impenetrable 
mystery from the time of its primeval realization, 
to be opened and appreciated only in these latter 
days, in which we live. 

Nevertheless, there is one part of the question 
which is so purely in the way of inductive inquiry 
on metrological grounds, — that it seems to fall within 
our positive duty to attempt, — and we make its study 
therefore the concluding portion of our book. 

^ Our Israelilish Origin. 

The Book of Inheritance. 

The Millennium. 

TJie Mission of Elijah. 

The Watchman of Ephraim (Monthly). 
By John Wilson, 34 Norfolk Road, Brighton; and published by 
W. Macintosh, 24 Paternoster Row, London, E.G. 



592 



INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 



Metrological Test of the European Races, 

The case may be stated thus, — 

If the Ephraimitic IsraeHtes are mixed up in all 
the nations of modern Europe, — and if it is through 
the former having preserved their old Hebrew 
standards (as well as many other of their Hebraic 
peculiarities— though not all, for causes explained 
by Mr. Wilson in the works already quoted) ; if it 
is for these reasons that the now hereditary weights 
and measures of the said nations are found with so 
many resemblances to the Hebrew (or the Pyramid 
standards, which are the same in principle, and more 
accessible in fact), — then the resemblance ought 
always to be closer and closer, according to the 
amount of Ephraimitic blood in each nation. This 
is evidently only concluding from weights and 
measures, what has already been deduced from 
language, and with highly approved results in all 
educated society. We at once, therefore, proceed 
to consider, which of the metrologies of modern 
Europe, comes closest to that of the Great Pyra- 
mid. 

Now, the metrologies to be discussed in such a 
case, are, as with the languages previously considered, 
the popular ones ; or those commonly employed by 
the mass of the people of each country. We turn, 
therefore, for information upon what they are,— not 
to any deep or difficult treatise upon the arcana of 
science, as understood, and understandable only by 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMTD*S MANIFESTATION. 593 



a few philosophers ; — but to some book of com- 
mon information for all classes of society. Many 
such works there are before the public ; and among 
them, few are more commendable for the care with 
which it is compiled, than that excellent literary, 
commercial, and general intelligencer, the Edinburgh 
Almanac, by Messrs. Oliver and Boyd. We con- 
sult its well-filled interior, accordingly, and find, on 
page 83, the popular weights and linear measures of 
each country given in a compendious form, and ap- 
parently accurate manner.^ 

Each of these several weights and measures we 
then compare with the Great Pyramid standard 
weight and measure ; viz., the Great Pyramid pound 
weight, equal to five cubic inches of the earth's mean 
density ; and the Great Pyramid cubit, equal to one- 
ten-millionth of the earth's semi-axis of rotation ; 
and the popular quantities of each nation are then 
(by our own proportions between the Pyramid and 
British systems, established in Division ii.) given 
in terms of these Pyramid quantities taken as unity. 
In this manner we obtain — a Table i., exhibiting in 
its final column, the comparative distance of each 
European country from the Pyramid, in weight mea- 
sure. A Table ii., exhibiting the same for linear mea- 
sure. And a Table in., — to which most importance 
is attachable, — exhibiting the countries similarly in 

^ Title, — ' Foreign Weights and Measures. — General Table of Metri- 
* cal Equivalents, showing the Contents of the principal Weights and 
' Measures in the Standards of Great Britain and France.' 



VOL. 111. 



594 



INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. III. 



order, but for the combined mean influence of both 
weight and linear measures ; as thus : — 



Table I. — Weight. 



Name of Country 
or Place. 


Name of 
Weight. 


Equivalent 
in British 
grains. 


Equivalent in 
terms of 
Pyramid 
Pound = 1. 


Distance from 
Pyramid 
Pound in 
terms of the 
same = 1. 


Great Pyramid, 


Pound, 


7,196 


1000 


•0 


Prussia, 


Pound, 


7,219 


1-003 


-003 


Spain, . 


Libbra, 


7,101 


0-987 


•013 


Portugal, 


^iLrratel, . 


7,083 


0-984 


-016 


Great Britain, 


Pound avoir. 


7,000 


0-973 


•027 


Denmark, 


Pound, 


7,720 


1073 


-073 


Sweden, 


Skalpund, 


6,563 


0-912 


•088 


Russia, 


Pound, 


6,318 


0-878 


•122 


Austria, 


Pound, 


8,645 


1-201 


•201 


Leghorn, 


Libbra, 


5,240 


0-728 


-272 


France, 


Kilogramme, 


15,432 


2144 


1144 


Turkey, 


Oke, 


19,800 


2-752 


1-752 



Table IL — Length. 



Name of Country 
or Place. 


Name of 
Linear Measure. 


Equivalent 
in British 
inches. 


Equivalent in 
terms of 
Pyramid 
Cubit = 1. 


Distance from 
Pyramid 
Cubit in 

terifts of the 








same = 1. 


Great Pyramid, 


Cubit, 


25-025 


1-000 


•0 


Denmark, 


Ell, . 
( Ordnance ) 


24-71 


0-987 


•013 


Great Britain, 


y Map, mile ^ 


25-344 


1013 


•013 


S represen- ^ 
' tative, . ; 








Prussia, 


EU, . 


26-26 


1049 


•049 


Sweden, 


Ell, . 


23-38 


0-934 


•066 


Turkey, 


Pik, 

Braccia, . 


27 00 


1079 


•079 


Leghorn, 


22-98 


0-918 


•082 


Russia, 


Archine, . 


28 00 


1-119 


•119 


Austria, 


Ell, . 


30-66 


1-225 


•225 


Spain, . 


Vara, 


33-38 


1-334 


-334 


British Yard, 


Yard, 


3600 


1-439 


-439 


France, 


Metre, 
Vara, 


3937 


1-573 


-573 


Portugal, 


43-18 


1-726 


•726 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 595 



Table III. — Weight and Length combined. 



Name of Country 
or l^lacc. 


Name of Weights and 
Alcasiircs 


in terms of Pyramid 
Pound and Cubit = 1. 


Great Pyramid, 


Pound and cubit, . 
I Pound avoir, and j 


.A 


Great Britain, 


< Ordnance Map mile > 
representative, . ) 


020 


Prussia, . 


Pound and ell, 


•026 


Denmark, 


Pound and ell. 


04.3 


Sweden, 


Skalpund and ell, . 


•077 


XwUOOACII, ... 


T*f»iinrl nnH arr'liinp 


•120 


Spain, . 


Libbra and vara, . 


•174 


Leghorn, 
Austria, 


Libbra and braccia. 


•177 


Pound and ell. 


•213 


British Yard, 


Pound a v. and yard. 


■233 


Portugal, 


Arratel and vara, . 


•371 


France, . 


( Kilogramme and ) 
\ metre, . . ) 


•858 


Turkey, 


Oke and pik, 


•916 



In this last table, of cumulative importance, it is 
not a little striking to see all the Protestant 
countries standing first and closest to the Great 
Pyramid ; then Russia and her Greek, but freely 
Bible-reading, Church ; then the Roman Catholic 
lands ; then, after a long interval, and last but one 
on the list, France, with its metrical system — volun- 
tarily adopted under an atheistical form of govern- 
ment, in place of an hereditary pound and ancient 
inch which were not very far from those of the Great 
Pyramid ; and last of all, Mohammedan Turkey. 

It is not always easy for a subject to break away 
entirely from his old allegiance : and when the 
French nation formally, or rather with a sudden 
violence, abolished, so far as they could, both Chris- 
tianity and the week of seven days, adopting decades 



596 INTENTIONkS and purposes of the [DIV. III. 

of ten, days instead, and in everything almost 
worshipping decimals, — whose crowning expression 
was thought to be the new metre standard, or the 
one-ten-millionth of a quadrant of the meridian, — 
they probably did not see that they had chosen a 
number which is the 7th power of 10; or expres- 
sible as 10^* 

This is the number which was likewise selected 
of old, in both the Great Pyramid and primitive 
Hebrew systems, for fixing the proportion of the 
cubit of the Sanctuary to the semi-axis of rotation 
of the earth ; i.e., 1 0'^ sacred cubits = earth's semi- 
axis of rotation ; and is there quite appropriate. 
But in the French metrical system, which in nume- 
rical symmetry and meaning should rather have had 
10^^, the actual 10 Ms altogether out of place. Yet 
there it is, established in dominant force over the 
self- called pure decimal system : and while it must 
ever remind all Frenchmen of what they once 
resisted and tried to break away from, — it may 
typify what the better spirits among them, will by 
and by be coming back to, in the repentant frame 
of mind, and with the forgiveness, it is to be hoped, 
of the accepted though once prodigal son. 

Britain in particular, and Israelitic warning. 

But with Great Britain, too, we must have a 
word. Great Britain stands at the head of our 
scale, and it stands low down as well. The low 

, * From an anonymous letter, received by post on 16th March 1867. 



CHAP. X.] GREAT pyramid's MANIFESTATION. 597 

entry is due to accepting the yard for the country's 
popular measure of length ; and it is the present 
legal length ; but as John Taylor, Sir John Her- 
schel, and ourselves, have endeavoured to show, the 
yard is an invention of a few men in recent times, 
unauthorized by the spirit or antiquities of the 
nation ; and if other persons ever had any doubt of 
the importance of the remark, let them look at this 
Table iii., and see Great Britain, by means of the 
yard, hurled out of all the Protestant countries, 
driven away from the Saxonic, AUemannic, and 
Scandinavian nations, and forced to a low position 
among Latins and Roman Catholics. 

The inch, said Sir John Herschel lately, with 
infinite truth, is the real unit of linear measure in 
Great Britain ; and therewith he proposed a length 
of 25*025 British inches as a new and far better 
standard of length for the country, scientifically, 
than the present anomalous yard of 3 6 inches. Now 
25*025 British inches form the length exactly of 
the Great Pyramid cubit, so that had the country 
adopted what was proposed, by its first and fore- 
most scientist, it would have stood near indeed to 
the Pyramid test of the sons of Joseph. But our 
Government has not adopted it. We therefore 
insert instead 25*344 inches, as being the length 
introduced a few years ago, and now largely em- 
ployed, in the Ordnance Survey Maps of the whole 
country, on the scale of 1 2500th of nature, — for 
the representative of one mile. 



598 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DIV. Ill 

In this manner, — we fear we should say by this 
mere side-wind, — Britain has been placed at the top 
of the column. But let the island kingdom look 
well that it does not fall ; for not only has the 
25*344 inch length not yet travelled beyond the 
region of the Ordnance Maps, — but the Government 
has been recently much urged by, and has partly 
yielded to, a few ill-advised, but active, men, who 
want these invaluable hereditary measures (preserved 
almost miraculously to this nation from primeval 
time, for apparently a Divine purpose), to be in- 
stantly abolished in toto, — and the recently atheisti- 
cally conceived measures of France to be adopted in 
their stead. In which case England would have to 
descend from her present noble pre-eminence in the 
metrological scale of nations, and occupy a place 
almost the very last in the list ; or next to Turkey, 
and in company with some petty princedoms follow- 
ing France, and blessed with little history and less 
nationality. 

' How art thou fallen from heaven, Lucifer, 
* son of the morning !' might then indeed be ad- 
dressed to England with melancholy truth ! Or, 
more plainly, and in words seemingly almost in- 
tended for such a case, and uttered with depressing 
grief of heart, ' Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself!' 

Well, therefore, might the venerable John Taylor, 
a few days before his death, exclaim, in reference to 
the Gallicising attempts then being made before the 
British Parliament, — * If the people of this country 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. 599 

* does allow its hereditary weights and measures to 

* be abolished in favour of the recent French inven- 

* tions, it will richly deserve to be driven forth from 

* its ancient land, like the Jews of old, and made a 
' homeless and abhorred race/ 

Some very well-intentioned gentlemen affect to 
be shocked by such expressions ; and argue sooth- 
ingly that there is no reason to feel any alarm at 
the prospect of the French metrical system ever 
coming into vogue in this country, — for that the 
people of Great Britain would never submit to have 
foreign weights and measures forced upon them. 
But this is much like the more than proverbial at- 
tempt to cry ' Peace, peace, when there is no peace.' 
For at the present moment there is in force what is 
called the 'Permissive Bill,' — rendering it legal 
throughout the length and breadth of Great Britain 
to appeal either to French weights and measures, or 
English, in all commercial transactions on paper ; 
and the last month (February 1867) has witnessed 
Chambers of Commerce in London, and a meeting 
at the London Society of Arts, passing resolutions to 
recommend Government to have the French weights 
stamped, and rendered in every way of equal force 
with the English, in all practical buying and selling 
in shops, both wholesale and retail 

A good example of the mode in which de- 
nationalizing schemes of this order are attempted 
to be pushed, and what the effects would be on the 
nation adopting them, has recently been obtained 



600 INTENTIONS AND PURPOSES OF THE [DTV. III. 

from Eussia. For having heard rumours upon 
rumours perseveringly spread through this country, 
to the effect that Eussia was on the eve of adopting 
the French metrical system, — I wrote lately to 
M. Otto Struve, the Imperial Chief Astronomer, at 
Pulkova, near St. Petersburg ; and received from 
him the information, 'that some years ago there 

* had been a little talk about the project, though it 
' was soon after entirely dropped on finding, — that 

* the proposed change would be to the advantage 

* only of a few hundreds of merchants, mostly 

* foreigners, but to the damage of seventy millions 
' of Russian subjects! 

This is, in fact, the true way of looking at the 
question of any national metrology ; for it is a 
something which refers to the comforts, conveni- 
ences, and most useful employments of the mass of 
the nation, and especially of the many and the poor. 

Yet in Great Britain, those who should feel most 
directly and immediately concerned, do not seem in 
any way sufficiently awake to the dangerous crisis 
which is passing. The heart, indeed, of the mass 
of the people, we are happy to believe, is not 
on the wrong side in these metrological matters ; 
it is only apathetic. They have a fond regard 
of old for their hereditary or national measures ; 
and when they are told of those standards' further 
connexion with the ancient Hebrew, and descent 
from the Great Pyramid, metrologies — with all their 
truly superhuman earth and heaven-commensura- 



CHAP. X.] GREAT PYRAMID'S MANIFESTATION. GOl 

bility — they exclaim, * How curious ! how interest- 

* ing! what astonishing coincidences I what wonderful 
accuracy !' But they do so with folded hands, and 
allow these more than national heirlooms to be daily 
removed or destroyed, from before their eyes, by 
eager, industrious innovators, in fatal league with 
revolutionists from the other side of the Channel. 

Now to have good ideas, but to employ them 
merely in refraining from doing active evil, was a 
charge brought against Israel in the time, and by 
the mouth, of the prophet Elijah. And it is also 
similar to the judgment pronounced in the New 
Testament against the seventh and last Church ; 
or, as some interpret it, the Church of these the last 
times, and which is described in pages of infallible 
authority as being * lukewarm, and neither cold nor 

* hot! Wherefore the first reforming command ad- 
dressed to it was, ' Be zealous, therefore^ if its mem- 
bers would enjoy in the future new and better days. 



POSTSCEIPT. 

While the last of the above pages were going through the press, — 
two letters reached me, without signature, but containing so much 
valuable matter connected with the Great Pyramid, — as to require 
more than a passing notice here. 

The first of them refers to some arithmetical errors in my former 
book. Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid. These errors had 
indeed already been discovered by me, and corrected in the present 
work ; their numerical magnitude too was at no time sufficient to 
interfere materially with the principal results deduced; — but they 
were errors which should not have been committed ; for which I 
alone am responsible ; and if, perchance, there shoidd be something 



602 



POSTSCRIPT. 



[DIV. III. 



of the same kind, though of lesser degree, in these volumes, — 1 
trust that whoever may alight on such mistakes, will follow the ex- 
ample of the above letter- writer, — viz., * repeat both the calculations 

* and the reference to original sources for physical data,' — and then 
he may find with him, * that the theories advanced in the book, are 

* corroborated by some further striking analogies.* 

One of these, we have already introduced into the text on p. 596 ; 
and another, the contents of his second letter, we now append iii the 
unknown author's own words : — 



' MEMORANDUM ON THE DIGITS IN tt. 

* A matter thought worth notice in connexion with tt as a leading 

* Pyramid-proportion, and with the digits 3 and 7, which are peculiar 

* in TT (as see below), being also elements in some parts of the Pyramid- 

* analogies, and especially in the hidden and tt connected part — its ver- 
' tical height taken with extreme footing in encastrements, 1 100 S. 

* cubits.^ ^^^^^ i8g7 

* Peculiaritv a. 

* Tliree and a Seventh is the nearest simple approximation to the 

* ratio TT. 

* Peculiarity B. 

* 3 and 7 recur exceptionally among the 9 digits (of decimal arith- 
' metic, which is man's numeration, and therefore the matter is with 

* reference to man) in the decimal fraction of tt, — so far as we can at 

* present verify it, that is, to 608 places. 

* Most of the digits recur with the usual degree of irregularity in 
' their relative frequency. But 3 and 7 are peculiar. 3 recurs with 

* strikingly more frequency, and 7 with more rarity than any other 
' digits. The following table shows the details of this fact : — 



Name of Digit. 


Frequency of its 
recurrence. 


Ratio ])er 1000 of each Digit's re- 
currence. The average, being 100 
for each of the ten Digits. 




1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 


60 
62 
67 

68 

64 
66 
62 
44 

58 
67 


99 
102 
110 

112 

105 
92 
102 

72 

96 
110 


Totals, 


608 


1000 



M.C., = 5833 33, etc., Pyramid inches ; or implying a height reckoned from a horizon- 
tal plane, 14 inches nearly beneath the ' pavement-surface ; ' see pp. 82 and 140 of this 
volume. 



DIV. 111.] 



POSTSCaiPT. 



003 



♦ Peculiarity C. 

• This greater frequency of 3 and greater rarity of 7, than any other 

* digits, not only holds true thus in the one long decimal of 608 places ; 

* but it is a more remarkable fact, as holding true very persistently in 

* the shorter subdivisions of the decimal ; even where few digits are 

* concerned, and we should expect to find some other digits taking a 

* turn at leading the frequency and rarity. 

' Thus, if we go repeatedly through the decimal, and each time stop 

* at — say 21 digits further (3x7 digits, characteristic of tt ; for want 

* of natural divisions in the fractional expression), we have as follows : — 



Leneth of Deciinal. 


Average of all digits. 


Threes. 


Sevens. 


3 141592, 


etc. 


In the first 21 di^ts, the 


average occurrence is 2y^^, but there are, 


A 

of tlirees 4, 


and 


of sevens 1 


„ 42 








5> 




» 3 


„ 63 






q 


j> 




5 


„ 84 




Ho " 


1 


>> 




„ 6 


„ 105 






1 9 


>j 




„ 8 


„ 126 


)> 


15 


»> 




„ 9 


„ 147 


)f 


I 17 


>> 




„ 10 


„ 168 


»> 












„ 189 


>> 




ft 






„ 210 


)> 


21 




o 






„ 231 




OQ 1 




^ 

"o 






„ 252 


>» 


25 




c 


bO 

a 




» 273 


>> 


27 




D 

> 


'o 

n 




„ 294 


»> 


29 






"o 




„ 315 


>> 


31 




'a 
S 


a 




„ 336 


>> 


33 




'S 


s 




„ 357 




35 




•§ 

<D 




„ 378 


>> 


38 






.♦J 

a 




„ 399 


It 


40 




c 


« 




„ 420 




42 










„ 441 




44 




c 


p 
c; 
1 




„ 462 




46 








„ 483 


>» 


48 




« 


a 




„ 504 


j> 


50 




a B 




„ 525 


■)^ 


52 






ei 
X 
4> 




» 546 




55 




H 






„ 567 




57 










„ 588 




59 










„ (608) 


»j 


60-8 


„ 68 


»> 




„ 44 


„ 609 


»> 


61 











' The table of Peculiarity B is taken from a letter of Professor De 
' Morgan, in the Ath(-n(Eum for October 27, 1866, i)age 543, and that 
' letter induce<l its reader to make the further examination here shown 
' —Table C. 



604 



POSTSCRIPT. 



[DIV. III. 



' If it be asked, How are we to regard the foregoing mathematical 

* facts ? — as mere casual coincidences, such as, according to the laws of 

* probabilities, must take place sometimes, or as in any sense designed ? 
' The true reply is, That the idea of casual coincidence and laws of 

* probability exist only in relation to the human intellect ; not in ex- 
' ternal creation taken apart from the intellect which examines it ; so 
' that, in one sense, and a very important one, there is no such thing 
' as casual coincidence, or mere general probability. Every physical 
' fact (whether mathematical or physical) is a necessary consequence 

* of the working of an established order of creation ; but it is not the 
' less pre-arranged, in all its details of relations and consequences ; and 

* yet in harmony with that impression on himian intellect which men 
' term " laws of probability." 

* Not a sparrow falls to the ground, nor a hair from our heads, 

* without the Living intelligent God — the Tr%ie God^ — ^foreknowing it, 

* pre-arranging and attending to it ; not merely in general terms, but 
' down to the most minute detail of each atom and each event in 

* creation, the play of its forces and motions as they be influenced by 

* every other atom and event in creation, however insignificant, at 

* every moment of time. This perfect forecasting and knowledge and 
' attention baffles the utmost stretch of our imaginations. Can it 

* then be true ? but so also do the undeniable facts themselves, as 
' they exist in creation, — perfect action of mutual atomic influences 
' in endless complication and indefinite minuteness. The true God 

* must be such, as baffles our intellect.' 

1 ' That is, the Living intelligent God, not an impersonal abstract deity, Pan (all 
' things), Fate, or the uusentient laws of nature, — the rationalist's idea of God.' 



IND 



EX. 



Age of the Great Pyramid, iii. 282. 

Sphinx, i. 332. 

Air and sand together, i. 162. 

Aiton and Inglis, Messrs., Pyramid mea- 
sures by, ii. 302-308. 

Mr., had the four corner sockets 

excavated, i. 526. 

Mr., visit to East Tombs, i. 524. 

Alee Dobree's descent, i. 401. 

Al Mamoon's accident, i. 158. 

hole, i. 75. 

Altitude-azimuth instrument, i. 428, 
429. 

Amateur quarrying, i. 214. 

American missionaries, visit from, i. 34. 

Americans on the top of the Great 

Pyramid, i. 464-466. 
Analysis of Pyramid materials, ii. 295- 

298. 

Ancient ventilating channels, i. 91-94. 
vertical height of Great Pyramid, 

iii. 67-70. 
Andro-Sphinx, i. 324. 
Angle of entrance passage, i. 167, 168 ; 

ii. 38. 

of second Pyramid, ii. 275. 

Angle of Grand Gallery, ii. 154-161. 

importance of, i. 301. 

inclination of passages, iii. 34. 

sides of Great Pyramid, iii. 19- 

33. 

standards of, iii. 202-215. 

Angles and passages, i. 141. 

from sockets, i. 531. 

lecture on, i. 215, 216. 



Anglo-Saxon originals of metrology, iii. 
581. 

Anglo-Saxons, where from, of old, iii. 582. 

Angular proof, i. 217. 

Annual mean temperature in Scotland, 

iii. 192, 200, 201. 
Anomaly discovered, i. 152. 
Antechamber, grooves in the, i. 362-365. 

its passages, ii. 92-100. 

Antechamber, King's Chamber, i. 355. 

portcullis, i. 363-366. 

Ants, i. 406, 407. 

Arab funerals, i. 229, 230. 

Arab gun, i. 401, 402. 

house, interior of an, i. 499, 500. 

mode of treating a wound, i. 115. 

nature excused, i. 35. 

roughs and Turkish rule, i. 392- 

394. 

Arab sawing, i, 113. 

Arab tales of tourists' ways, i. 77. 

tricks on travellers, i. 394-400. 

unchanged, i. 496, 497. 

village described, i. 503, 504. 

surrounded with sand, i. 171. 

Arabs and the French consul, i. 129. 
Arabs on English justice, i. 130. 
Arcadia in Egypt, i. 95. 
Architects' modem plans of the Pyramid, 
iii. 138. 

Are sides of Great Pyramid equally in- 
clined ? iii. 13-19. 

Ark of the Covenant, ii. 463-467, 470 ; 
iii. 507-510. 

Arragonite chambers, i. 341. 



606 



INDEX. 



Ascending passage, first, iii. 36. 
Ascent of Great Pyramid, i. 447. 
A secret sign, i. 153, 154; iii. 310. 
Astronomical angular m easures, ii. 1 7 7, etc. 

date for the building of the Great 

Pyramid, iii. 322. 

observations, i. 425, etc. 

observations, the last, i. 548, 552. 

Astronomy and chronology, proof from, 

ii. 424-448. 

close truth of Pyramid, i. 434, 438, 

439. 

of the Egyptian's provincial, iii. 467- 

469. 

of the Pyramid symbolical, iii. 251. 

Authorities, consequence of their being 
no contemporary, iii. 367-370. 

demanded for contemporary monu- 
ments, iii. 363-366. 

for date of Deluge, iii. 489. 

for the eighteenth and later dynas- 
ties, iii. 418-423. 

historical, iii. 340-355. 

Authority for the number twenty-five, 

iii. 236-240. 

for twenty-five inches, iii. 232-236. 

Ayrton F., Pyramid measures by, ii. 299- 
301. 

observations on angle of Great 

Pyramid, iii. 14-16. 

thermometers lent by, ii. 1 98. 

Azimuth of entrance passage of Great 
Pyramid, ii. 189-192. 

second Pyramid, ii 276, 277. 

Azimuths of Great Pyramid corner soc- 
kets, ii. 193-196. 

rounds of, ii. 184. 

Azimuth trenches, ii. 125-127, 185-188; 
iii. 28-33. 

Babylon of Egypt, i. 31. 
Barometer indicates a storm, i, 160. 
Basalt, black, i. 291. 

Egyptian, i. 284-287. 

standard, ii. 9-10. 

Base of the Great Pyramid, a square, iii. 
10-13. 



Bats of the Pyramid, i. 552. 

Beard, Dr., on Scripture weights and 
measures, ii. 456. 

Beauregard, Olivier, on Hebrew worship, 
iii. 512, 513. 

Bedouin Arabs, two sides to their char- 
acters, i. 393. 

Belon, M., on triangular stone in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, iii. 543. 

Belzoni's discovery of the entrance to 
the second Pyramid, i. 265, 266. 

opinion on the casing-stone, i. 205. 

Benihassan, tombs of, iii. 402-406. 

Bevan, Bev. W. L., on Scripture weights 
and measures, ii. 456. 

Birch, Mr. Samuel, on translating hiero- 
glyphics, i. 316, 317, 320, 321. 

translation on the tablets of the 

Sphinx, i. 329-333. 

Birds of the desert, i. 296-298. 

Bones and burials, i. 313. 

Boolak, Museum of, i. 8-15. 

Britain in particular, and Israelitic warn- 
ing, iii. 596. 

British Consul, i. 1,2. 

Browne's Rev. H., Ordo Sceclorurtiy iii. 
516. 

Bruce's account of the simoom, i. 421. 
Brugsch, M., date of the Great Pyramid, 
iii. 242. 

on the astronomy of the Egyptians, 

iii. 467, 468. 
Bryant, Jacob, Dissertation on Ancient 

History, iii. 526-528. 
Builders of the Great Pyramid, names 

and dates of the, iii. 314-339. 
Bunsen, Baron, date of the Great Pyra- 
mid, iii. 241. 
on the astronomy and geometry of 

the Egyptians, iii. 466, 467. 
on the difference between the Great 

and other Pyramids, iii. 449-451. 
on the scientific objects of the 

Great Pyramid, iii. 293-295. 

views of the Exodus, iii. 445-447. 

true Egyptian history, iii. 359* 

Business, a new, i. 523. 



INDEX. 



607 



Cairene philosophers, i. 311. 
Cairo, daybreak in, i. 21. 

opinions of, i. 20. 

seat of the Egyptian and Scientific 

Institute, i. 2. 

theories on casing-stones, i. 209, 210. 

waiting in, i. 16-19. 

Calendar, our, corresponds with the 

primitive year, ii. 424-428. 
Calm after the storm, i. 310. 
Camel nature, i. 41. 
Camels photographed, i. 482. 
Camera described, i. 475-481. 
Campbell's Tomb described, i. 315-320. 
Candle-carrying, modes of, i. 69. 
Canterbury, letter of Archbishop of, 

iii. 488. 

Capacity measure, Pyramid, iii. 174. 

standard, sacred Hebrew, ii. 460- 

470. 

Caphtorims, the, iii. 524, 526-531. 

Casing-stones, angular proof in frag- 
ments of, i. 217. 

existence of, denied, i. 209, 210. 

doubted, i. 204-206. 

fitted into a model at theoretical 

angle, iii. 18, 19. 

fragments of, i. 213, 216-218 ; ii. 

167-170. 

second Pyramid, ii. 277, 278. 

Catastrophe, the, i. 239, 240. 

Cattle disease, i. 18. 

Causation, objects of, iii. 313. 

Causeway theories, i. 291, 292. 

Caviglia's excavations at the Sphinx, im- 
portance of, i. 329. 

Ceiling of King's Chamber, ii. 111-113. 

Chaldsean temples, iii. 453-455. 

Chambers of construction, ii. 113. 

Chesney, Colonel, expedition to the 
Euphrates, iii. 452. 

Chippings of stones at Great Pyramid, 
what became of them ? i. 185, 186. 

Circle observations inside the Great 
Pyramid, i. 442, 443. 

Circular clinometer, ii 145-147, 156-158. 

Clarke, Captain, A.R. (KE.), computa- 



tions on the figure of the earth, 

ii. 450, 451. 

Clarke, Dr., on Al Mamoon's hole, i. 
159, 160. 

on ascending the Great Pyramid, 

i. 450-452. 

on Egyptian pebbles, i. 177. 

on the French troops in Egypt, 

i. 508, 509. 
on the tribe of Egyptian lizards, 

i. 405. 

Clayey soil of the Nile, i. 46. 
Cleaning in the Pyramid, i. 114, 115. 
Clemens Alexandrinus on the religion of 

the Egyptians, iii. 514, 515. 
Coffer belongs to the King's Chamber, 

iii. 161, 163, 167-169. 
hitting the, i. 90. 

in King's Chamber, ii. 104, 105, 

114-124. 

ledge cut in the, i. 86-89. 

measured, i. 377-388. 

various accounts of the, iii. 146-150. 

Compass points, iii. 211-215. 
Composition of the Pyramid hill, iii. 

84-86. 

Concluding week, i. 517. 

Constellations as means for perpetuating 

ideas, iii. 566-569. 
with whom rests the right to name 

or re-name ? iii. 562-565. 
Consular introduction to the Viceroy, i, 4. 
Consultation, a serious, i. 125-129. 
Cooking fuel of Cairo, i. 24. 
Corner angles of the Great Pyramid, 

ii. 171-176. 

sockets, azimuth of the, ii. 193-196. 

diagonals of the, i. 529, 530. 

importance of the, i. 528. 

in theory, i. 524, 525. 

measures of the, ii, 134-136. 

Cotton fever, i, 17. 

growing in Egypt, i. 17. 

Country between Jeezeh and the Pyra- 
mids, i. 44-45. 

Courses, number of, in Great Pyramid, 
i. 452, 453 ; iii. 62. 



608 



INDEX. 



Coventry, A., Esq., circular clinometer 

presented by, ii. 141. 
description of clinometer, i, 165, 

166. 

clinometer prepared to measure the 

Grand Gallery, i. 302, 303. 
clinometer, satisfactory working of, 

i. 304, 309-311. 
Cross the Nile, i. 39. 
Cubit, sacred, ii. 454-460. 
Cubits, Sir Isaac Newton on, ii. 341-366. 
Cumberland's, Bishop, idea of Scripture 

weights and measures, ii. 455. 
on Pyramid weights and measures, 

iii. 116, 117. 
Cuseans retire from Egypt northward, 

iii. 526. 

Cush, sons of, honourably noted in Scrip- 
ture, iii. 519. 
Cycle of a day, ii. 260. 
Cyclone without rain, i. 163. 

Dashoor Pyramid, account of, important, 

iii. 26, 27. 
Data, hypsometrical, iii. 60-81. 
Date of the Great Pyramid, iii. 240, 246. 
Date-palms, i. 44. 

Datum plane to refer all levels at Great 

Pyramid, iii. 60. 
Deaths frequent, i. 230. 
Deluge, date of, iii. 276, 482-495. 
Departure, final, i. 561-563. 

of cleaning party, i. 137. 

Derivation of the word 'Pyramid,' iii. 

120-122. 
Desert birds, i. 296-298. 

precautions, i. 106. 

swallows, i. 298. 

vegetation, i. 521. 

Deserted in the Grand Gallery, i. 305. 
Determination of weight on the Pyramid 

system, iii. 175-177. 
Diagonal joints in entrance passage, i. 

152, 153, 156. 
Diagonals of the cofifer, ii. 123, 124. 

of the sockets, i. 529, 530. 

Diorite, iii. 100, 101. 



Diorite, fragments of, i. 188. 

sculpture, i. 14. 

Dip of entrance passage of second Pyra- 
mid, ii. 276. 

Discordance of Scripture chronology, iii. 
483-485. 

Discovery of fragments of casing -stones, 
i. 216. 

Disturbances in measuring, i. 149, etc. 
Division of scientific labour agreed on, 

i. 536, 537. 

Dogs, Egyptian, i. 335. 
Domestic countings, i. 104, 106. 
Dynasty, eighteenth, scenes in the, iii. 
423-429. 

Earliest contemporary monuments of 

Egypt, iii. 374-379. 
Early Shemites not chosen, iii. 531. 
Earth's surface, has it moved ? iii. 52-60. 
East Tombs, admirably protected from 

wind, i. 160. 

excitement at, i. 380-383. 

first dinner at, i. 99, 100. 

getting settled at, i. 97, 98. 

position of convenient, i. 121. 

selected for residence, i. 63. 

Ecclesiastic stranger, i. 198. 

Efforts of nature, i. 522. 

Egypt, effects of heat and drought in, 

ii. 7. 

has never liked strangers, i. 169. 

justice to, i. 15. 

kind of hero developed in Egypt, 

iii. 433-441. 

treasures of, scattered over the 

earth, i. 9, 10, 15. 

Egyptian and Hebrew metrology, differ- 
ences of, ii. 454-470 ; iii. 498. 

dogs, i. 335, 336. 

forward politics, i. 109. 

fowls, i. 103. 

genius for doing nothing, i. 407. 

history, earliest proved point of, 

iii. 356-373. 

labourers, i. 108. 

methods of justice, i. 128. 



INDEX. 



009 



Egyptian monuments, characteristic of, 

iii. 351-355. 
morale, i. 101. 

Scientific and Literary Institute, 

i. 2. 

taste for wigs, i. 326. 

travellers, iii. 349-351. 

wisdom of, fails to explain the 

Pyramid, iii. 4C5-470. 
Egyptians, origin of the, iii. 370-373. 
punished in the building of the Great 

Pyramid, iii. 528. 
Elements of the figure of the earth, ii. 

450, 451. 

Engineering of Nile banks, iii. 386-390. 

Englishwoman in Egypt, Mrs. Poole's, 

ii. 330. 

Engravings of great French work on 

Egypt, ii. 318-320. 
Entrance passage and polar star, i. 433. 

• angle, ii. 144, 145. 

beginning of, ii. 37. 

blocked up, who did it ? i. 76. 

breadth and height of, il 36. 

holes in floor of, i. 74. 

linear measure of floor of, ii. 11-16. 

masonry, i. 146. 

of Great Pyramid, azimuth of, ii. 

188-192. 

of roof of, ii. 17-20. 

of second Pyramid, i. 260-262 ; ii. 

274. 

of walls of, ii. 21-30. 

peculiar line in, ii. 27. 

l)osition of joints in, ii. 34. 

relative lengths of stones in, ii. 33. 

shaft of the, ii. 37. 

view of errors of perpendicularity 

of axis in, ii. 35. 
Eratosthenes' claim as a chronological 

authority, iii. 348, 349, 
Escorted to the city, i. 561. 
Ethiopian lake, iii. 411. 
Ethological researches by R. G. Hali- 

burton, ii. 370-448. 
Excavations, M. Mariette's talent for, 

i 11-13. 

VOL. III. 



Exhibitions of p]iotograi)hs, ii. 280-284. 
Experiments at the air-channels, i. 411- 
416. 

Exterior faces of Great Pyramid, ii. 165, 
166. 

substance of the Great Pyramid, 

iii. 93, 94. 

Feast of Shemm-en-Neseem, i. 488, 489, 
Features in the Grand Gallery, ii. 68-70. 
Festival of the Dead, by G. R. Halibur- 

ton, ii. 371-403. 
Festivities after Ramadan, i. 234-236. 
Figure of the coff'er, ii. 117. 
Final departure, i. 561-563. 
result of clinometer measures, i. 

311. 

First ascending passage, breadth and 

height of, ii. 51. 

total length of, ii. 52-54. 

Floor-blocks of stone in entrance passage, 

i. 149. 

Floor-joints in entrance passage, i. 152, 
157. 

Floor of antechamber, ii. 92, 93. 

of entrance-passage, ii. 11-16. 

of King's Chamber, ii. 103, 104. 

Floors of the chambers, height of, iii. 
71-74. 

Forbes, Principal, on latitude mean tem- 
peratures, i. 418. 

on mean temperatures, iii. 188, 189. 

Former and present prices in Egypt, 
i. 542, 543. 

Fossil shells, extraordinary number of, 
i. 410, 411. 

Fragments of casing-stones, i. 217; ii. 167. 

Freemasons, letters of the, ii. 367-369. 

French discovery of sockets, ii. 317, 318. 

Institute in Egypt, Dr. Clarke's 

account of the, i. 86-88. 

measures of the Great Pyramid's 

height in 1800, ii. 309-317. 

savants allude to the metrological 

purposes of Great Pyramid, iii. 118. 

work, engravings of, ii. 318-320. 

Fresh-water levels, iii. 74-78. 

2 Q 



610 



INDEX. 



Gabb, Rev. T., Finis Pyramidis, i. 201- 

203 ; iii. 118-132. 
Gala, native party, i. 135, 136. 
General holiday -making, i. 236. 
proportions of King's Chamber, ii. 

101, 102. 
Genius, ways of a, i. 278-280. 
Geological rock of the region of the 

Pyramids, i. 171-177. 
specimens brought home, ii. 293, 

294. 

Gezeereh, description of the palace of, i, 
5, 6. 

Gods invented, i. 321. 
Goshen, place of, i. 28, 29. 
Grand clinometer prepared, i. 303. 
satisfactory working of, i. 304, 

309-311. 
Grand Gallery, ii. 68-91. 

angle, ii. 154-161. 

importance of, i. 300, 301. 

breadth of, between and above 

ramps, i. 81. 

deserted in the, i. 305. 

invaded in the, by travellers, i. 

306-309. 

measures, i. 237, 238. 

overlappings of, at north end, ii. 87- 

91. 

ramp holes on west side, ii. 81. 

roof of, ii. 86, 87. 

total length of, ii. 78. 

upper or south end of, ii. 73, 74. 

various measures of the, iii. 221. 

vertical height of, ii. 84-86. 

week in the, iii. 219, 222. 

Grand Joseph canal, crossed by an Arab 

stone bridge, i. 56. 
Granite, iii. 101, 106. 

block, size of special, i. 345. 

coffer, ii. 114. 

coffer made of, i. 85. 

constructions contested, i. 356-361. 

halls, i. 340. 

leaf, ii. 99, 100. 

so named by Professor Greaves, 

i. 365. 



Granite, square beams and pillars of, 

i. 342, 343. 
Great Pyramid, age of the, iii. 481-485. 

apparent steps of the, i. 448. 

ascent of the, i. 448-454. 

astronomy, iii. 277-285. 

attestations, iii. 286-291. 

cemetery, i. 312-314. , 

chip|)ings of the stones at the, 

i. 184-186. 
different from all others in Egypt, 

iii. 141. 

exterior and substance of the, iii. 

93-95. 

first visit to the, i. 68-96. 

internal substance of the, iii. 86-92. 

is the, to be regarded as astronomi- 
cal ? iii. 246-251. 

latter-day tomb, i. 317. 

manifestation, proposed solutions of 

the, iii. 570. 

metrological monumen t, iii. 115-1 22. 

mode of ascending the, i. 449, 450. 

night spent on the top of the, i. 

454-465. 

orientation of the, iii. 106-111. 

preparation of report on the, i. 

102. 

required higher wisdom than man's 

to originate, iii. 470-478. 

report on the, i. 67. 

the beginning of monumental his- 
tory, iii. 364. 

the four sides of the, incline at equal 

angles, iii. 13-19. 

unity of masonry in the, i. 252, 

253. 

various authorities for date of the, 

iii. 241-246. 
Greaves', Professor, cubit deduced from 

measures, ii. 337. 
on the beauty of the architecture 

of the interior of the Great Pyramid, 

i. 79. 

relates a Frenchman's account of 

lizards, i. 405, 406. 
standard of measure, ii. 334. 



INDEX. 



611 



Greaves', Professor, weiglita ai.d mea- 
sures of the Pyramid, iii. 117. 

(Ireek inscriptions versus Egyptian, i. 
328, 329. 

Grinding-stone establishment, i. 293, 294. 
Guards again give trouble, i. 138. 

on a cold night, i. 120. 

question of, i, 64, 65. 

Gypsum ami its use, i. 553. 

Hales, Dr., on the times of Job, iii. 534, 
537. 

Haliburton's, Mr., letter to Mr. M'Gre- 

gor, ii. 368. 

on the Year of the Pleiades, i. 330. 

researches bearing on the Pleiades' 

year, ii. 370-444. 
Hamilton's, Sir W., ode on quaternions, 

i. 453. 

Hartnup, J,, Esq., instruments tested by, 

ii. 197. 

Hassan, an old Arab, described, i. 228, 229. 
Hawk j)hotographed on the wing, i. 483. 
Heat measures, ii. 197, 198. 

question, iii. 193-202. 

standards, iii. 177-202. 

whence does such heat come ? i. 

418-420. 

Heights of chamber floors, iii. 71-74. 
Height, vertical, of Great Pyramid, ii. 
128-133. 

Hekekyan Bey's chronology of Siriadic 
monuments, iii. 7. 

on Egyptian dynasties, iii. 320. 

Hero, the kind of, developed in Egypt, 

iii. 433-436. 

Herodotus as a traveller and chronolo- 

gist, iii. 349, 350. 
describes the Pyramid as cased, i. 

208. 

Herschel's, Sir John, a Draconis theory, 

iii. 260, 261. 
blue-fluid, adjusting actinometer, 

i. 124. 

date of Great Pyramid, iii. 242-244. 

on unit of linear measure, iii. 597. 

outlines of astronomy, iii. 559. 



Heth, children of, i. 126. 
Hieroglyphic note, i. 246, 247. 
Hill, Pyramid, theories, i. 180-187. 
south of the Pyramids, geology of 

the, i. 179. 
Historical authorities, iii. 342-355. 
History, notes in Great Pyramid, iii. 303. 
Holes in floor of entrance passage, ii, 14- 

16. 

Horizontal angles at the corner base of 

Great Pyramid, ii. 176. 
passage, breadth and height of, ii, 

58-61. 

Humble, on nummulite rock, i. 172, 173, 
Hyksos, invasion of, iii. 406-410. 
Hypsometric table of the Great Pyramid, 
iii. 82. 

Hyj)sometrical reference of the Great 
Pyramid by M. Jomard, ii. 321. 

Hypsometry of the Great Pyramid, iii. 
60-81, 

Ibkaheem, engagement and description 
of, i, 42. 

Igneous agency, no traces on the Pyra- 
mid hill of, i, 176. 

Imjoortance of the angle of the Grand 
Gallery, i, 301. 

Inclined passages, how much inclined ? 
iii, 32-40. 

Inglis, Mr,, measures of base of Great 
Pyramid, ii. 134. 

four sides of the Great Pyra- 
mid base, iii. 124-127. 

levels of corner sockets, ii. 136. 

superintended the excavation of the 

sockets, i. 526-535. 

uncovered the four corner-sockets, 

iii. 11. 

Inscriptions, conclusions from the, i. 
331-352. 

on the interior walls of the Pyra- 
mid, i. 84. 

on the Sphinx, i. 327-331. 

Inspiration, iii. 479-481, 511, 532-534. 

Ins])ired messengers were foreigners, iii. 
521. 



612 



INDEX. 



Instrumentals, i, 272. 

Instruments used in measuring the Great 
Pyramid, ii. 139-148. 

Intentions of the Great Pyramid's mani- 
festation, iii. 570-572. 

Interior of an Arab house, i. 500, 501. 

Internal measures of coffer, ii. 121. 

substance of the Great Pyramid, 

iii. 86-92. 

Inundation eflfects, i. 47. 

disappearing, i. 143. 

Invaded by travellers in the Grand Gal- 
lery, i. 306, 307. 

Invasion of the Hyksos, iii. 406-410. 

Invented gods, i. 321. 

Irrigation by wells, i. 28. 

Israelitic warning, Britain in particular, 
and, iii. 597. 

Itinerary measures, iii. 209-211. 

James, Sir Henry, on the specific gravity 

of the earth, ii. 452, 453. 

preparing a star-map, iii. 494. 

Jasper pebbles, formation of, i. 177. 

Jeezeh, town of, i. 40. 

Jomard, M,, angle of Grand Gallery 

given by, i. 302. 
hypsometrical reference of Great 

Pyramid by, ii. 321. 
Joseph period, iii. 410-414. 

Kalifh Al Mamoon's hole, i. 158, 159. 
Kater's, Captain, yard standard, ii. 9. 
King's Chamber, ii. 101-113. 

caution on entering, i. 366, 367. 

difficult to illuminate, i. 367. 

magnesium photography in, i. 490, 

etc. 

peculiar masonry of, i. 371-373. 

place of the, in the Pyramid, 

iii. 169-172. 
various accounts of the courses in 

the walls of the, iii. 163-166. 

walls of, i, 83. 

King Shafre's tomb. i. 338. 

a sun-dial, i. 440, 441. 

who first discovered it ? i. 462, 463. 



Lane, Mr. E. W., Pyramid measures by, 

ii. 330-333. 

Last of the holiday, i. 238. 
Latitude observations, ii. 180-183. 

observations, check on, i. 447-462. 

of Great Pyramid, iii. 40-47. 

Laws of phenomena, iii. 3-9. 

of Pyramid decaying, i.» 183. 

Ledge of cofiFer unrepresented in the 
French engraving, i. 86, 87. 

date of the, i. 89. 

Lepsius, Dr., date of the Great Pyramid, 

iii. 242. 

inscription on the Great Pyramid, 

iii. 94. 

on the permanency of Egyptian 

buildings, iii. 369. 
opinion regarding the trenches, 

iii. 32. 

Pyramid building theory, i. 183. 

Letters, arrival of, from the Consul and 

Consul-General, i. 115. 
Levels, fresh-water, iii. 74-87. 

of King's Chamber, ii. 162, 163. 

sea- water, iii. 78. 

Lewis, Sir C, ancient astronomy, iii. 

550, 551. 

date of the Great Pyramid, iii. 240, 

241. 

examination into the methods of 

Egyptologists, iii. 325-327. 

Lieder, Dr., death of, i. 59. 

desert Pyramid, i. 455, 456-464. 

Life under the New Empire, iii. 400 448. 

Old Empire, iii. 374-399. 

Linear measures, ii. 1, etc., 128, etc. 

Lines, particular, on either wall of en- 
trance passage, i. 150, 151. 

List of positive photographs, ii. 284-292. 

Little girls in Cairo, i. 23, 24. 

Lizards, i. 405. 

Locusts again, i. 520. 

arrival of, i. 486, 487. 

Longitude, attempt to get the, i. 461, 
462. 

Long nights and short days, i. 102, 103. 
Lordly traders, i. 36, 37. 



INDEX. 



G13 



Lyell, Sir C, on nummulitic formation, 
i. 174. 

Machpelah, Cave of, iii. 543. 

Magnesium photography, i. 469, 487, 
496, 518-521. 

the last of, i. 554, 555. 

Mahmoud Bey's date of the Great Pyra- 
mid, iii. 244, 245. 

measures of the Pyramid's base, iii. 

124, 125. 

Siriadic theory, iii. 251-260. 

Manetho's Egjrptiau dynasties according 
to various authors, iii, 321-333. 

Manifestation, intention of the Great 
Pyramid's, iii. 570-572. 

Manner of sound coming out of the Pyra- 
mid, i. 444-446. 

Marble, what is it ? i. 206, 207. 

Mariette Bey, i. 8, 9. 

interview with, i. 7, 8. 

statue of the Pyramid king, i. 344. 

tablet of Memphis discovered by, 

i 12. 

Masonry of the entrance passage, i. 146, 
147. 

fineness of the joints, i. 147. 

Material for standard scales, i. 288. 
Materials of the Great Pyramid, iii. 82- 
106. 

Maundeville, Sir John, on his introduc- 
tion to the Sultan, i. 4, 5. 

on the Pyramids, iii. 120. 

Mazzaroth^ by Miss F. Rolleston, iii. 551, 
556-559. 

Mean daily temperature in the shade, ii. 
265, 266. 

density of the earth, iii. 151, 152. 

Measurement, style of, in the entrance 

passage, i. 147. 
^leasurer, a lost, i. 280. 
Measuring, how to begin, i. 145. 
Measures connecting portcullis block 

with passage, ii. 41-43. 

in Queen's Chamber, ii. 64-67. 

of first ascending passage, ii. 44- 

54. 



Measures of Grand Gallery, ii. 70-91. 

of niche in Queen's Chamber, ii. 66, 

67. 

of ramp-holes, ii. 80-83. 

of second Pyramid, ii. 271-278. 

on a slope, i. 148. 

Mediteval Sultans, i. 5. 
Members of Cairo Institute, i. 3. 
Memorial to the Viceroy, i. 4-8. 
Memphis, length of the cubit of, ii. 337- 
340. 

Men of the fourth dynasty, iii. 379-383. 
Meteorological abstract, ii. 263. 

inquiry, conclusion of, iii. 291-299. 

instruments set up, i. 119. 

journal, ii. 210-259. 

commenced, i. 118. 

observations, reduction of, iii. 190. 

Society of Scotland, ii. 264, 

Jerusalem station of, ii. 

270, 

Meteorology of a mean day at East 

Tombs, ii. 261. 

the months, ii, 262-264. 

Metrological test of European races, iii, 

592, 

Metrology, style of it suitable, iii. 509- 
511. 

suitable as a subject, iii. 495-498. 

Michaelis, on the })lans taken by Moses 
regarding weights and measures, iii. 
498-507. 

Minister of antiquities, i, 7. 

Model of Pyramid, iii. 18, 19. 

Modern measures of the coffer, iii. 146. 

paint misused, i. 84. 

Moens' English travellers and Italian 
brigands, i. 393. 

Mohamm.ed's use of sand, i, 163. 

Mokattam hills described, i, 50-57. 

limestone, i. 207. 

Molten sea, ii. 467-470 ; iii. 507-510. 

Monumental documents still to be pro- 
cured, iii. 303-309. 

history. Great Pyramid, the begin- 

ning of, iii, 364. 

Morning in Cairo, i. 22. 



614 



INDEX. 



Morning in the desert, i. 1 05. 

Moses the adopted son of Queen Thuoris, 

iii. 441-444. 
Miilqufs, described, i. 22. 
Murchison, Sir E,., on the nummulitie 

formation, i, 174. 
Museum of Boolak, i. 10-13. 

Names and dates of the builders of the 
Great Pyramid, iii, 314-339. 

Nature, efforts of, i. 522. 

Neat quarrying, i. 246. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, deduction from Pro- 
fessor Greaves' measures, ii. 337. 

Dissertation on Cubits, ii. 341- 

366; iii. 134, 135, 510. 

Niche in Queen's Chamber, ii. 66-67. 

in wall of Queen's Chamber, what 

for ? i. 200. 

Niebuhr, M. on casing-stones, i. 206. 

on the granite of the third Pyramid, 

i. 259, 260. 

Night comes on before journey is com- 
pleted, i. 51. 

guards described, i, 66. 

troubles about, i. 227. 

view from the top of the Pyramid, 

i. 456-462. 
Nile birds, i. 49. 
cross the, i. 39. 

Nile valley, clayey soil of, i. 46. 
Norden's, Captain, rules for visiting the 

Pyramid, i. 368-371. 
North air-channel, water experiment in, 

ii. 207, 208. 

Northern air-channel, experiment at, i. 
411-414. 

Notes on character of surface of east and 

west walls, ii. 26-28. 

floor of entrance-passage, ii. 13-16. 

measures of the walls, ii. 31, 32. 

roof of entrance-passage, ii. 19, 20. 

Nouet's, M., observations on Pyramid 

latitude, iii. 44, 45. 
Nubian slave, pursuit of, i. 227. 
Number twenty-five, authority for, iii. 

236-240. 



I Nummulites, i. 172, 173. 

Objection, a new, iii. 533. 
Observations, check on latitude, i. 447. 

with the Playfair instrument, i. 547. 

Observed angles of casing-stones, ii. 169, 
170. 

Old Empire, conclusion of the?, iii, 397, 

life under the, iii, 374-399. 

Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh Almanac, 
iii, 593. 

Opinion, theory gives an, i. 534, 
Optical measure with Playfair alt-azimuth, 

ii. 147, 148. 
Opticians, i. 275-277. 
Ordnance Survey Maps, iii. 597, 598. 
I officers, size and figure of the earth 

by the, ii. 449, 450, 
Original opinion of nummulites, i. 172- 

174. 

Originate, Great Pyramid required higlier 
wisdom than man's to, iii. 470-478. 

Origination of the Great Pyramid on reli- 
gious grounds, iii. 479-544, 

scientific grounds, iii, 449-478, 

Origin of the Egyptians, iii. 370-373. 

Sphinx, i. 333 ; iii. 417. 

Orientation of the Great Pyramid, i. 434, 
435; iii. 106-111. 

King Shafre's tomb, i, 439-442. 

Ornament on granite leaf, ii. 100, 

Osburn, W., as an Egyptian historian and 
philologist, iii. 340-348, 

critical acumen of, iii. 434-436. 

views of the Exodus, iii. 444, 445. 

Ovals in the quarry-marks, i. 347-349. 

of King Shafre, i. 348, 349. 

Overlappings of Grand Gallery, ii. 87-91. 

Owls, i. 304. 

Oxoniensis, letter from, ii. 367. 

Palace tomb, i. 337. 
Palgrave's experiences of the simoom, 
i. 420, 

Passage, first ascending, ii. 149-151. 

horizontal to Queen's Chamber, ii. 

152. ITiX 



INDEX. 



G15 



Passages and angles, i. 141, etc. 

how much inclmecl, iii. 35-40. 

Paucton, M., on Pyramid metrological 

purposes, iii. 118, 127-129. 
Pavement found, Great Pyramid, ii. 13G, 

137. 

Period of Joseph, iii. 410-414. 
Perring's, Mr., idea of the use of the 

trenches, iii. 32. 
Phenomena, laws of, iii. 3-9. 
PhQitiou the shepherd, iii. 525, 526, 531. 
Photographed, group of Arabs, i. 400. 
Photographic subjects, qualities of, i, 

480-485. 

witness, i. 351-35.3. 

Photographs, exhibitions of, ii. 280-284. 

negative, ii. 279, 280. 

positive, ii. 280-292. 

Photography, a witness, i. 351-353. 

degrees of quickness in, i. 478, etc. 

effect of a flight of locusts on, i. 

486. 

self-willed notions of, L 470, etc. 

under many difficulties, i. 518, 519. 

Playfair alt-azimuth instrimient, i 425- 

431, 435, etc. 

in Grand Gallery, ii. 159-161. 

circle again produced, i. 538. 

Pleiades and the Pyramid, iii. 271-277. 

year a prehistoric tradition, i. 330. 

Plumb-bob, Arabs admiration of the, i. 

538. 

Plunderers plimdered, i. 508-511. 
Pococke, Dr., observations on the second 

Pyramid, i. 253, 254. 
Points of compass, iii. 209-215. 
Polar star and entrance passage, i. 433. 
Pole-star, Great and second Pyramid 

compared with the, i. 438, 439. 
more observations of the, i. 444- 

446, 461, 462. 
Polyspaston, as mentioned by Vitruvius, 

i. 186. 

Ponderous doors, i. 346. 
Poole's, Mi-s., Englishwoman in Bgypt, i. 
204. 

Portcullis, granite, ii. 40-43, 52-54. 



Porterage, mode of, i. 432. 
I'ositiou of second Pyramid, i. 249. 
Prepare to use grand clinometer, i. 302, 
303. 

Preparations for leaving the Pyramid, i. 

546, 555-561. 
Present vertical height of Great Pyramid, 

iii. 61-67. 

President at the British Association, 

Nottingham, quoted, iii. 475, 476. 
Prices in Egypt, former and present, i. 

542, 543. 
Primeval astronomy, iii. 545-569. 

statue, i. 13, 14, 

Proctor, H. A., Saturn and its system, 

iii. 547, 553. 
Prodromus Astronomice, iii. 547, 548. 
Proportions of King's Chamber, ii. 101, 

102. 

Proposed reforms amongst the constella- 
tions, iii. 559. 

solutions, iii. 572-581. 

Psammetichus the Second, tomb of the 
time of, i. 319. 

Piickler Muskau, Prince, account of, i. 
193, 194. 

Pyramid and modern workmen, i. 438, 
439. 

astronomy, close truth of, i. 434, 

438, 439. 

base, length of sides, ii. 133, 134. 

builders and Greek workmen, i. 

436, 437. 

chambers compared, i. 268-270. 

cleaning, difficidties of, i. 132, 133. 

competing inscriptions on, i. 72-84. 

derivation of the word, iii. 120, 

121. 

entrance passage, i. 73. 

hill, composition of the, iii. 84-86. 

idea, whence derived ? iii. 460- 

465. 

king, statue of, L 344. 

latitude, iii. 40-52. 

linear measures, iii. 142. 

materials, analysis of, ii. 295, 296. 

mean temperature, iii. 192. 



616 



INDEX. 



Pyramid measures by Aiton and Inglis, 

ii. 302-308. 

Ayrton, ii. 299-301. 

Lane, ii. 330-333. 

Vyse and Perring, ii. 322-329. 

of Suphis, iii. 103. 

passage blocked up, i. 73. 

present uses of, i. 71. 

reach the Great, i. 58. 

stones, raising, i. 182. 

theoretics, i. 189. 

theory, i. 89, 90. 

two dominant angles of, iii. 204- 

207. 

weight measure, tables of, iii. 174, 

175. 

Pyramids and their kings, iii. 391-396. 

own rubbish heaps, i. 212-214. 

pictorial quahties of the, i. 514- 

516. 

progress of modern discovery, i. 

506, 507. 
view of the, described, i. 48. 

Quadrant, structural reference to the, 

iii. 207-209. 
Quarry-marks, ii. 113. 
Quarrying, neat, i. 246. 

Queen's Chamber, i. 92, 196-201 ; ii. 
62-67. 

horizontal passage to, ii. 55-61. 

measures of the, iii. 229-232. 

Sabbatical week in the, ii. 222-229. 

saline incrustation on walls of, i. 

199 ; ii. 56, 63. 
niche in wall of, i. 200. 

Ramadan, arrival of, i. 118. 

boasting against, i. 139. 

comes, i. 140. 

ends, i. 232, 233. 

its first effects, i. 219. 

its probable influence, i. 220. 

rejoicings at the conclusion of, 

i. 234-236. 

surpassed, i. 222. 

troubles of, i. 225. 



Radiation eflfects, i. 273. 
Raising Pyramid stones, i. 182. 
Ramp-holes in Grand Gallery, ii. 78-84. 
Rawlinson's, Rev. G., Five Great Mon- 
archies of the Ancient Eastern World, 

iii. 453, 485. 
Reception at Sheikh Deadar's, i. 52, 63, 

etc. 5 
Reference scale, i. 274 ; ii. 6-9. 

scale constructed, i. 294, 295. 

scales, first and second, i. 282-284. 

system intended, i. 275, 281, 282, 

Reis Alee Shafee and his little men, 

i. 112, 117. 

Atfee's appeal, i. 142. 

Relations of Pyramid capacity and weight 

measure, iii. 174, 175. 
Religious principles of the Egyptians, 

iii. 429-433. 
Remarkable fragments of stone, i. 290. 
Renan, M., assertion on the verticality 

of the walls of King's Chamber tested, 

i. 376. 

date of the Great Pyramid, iii. 245. 

ideas on Egyptian antiquities, i. 

10, 11. 

on the idolatry of the Egyptians, 

iii. 426. 

on tha most ancient of temple 

tombs, i. 339. 

on the Sphinx, i. 332, 333. 

theory touching the Sphinx, i. 350- 

353. 

Research de novo, iii. 456-460. 
Results of Pyramid cleaning, i. 136. 
Eevue des Deux Mondes for April 1865, 
i. 11. 

Rise of the Theban power, iii. 414-418. 
Rocks and ancient rubbish, i. 170. 

varieties of, i. 175. 

Rolleston, Miss, Mazzaroth, by, iii. 551, 

556-559, 568. 
Roof of entrance passage, east and west 

sides compared, ii. 19. 

Grand Gallery, ii. 86, 87. 

Rom4 de I'lsle, M., on Pyramid metrical 

purposes, iii. 118, 130, 131. 



INDEX. 



G17 



Royal Egyptian i\y, i. 295. 

Society of Edinburgh, specimens 

presented to, ii. 294. 

Roug§, M. le Vicomte de, mission to 
Egypt, i. 12. 

Rounds of azimuths, ii. 184. 

Rubbish-heaps, examine their composi- 
tion, i. 187. 

Pyramid's own, i. 212-214. 

Rumours ascending, i. 24, 25. 

Russian metrology, iii. 600. 

Sabbatical week, iii. 222-229. 

Sacred Hebrew standards of weights and 

measures, ii. 454-470. 
Saline incrustations on walls of Queen's 

Chamber, i. 199; ii. 56, 63. 
Salt inside the Pyramid, iii. 95-98. 
Sand ribbings, i. 163-165. 

storm, i. 161-165. 

Sands of desert advancing on cultivated 

land, i. 171. 
Sandys, George, describes the Pyramids, 

i. 505. 

on the Sphinx, i. 325. 

Sarcopliagus covered, i. 320. 

of second Pyramid, ii. 271-273. 

Savi, Dr. Paolo, explanation of the camel 

red-bladder phenomenon, i. 41. 
Scale-slider of 400 inches, ii. 84, 85. 
Scales employed for linear measure, ii. 2. 
Scenes in the eighteenth dynasty, iii. 

423-429. 

Scheme of assistance at the Great Pyra- 
mid, i. 7, 8. 

Scientific requirements versus artistical, 
i. 472, 473. 

Scotland, Meteorological latitude of, ii. 
264. 

Screw steamer ' Thessalia,' loading of, 
i. 278. 

Scripture chronology, discordances of, 

iii. 483-495. 
Sculpture of diorite, i. 14. 
Search for a stone for a standard scale, 

i. 287-293. 
Sea-water levels, iii. 78, 79, 
VOL. III. 



Second Pyramid, i. 243-265. 
Secret sign, i. 153. 
Servants in Egypt, i. 32, 33. 

deserted by, i. 37, 38. 

Sesostris Ramses, monumental history of, 

iii. 434-441. 
Sextant horizon instrument, ii. 144, 149. 

method of measuring, i. 168. 

Shafre's, King, tomb, well in, li. 204. 

temple tomb, i. 339-347. 

Shaft of entrance passage, ii. 37. 

of first ascending passage, ii. 46. 

Sheikh Abdul Samed's misfortunes, i. 

127-131. 

how he managed the travel- 
lers, i. 491-494. 

invited to visit, i. 498, 499. 

Deadar's arrival at, i. 52. 

Murri's present, i. 545. 

of Kafr-el-Batran imposed on Col. 

Vyse, i. 192. 

Omer's visit, i. 226. 

Shelley, Dowager Lady, Thouglits on the 
Doubts of the Day, iii. 431, 432, 562. 

Siculus, Diodorus, on building the Pyra- 
mid, i. 184. 

Side holes in Grand Gallery, ii. 72-73. 

Sidebotham, J., on the use of measuring- 
rods, i. 423. 

procured organ -pipes for scales, ii. 7. 

Sign, an uninterpreted, iii. 310-313. 

Signals just secured, i. 550, 551. 

Sieur du Mont descending the Great 
Pyramid, i. 465. 

description of Arab character, i. 

392, 393. 

Simoom, i. 420-422. 

Size and figure of the earth, ii. 449 453. 

of coffer, ii. 123. 

of various Pyramids, iii. 141. 

Sizes of special granite blocks, i. 345. 

Skaife's, Mr., pistolgraph, i. 477, 478. 

Skulls, price given for, in Cairo, i. 312. 

Slave merchant, i. 485. 

Slider .scales, ii. 3-6. 

Slope of Pyramid, i. 446. 

Small owls at the Pyramid, i. 304. 

2 R 



618 



INDEX. 



Smyth's, Admiral, celestial cycle, iii. 550. 

Kev. Mr., measured south air-chau- 

nel, i. 415 ; ii. 164. 
Snakes, i. 403, 404, 423, 424. 
Social relations, iii. 383-386. 
Sockets, discovery of, by the French, 

ii. 317, 318. 

peculiar lines marked in the, ii. 

27. 

portraitured, i. 546, 547. 

Soil of the Nile valley, i. 46. 

Solar radiation, i. 123. 

Solitary tree group, i. 178. 

Solomon's molten sea, ii. 467-470. 

Solutions proposed, on the Great Pyra- 
mid's manifestation, iii. 572-581. 

South air-channel, water experiment in, 
i. 414-416. 

South hill top, view from, i. 408. 

Special qualities of Egyptian basalt, i. 
284-287. 

storm, ii. 267-270. 

Specific gravities, iii. 176, 177. 

Specific gravity of the earth, ii. 452, 453 ; 

iii. 151, 152, 157-161. 
Specimens brought home, ii. 293, 294. 
Sphinx, an andro-Sphinx, i. 58. 
described, i. 322. 

first view of, i. 57, 58. 

oldest known representation of a, 

i. 332 ; iii. 417. 

various authors on the, i. 324-333. 

Spring, signs of, in the desert, i. 402. 
Standard of basalt, ii. 9-10. 
Standards of angle, iii. 202-215. 

of heat, iii. 177-202. 

of measure of Professor Greaves, 

ii. 334-336. 

of size, iii. 123-143. 

of time, iii. 215-218. 

of weight, iii. 143-177. 

Star-maps, explanation of, iii. 283-285. 
Starting from Cairo, i. 31-38. 
Statue, oldest in the world, i. 13, 14. 
Stewart, Mr. Balfour, on specific gravi- 
Stone, remarkable fragments of, i. 290. 
ties of limestone and sand, i. 322. 



Stone standard scale intended, i. 284. 

Stukeley, Dr., on Stonehenge, iii. 92. 

Summit of Great Pyramid, tempera- 
ture at the, ii. 209. 

Sun and shade observations, i. 124. 

Suspected fragments of casing-stones, 
i. 211. 

Swallows of the Desert, i. 298.! 

Tables of metrical equivalents, iii. 

594, 595. 
Tales of snakes, i. 423, 424. 
Taylor, John, first to discover the true 

angle of sides of Great Pyramid, 

iii. 20. 

metrological purposes for the Great 

Pyramid, iii. 118-120, 133-137. 

on the origination of the Great 

Pyramid, iii. 470. 

Taylor's, John, opinion of King Cheops, 
i. 468. 

Pyramid angle theory, iii. 30-33. 

religious bearings of the Great 

Pyramid, iii. 534, 537-543. 

theory developed, iii. 286. 

Temperature, i. 417-420. 

observations in second Pyramid, 

i. 262. 

of wells in Cairo, i. 26-28. 

Temperatures, Great Pyramid, ii. 206, 
207. 

of room of second P3rramid, ii. 274. 

of summit of Great Pyramid, ii. 

209. 

Temple tombs, most ancient of, i. 339- 
347. 

Time observations, ii. 177-179. 

Time of Great Pyramid's performance 

suitable, iii. 481-495. 

standards of, iii. 215-218. 

Theban power, rise of, iii. 414-418. 
Theories of causeways, i. 291, 292. 
Theory, angular proof of casing-stoue, 

i. 217. 

appealed to, i. 533. 

gives an opinion and is justified, 

i. 534, 535. 



INDEX. 



G19 



Theory, Rev. Mr. Gabb's Pyramid, i. 201- 
204. 

Thickness of coffer, ii. 120, 121. 

Third Pyramid, i. 257-260. 

Three methods of observation for the 

angle of Grand Gallery, ii. ICl. 
Thuoris, Qneen, iii. 441-444. 
Tourists, increase of, i. 144. 

nationalities distinguishable, i. 122. 

on hot days, i. 121. 

Tombs, advantages of, i. 272-275. 

choosing a home amongst the, i. 59- 

61. 

fitting u}), i. 113. 

old and new, i. 312. 

varieties of, i. 59-63. 

Traditions of the Deluge, iii. 490-494. 
Travellers, a torrent of, i. 194, 195. 

confoimded, i. 308. 

on the top of the Pyramid, i. 464- 

466. 

on the wall-joints, i. 151. 

ways, i. 368-371. 

Treasure, little found at the Jeezeh 

Pyramids, iii, 7. 
Trenches, azimuth, ii. 125-127. 

clearing out of the, i. 134, 135. 

Trevor, Kev. G., Ancient Egypt, iii. 

516, 517, 525. 
Triangular stone in roof of entrance 

passage, i. 155. 
Truth of wall- joints in entrance passage, 

i. 150. 

Turkish rule and Arab roughs, i. 392- 
394. 

Unexpected result of entrance fas- 
sage angle, i. 167, 168. 
Uses made of the casing-stones, i. 210. 

Valentia, Lord, on the object of the 
Pyramids, i. 265. 

Vausleb, M., on the uon -squareness of 
the Great Pyramid, iii. 10. 

Pyramid theory, i. 181. 

Variations of masonry in second Pyra- 
mid, i. 254, 255. 



Various reported angles of Grand Gal- 
lery, i. 302. 
Vassalis, M., idea adopted, i. 111. 

on the Pyramid report, i. 107-110. 

suggestion, i. 110. 

superintendent of excavations, i. 

i 65. 

Vegetation, desert, i. 521. 

Ventilating channels, ii. 164. 

Vertical height of Great Pyramid, ii. 

128-133; iii. 61-70. 
Veryard, Dr., on descending the Great 

Pyramid, i. 465. 
Viceroy, His Highness the, introduction 

to, i. 4-6. 

Highness the, gracious decision, i. 

30. 

scheme of assistance proposed, i. 

7, 8. 

Visit to the fossil-shell hiU, i. 407-411. 

second Pyramid, i. 243-257. 

Visitors, measuring hindered by, i, 190- 
194. 

Vyse, Colonel Howard, and Mr. Perring, 
Pyramid measures by, ii. 322-329. 

discovery of casing-stones by, i. 

208, 209. 

excavation of Campbell's tomb, i. 

317-320. 

experiences of Egyptian Govern- 
ment assistance, i. 110, 111. 

first to clear out lower entrance of 

second Pyramid, i. 207. 

intelligent visitor's account of, i. 

191-193. 

opened up Al Mamoon's hole, i. 

159. 

Pyramid experiences, i. 189-190. 

thoughts on the Pyramids, i. 512- 

516. 

Wallace, Dr., of Pyramid materials, ii. 

205-298 ; iii. 97-100. 
Wall-joints in entrance passage, i. 150, 

151. 

WaUs of King's Chamber, i. 372-377 ; 
ii. 105-111. 



620 



INDEX. 



"Walls of Queen's Chamber, i. 197-199. 
Watching for the Citadel guns to fire, 

i. 139, 140. 

Water experiment, i. 298-300. 

of sepiilchre well, i. 344, 345. 

Weights and measures, sacred Hebrew, 
standards of, ii. 454-470. 

• on the Pyramid system, iii. 174, 

175. 

Week, symbolized in the Grand Gal- 
lery, iii. 219-222. 
Week, concluding, i. 517. 
Well, particulars of, in Grand Gallery, 

ii. 71. 

Well-temperature near the Pyramid, ii. 
203-205. 

Cairo, ii. 201, 202 ; iii. 191. 

What an angle of 26° can do, i. 379, 
380. 

is exactly the angle of sides of 

Great Pyramid, iii. 19-23. 
What is Great Pyramid's latitude? iii. 

40-52. 

is marble ? i. 206, 207. 

What the carpenter said, , iii. 18, 19. 



When history was born, iii. 448. 

Who invented the oldest constellations, 

iii. 545-550. 
Wilde, Dr., on Egyptian hawks, i. 297. 
Wig, the Sphinx's, i. 326. 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, date of Great 

Pyramid, iii. 241. 
on certain royal sandals from 

Thebes, i. 466, 467. 

on the casing-stones, i. 210. 

on the Sphinx, i. 324. 

Wilson, Mr. John, on Anglo-Saxons, iii. 

583-591. 
Winds of the desert, i. 418. 
With whom rests the right to name or 

re-name the constellations ? iii. 562- 

565. 

Woodcut views of second Pyramid, i. 
254. 

Working preliminaries, i. 97. 
Workmen rebellious, i. 532. 

Year or the Pleiades, i. 330, 331 ; iii. 
263-271. 

by R. G. Haliburton, ii. 370-448. 



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